LGBT rights in Indialgbt rights in india ppt, lgbt rights in india wikipedia
Decriminalized in 2009; Recriminalized in 2013 Illegal under Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code Penalty: Up to life imprisonment with a fine
|Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT rights|
State lawsSee also: Transgender rights in Tamil Nadu and LGBT rights in Kerala § Transgender rights
The states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala were the first Indian states to introduce a transgender hijra/aravani welfare policy According to the transgender welfare policy, transgender people can access free sex reassignment surgery SRS in government hospitals only for male-to-female; free housing program; various citizenship documents; admission in government colleges with full scholarship for higher studies; alternative sources of livelihood through formation of self-help groups for savings and initiating income-generation programmes IGP Tamil Nadu was also the first state to form a transgender welfare board with representatives from the transgender community In 2016, Kerala started implementing free SRS in government hospitals
In July 2016, the state of Odisha enacted welfare benefits for transgender people, giving them the same benefits as those living below the poverty line This was aimed at improving their overall social and economic status, according to the Odisha Department of Social Security
In April 2017, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation instructed states to allow transgender people to use the public toilet of their choice
In October 2017, the Karnataka Government issued the "State Policy for Transgenders, 2017", with the aim of raising awareness of transgender people within all educational institutions in the state Educational institutions will address issues of violence, abuse and discrimination against transgender people It also established a monitoring committee designed with investigating reports of discrimination
On 28 November 2017, N Chandrababu Naidu, the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, announced the enactment of pension plans for transgender people On 16 December 2017, the Andhra Cabinet passed the policy According to the policy, the State Government will provide an amount of ₹1,500 per month to each transgender person above the age of 18 for social security pensions In addition, the Government will construct special toilets in public places, like malls and cinema halls, for transgender people
Third-gender literature and studies
"Vaadamalli" by novelist SuSamuthiram is the first Tamil novel about Aravaani community in Tamil Nadu published in 1994 Later, transgender activist A Revathi became the first hijra to write about transgender issues and gender politics in Tamil Her works have been translated into more than eight languages and act as a primary resource on gender studies in Asia Her book is part of a research project for more than 100 universities She is the author of Unarvum Uruvamum Feelings of the Entire Body, the first of its kind in English from a member of the hijra community She also acted and directed several stage plays on gender and sexuality issues in Tamil and Kannada The Truth about Me: A Hijra Life Story by transgender A Revathi is part of the syllabus for final year students of The American College in Madurai The American College is the first college in India to introduce third gender literature and studies with research-oriented seminars, and the Tamil terms for genderqueer people was coined in this college by gender activist Gopi Shankar Later, Naan Saravanan's Alla 2007 and Vidya's I Am Vidya 2008 were among early transwoman autobiographies
In February 2014, the Indian Psychiatric Society IPS issued a statement, in which it stated that there is no evidence to prove that homosexuality is unnatural: "Based on existing scientific evidence and good practice guidelines from the field of psychiatry, the Indian Psychiatric Society would like to state that there is no evidence to substantiate the belief that homosexuality is a mental illness or a disease"
Despite this statement from the IPS, conversion therapies are still performed in India These practices usually involve electroconvulsive therapy which may lead to memory loss, hypnosis, the administration of nausea-inducing drugs, or more commonly talk therapy where the individual is told that homosexuality is caused by "insufficient male affirmation in childhood" or "an uncaring father and an overbearing mother" Conversion therapy can lead to depression, anxiety, seizures, drug use and suicidal tendencies for the individuals invloved
There are many avenues for LGBTQ communities in various metro cities for meeting and socializing, although not very openly These include GayBombay, Good as You, HarmlessHugs Recently, a queer dating platform named Amour Queer Dating was launched to help LGBT people find long-term partners
In February 2017, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare unveiled resource material relating to health issues to be used as a part of a nationwide adolescent peer-education plan called Saathiya Among other subjects, the material discusses homosexuality The material states, "Yes, adolescents frequently fall in love They can feel attraction for a friend or any individual of the same or opposite sex It is normal to have special feelings for someone It is important for adolescents to understand that such relationships are based on mutual consent, trust, transparency and respect It is alright to talk about such feelings to the person for whom you have them but always in a respectful manner"
In 2017, Delhi held its tenth pride parade, attended by hundreds of people Chennai has held pride parades since 2009, while Goa held its first pride parade in October 2017
On 17 May 2018, the International Day Against Homophobia, activities were held throughout the country, including in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolhapur, Thiruvananthapuram and Lucknow Numerous foreign embassies Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States expressed support for LGBT rights in India, and reaffirmed their countries' commitement to promote human rights
The All India Hijra Kalyan Sabha fought for over a decade to get voting rights, which they finally got in 1994 In 1996, Kali stood for elections in Patna under the then Judicial Reform Party and gave the Janata Dal and the BJP a bit of a fight Munni ran for the elections as well for South Mumbai that year They both lost
After the defeat of Kali and Munni, three years later, Kamla Jaan ran and won the position of the Mayor of Katni Later, Shabnam Mausi was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh in 2002 as well Over the next few years, multiple other transgender candidates won office These include Heera who won a seat at the City Council of Jabalpur and Gulshan who was elected to the City Council in Bina Etawa In December 2000, Asha Devi became the Mayor of Gorakhpur, and Kallu Kinnar was elected to the City Council in Varanasi
Shabnam Mausi is the first transgender Indian or hijra to be elected to public office She was an elected member of the Madhya Pradesh State Legislative Assembly from 1998 to 2003 In 2000, Shabnam Mausi became India's first eunuch MP Hijras were granted voting rights in 1994 in India In 2003, hijras in Madhya Pradesh announced the establishment of their own political party called "Jeeti Jitayi Politics" JJP, which literally means 'politics that has already been won' The party also has released an eight-page election manifesto which it claims outlines why it is different from mainstream political parties Heera Bai became the first member of the Telangana Legislative Assembly to win a seat
Kalki Subramaniam is a transgender rights activist, writer and an actor In the 2011 assembly elections, Kalki tried in vain to get a DMK ticket Again on March 2014, Kalki announced in Puducherry that she would contest a seat in an election from the Villupuram constituency in neighbouring Tamil Nadu
On 4 January 2015, independent transgender candidate Madhu Bai Kinnar was elected as the Mayor of Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
Manabi Bandopadhyay became India's first transgender college principal on 9 June 2015 when she assumed the role of principal of the Krishnagar Women's College in Nadia district, West Bengal
On 5 November 2015, K Prithika Yashini became the first transgender police officer in the state of Tamil Nadu At the time, the Tamil Nadu police had three transgender constables, but Yashini became the first trans person to hold the rank of officer in the state
On 12 February 2017, two transgender people were appointed by the Kolhapur District Legal Services Authority KDLSA as panel members for the Lok Adalat People's Court 30 panels were appointed to settle general local disputes that arise within the community Members of the KDLSA state: "Our main achievement was inclusion of transgenders as panelist in Lok Adalat As per the Supreme Court's judgment, transgenders must be recognised as the third gender in our country As per the norm, we have put in efforts and included two transgenders Mayuri Alawekar and Yuvraj Alavankar as panel members"
Intersex rights in India
Intersex issues in India may often be perceived as third sex issues The most well-known third-gender group in India is the hijra of northern India After interviewing and studying hijras for many years, Serena Nanda writes in her book, Neither Man Nor Woman: The hijras of India, as follows: "There is a widespread belief in India that hijras are born hermaphrodites and are taken away by the hijra community at birth or in childhood, but I found no evidence to support this belief among the hijras I met, all of whom joined the community voluntarily, often in their teens" Sangam literature uses the word "Pedi" to refer to people born intersex, but the Indigenous gender minorities in India were very clear about intersex people and referred to them as Mabedi Usili and gave a distinct identity to denote them Also, there is less evidence that few intersex people choose to identify as trans but that’s not the identity of the entire community
Physical integrity and bodily autonomyLegal prohibition of non-consensual medical interventions Regulatory suspension of non-consensual medical interventions Further information: Intersex human rights and Intersex medical interventions
Intersex persons are not protected from violations to physical integrity and bodily autonomy
Cases of infanticide have been reported involving infants with obvious intersex conditions at birth, along with a failure to thrive by infants assigned female Medical reports suggest that parents in India prefer to assign infants with intersex conditions as male, with surgical interventions taking place when parents can afford them
In a reply to a letter from an intersex rights activist Gopi Shankar Madurai, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India replied that “Any kind of invasive medical procedure including sex reassignment surgeries are done only after thorough assessment of the patient, obtaining justification for the procedure planned to be conducted with the help of appropriate diagnostic test and only after taking a written consent of the patient/guardian”
Protection from discriminationExplicit protection from discrimination on grounds of sex characteristics Explicit protection on grounds of intersex status Explicit protection on grounds of intersex within attribute of sex Main article: Discrimination against intersex people
Multiple Indian athletes have been subjected to humiliation, discrimination and loss of work and medals following sex verification Middle-distance runner Santhi Soundarajan, who won the silver medal in 800 m at the 2006 Asian Games in Doha, Qatar, was stripped of her medal and later attempted suicide Track athlete Pinki Pramanik was accused by a female roommate of rape and later charged, gender tested and declared male, though she and other medical experts dispute these claims Indian athlete Dutee Chand won a case against the IAAF in 2015, enabling women athletes with high testosterone levels to compete as women, on the basis that there is no clear evidence of performance benefits In 2016, sports clinicians Genel, Simpson and de la Chapelle stated, "One of the fundamental recommendations published almost 25 years ago that athletes born with a disorder of sex development and raised as females be allowed to compete as women remains appropriate"
Should same-sex marriage be legal 2016Yes 35% Against 35% Don't know 30%
Public opinion regarding LGBT rights in India is complex According to a 2016 poll by the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, 35% of Indian people were in favor of legalising same-sex marriage, with 35% were opposed to its legalisation A survey by the Varkey Foundation found that support for same-sex marriage was higher among 18-21 year olds at 53%
According to a 2017 poll carried out by ILGA, 58% of Indians agreed that gay, lesbian and bisexual people should enjoy the same rights as straight people, while 30% disagreed Additionally, 59% agreed that they should be protected from workplace discrimination 39% of Indians, however, said that people who are in same-sex relationships should be charged as criminals, while a plurality of 44% disagreed As for transgender people, 66% agreed that they should have the same rights, 62% believed they should be protected from employment discrimination and 60% believed they should be allowed to change their legal genderSince coming out in 2006, Prince Manvendra Singh Gohil pictured, heir of the Maharaja of Rajpipla, has worked on reducing HIV/AIDS infections and homelessness among LGBT youth
Notable Indian LGBTI rights activists
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