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Later Silla

later silla de ruedas, later sillas
Later Silla 668–935, Hangul: 후신라; Hanja: 後新羅; RR: Hushila, Korean pronunciation: huɕilla or Unified Silla Hangul: 통일신라; Hanja: 統一新羅, Korean pronunciation: tʰoŋilɕilla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after it conquered Baekje and Goguryeo in the 7th century, unifying the central and southern regions of the Korean peninsula Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country,2 and its metropolitan capital of Seorabeol modern name Gyeongju3 was the fourth-largest city in the world at the time4567 During its heyday, the country contested with Balhae, a Goguryeo–Mohe kingdom, to the north for supremacy in the region Throughout its existence, Later Silla was plagued by intrigue and political turmoil, mainly by the rebel groups in conquered Baekje and Goguryeo territories, leading to the Later Three Kingdoms period in the late 9th century

Despite its political instability, Later Silla's culture and arts flourished Through close ties maintained with the Tang dynasty, Buddhism and Confucianism became the principal philosophical ideologies of the elite as well as the mainstays of the period's architecture and fine arts Its last king, Gyeongsun, ruled over the state in name only and submitted to Wang Geon of the emerging Goryeo kingdom in 935, bringing the Silla dynasty to an end

Although traditionally considered the first unified Korean state, modern Korean historians argue that the subsequent Goryeo kingdom was in fact the first truly unified state of the Korean nation


  • 1 Name
  • 2 Unification
  • 3 Culture
    • 31 Woodblock printing
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References


Main article: North South States Period

Modern Korean historians began to criticize the traditional view of Unified Silla as the unification of Korea According to this perspective, Goryeo is considered the first unification of Korea, since Balhae still existed after the establishment of "Unified Silla", despite occupying territory north of the Korean peninsula89


Main article: Silla

In 660, King Munmu ordered his armies to attack Baekje General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, defeated General Gyebaek and conquered Baekje In 661, he moved on Goguryeo but was repelled King Munmu was the first ruler ever to look upon the south of the Korean Peninsula as a single political entity after the fall of Gojoseon As such, the post-668 Silla kingdom is often referred to as Unified Silla Unified Silla lasted for 267 years until, under King Gyeongsun, it fell to Goryeo in 935


Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia,10 and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River11121314

Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture,15161718 as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists19 and contributed to Chinese Buddhism,20 including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang,21222324 and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism2526272829

Vairocana Buddha

Unified Silla and the Tang maintained close ties This was evidenced by the continual importation of Chinese culture Many Korean monks went to China to learn about Buddhism The monk Hyech'o went to India to study Buddhism and wrote an account of his travels30 Different new sects of Buddhism were introduced by these traveling monks who had studied abroad such as Son and Pure Land Buddhism30

Unified Silla conducted a census of all towns' size and population, as well as horses, cows and special products and recorded the data in Minjeongmunseo 민정문서 The reporting was done by the leader of each town31

A national Confucian college was established in 682 and around 750 it was renamed the National Confucian University30 The university was restricted to the elite aristocracy

Woodblock printingedit

Woodblock printing was used to disseminate Buddhist sutras and Confucian works During a refurbishment of the Pagoda That Casts No Shadows, an ancient print of a Buddhist sutra was discovered The print is dated to 751 CE and is the oldest discovered printed material in the world30

See alsoedit

  • List of Korea-related topics


  1. ^ 박용운 1996 고려시대 개경연구 147~156쪽 
  2. ^ MacGregor, Neil A History of the World in 100 Objects Penguin UK ISBN 9780141966830 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  3. ^ Chŏng, Yang-mo; Smith, Judith G; Metropolitan Museum of Art New York, NY Arts of Korea Metropolitan Museum of Art p 230 ISBN 9780870998508 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  4. ^ International, Rotary The Rotarian Rotary International p 28 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  5. ^ Ross, Alan After Pusan Faber & Faber ISBN 9780571299355 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  6. ^ Mason, David A "Gyeongju, Korea’s treasure house" Koreanet Korean Culture and Information Service KOCIS Archived from the original on 3 October 2016 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  7. ^ Adams, Edward Ben Koreaʾs pottery heritage Seoul International Pub House p 53 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  8. ^ Ch'oe, Yŏng-ho 1980, "An Outline History of Korean Historiography", Korean Studies, 4: 23–25, doi:101353/ks19800003 
  9. ^ Armstrong, Charles K 1995, "Centering the Periphery: Manchurian Exiles and the North Korean State", Korean Studies, University of Hawaii Press, 19: 1–16, doi:101353/ks19950017 
  10. ^ Kitagawa, Joseph The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture Routledge p 348 ISBN 9781136875908 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  11. ^ Gernet, Jacques A History of Chinese Civilization Cambridge University Press p 291 ISBN 9780521497817 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  12. ^ Reischauer, Edwin Oldfather Ennins Travels in Tang China John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited pp 276–283 ISBN 9780471070535 Retrieved 21 July 2016  "From what Ennin tells us, it seems that commerce between East China, Korea and Japan was, for the most part, in the hands of men from Silla Here in the relatively dangerous waters on the eastern fringes of the world, they performed the same functions as did the traders of the placid Mediterranean on the western fringes This is a historical fact of considerable significance but one which has received virtually no attention in the standard historical compilations of that period or in the modern books based on these sources While there were limits to the influence of the Koreans along the eastern coast of China, there can be no doubt of their dominance over the waters off these shores The days of Korean maritime dominance in the Far East actually were numbered, but in Ennin's time the men of Silla were still the masters of the seas in their part of the world"
  13. ^ Kim, Djun Kil The History of Korea, 2nd Edition ABC-CLIO p 3 ISBN 9781610695824 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  14. ^ Seth, Michael J A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century Rowman & Littlefield p 65 ISBN 9780742540057 Retrieved 21 July 2016 
  15. ^ DuBois, Jill Korea Marshall Cavendish p 22 ISBN 9780761417866 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  16. ^ Randel, Don Michael The Harvard Dictionary of Music Harvard University Press p 273 ISBN 9780674011632 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  17. ^ Hopfner, Jonathan Moon Living Abroad in South Korea Avalon Travel p 21 ISBN 9781612386324 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  18. ^ Kim, Djun Kil The History of Korea ABC-CLIO p 47 ISBN 9780313038532 Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  19. ^ Mun, Chanju; Green, Ronald S Buddhist Exploration of Peace and Justice Blue Pine Books p 147 ISBN 9780977755301 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  20. ^ McIntire, Suzanne; Burns, William E Speeches in World History Infobase Publishing p 87 ISBN 9781438126807 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  21. ^ Jr, Robert E Buswell; Jr, Donald S Lopez The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism Princeton University Press p 187 ISBN 9781400848058 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  22. ^ Poceski, Mario Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism Oxford University Press p 24 ISBN 9780198043201 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  23. ^ Wu, Jiang; Chia, Lucille Spreading Buddha's Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon Columbia University Press p 155 ISBN 9780231540193 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  24. ^ Wright, Dale S The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199882182 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  25. ^ Su-il, Jeong The Silk Road Encyclopedia Seoul Selection ISBN 9781624120763 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  26. ^ Nikaido, Yoshihiro Asian Folk Religion and Cultural Interaction Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht p 137 ISBN 9783847004851 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  27. ^ Leffman, David; Lewis, Simon; Atiyah, Jeremy China Rough Guides p 519 ISBN 9781843530190 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  28. ^ Leffman, David The Rough Guide to China Penguin ISBN 9780241010372 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  29. ^ DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: China Penguin p 240 ISBN 9781465455673 Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  30. ^ a b c d Stearns, Peter N, ed 2001 The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged 6th ed New York: Houghton Mifflin Company pp 155–6 ISBN 0-395-65237-5 Retrieved August 22, 2010 
  31. ^ Korean history for high school p141, issued by The National History Compilation Committee of the Republic of Korea

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