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Laryngeal cancer

laryngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer symptoms
Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma, are mostly squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the skin of the larynx

Cancer can develop in any part of the larynx, but the cure rate is affected by the location of the tumour For the purposes of tumour staging, the larynx is divided into three anatomical regions: the glottis true vocal cords, anterior and posterior commissures; the supraglottis epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds, and false cords; and the subglottis

Most laryngeal cancers originate in the glottis Supraglottic cancers are less common, and subglottic tumours are least frequent

Laryngeal cancer may spread by direct extension to adjacent structures, by metastasis to regional cervical lymph nodes, or more distantly, through the blood stream Distant metastases to the lung are most common In 2013 it resulted in 88,000 deaths up from 76,000 deaths in 19901 Five year survival rates in the United States are 60%2

Contents

  • 1 Signs and symptoms
  • 2 Risk factors
  • 3 Diagnosis
    • 31 Staging
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 Pre-release Patient Education
    • 51 US
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Signs and symptomsedit

The symptoms of laryngeal cancer depend on the size and location of the tumour Symptoms may include the following:34

  • Hoarseness or other voice changes
  • A lump in the neck
  • A sore throat or feeling that something is stuck in the throat
  • Persistent cough
  • Stridor - a high-pitched wheezing sound indicative of a narrowed or obstructed airway
  • Bad breath
  • Earache "referred"
  • Difficulty swallowing

Treatment effects can include post-operative changes in appearance, difficulty eating, or loss of voice that may require learning alternate methods of speaking5

Risk factorsedit

Smoking is the most important risk factor for laryngeal cancer Death from laryngeal cancer is 20 times more likely for heaviest smokers than for nonsmokers6 Heavy chronic consumption of alcohol, particularly alcoholic spirits, is also significant When combined, these two factors appear to have a synergistic effect Some other quoted risk factors are likely, in part, to be related to prolonged alcohol and tobacco consumption These include low socioeconomic status, male sex, and age greater than 55 years

People with a history of head and neck cancer are known to be at higher risk about 25% of developing a second cancer of the head, neck, or lung This is mainly because in a significant proportion of these patients, the aerodigestive tract and lung epithelium have been exposed chronically to the carcinogenic effects of alcohol and tobacco In this situation, a field change effect may occur, where the epithelial tissues start to become diffusely dysplastic with a reduced threshold for malignant change This risk may be reduced by quitting alcohol and tobacco

Diagnosisedit

Diagnosis is made by the doctor on the basis of a medical history, physical examination, and special investigations which may include a chest x-ray, CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy The examination of the larynx requires some expertise, which may require specialist referral

The physical exam includes a systematic examination of the whole patient to assess general health and to look for signs of associated conditions and metastatic disease The neck and supraclavicular fossa are palpated to feel for cervical adenopathy, other masses, and laryngeal crepitus The oral cavity and oropharynx are examined under direct vision The larynx may be examined by indirect laryngoscopy using a small angled mirror with a long handle akin to a dentist's mirror and a strong light Indirect laryngoscopy can be highly effective, but requires skill and practice for consistent results For this reason, many specialist clinics now use fibre-optic nasal endoscopy where a thin and flexible endoscope, inserted through the nostril, is used to clearly visualise the entire pharynx and larynx Nasal endoscopy is a quick and easy procedure performed in clinic Local anaesthetic spray may be used

If there is a suspicion of cancer, biopsy is performed, usually under general anaesthetic This provides histological proof of cancer type and grade If the lesion appears to be small and well localised, the surgeon may undertake excision biopsy, where an attempt is made to completely remove the tumour at the time of first biopsy In this situation, the pathologist will not only be able to confirm the diagnosis, but can also comment on the completeness of excision, ie, whether the tumour has been completely removed A full endoscopic examination of the larynx, trachea, and esophagus is often performed at the time of biopsy

For small glottic tumours further imaging may be unnecessary In most cases, tumour staging is completed by scanning the head and neck region to assess the local extent of the tumour and any pathologically enlarged cervical lymph nodes

The final management plan will depend on the site, stage tumour size, nodal spread, distant metastasis, and histological type The overall health and wishes of the patient must also be taken into account A prognostic multigene classifier has been shown to be potentially useful for the distinction of laryngeal cancer of low or high risk of recurrence and might influence the treatment choice in future7

Stagingedit

Epithelial tumors are classified according to the guidelines set by the International Union Against Cancer UICC 3,4

T classification

The T2 classification represents the extent of the primary tumor


T2 – Tumor invades the vocal cord without fixation of the larynx

Glottis T2 – Tumor extends to supraglottis and/or subglottis, and/or with impaired vocal cord mobility

The N classification represents spreading to regional lymph nodes on the neck The widest diameter is measured N0 – no regional lymph node metastases N1 – single ipsilateral lymph node metastasis ≤ 3 cm a – single ipsilateral lymph node metastasis > 3 cm ≤ 6 cm b – multiple ipsilateral lymph node metastases ≤ 6 cm c – bilateral or contralateral lymph node metastases ≤ 6 cm

The M classification represents distant metastases M0 – no distance metastases M1 – distant metastases

External link showing illustrations of the different stages

Treatmentedit

Specific treatment depends on the location, type, and stage of the tumour Treatment may involve surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, alone or in combination This is a specialised area which requires the coordinated expertise of ear, nose and throat ENT surgeons Otorhinolaryngologists and Oncologists A severely affected patient may require a laryngectomy, the complete or partial removal of the vocal cords8

Pre-release Patient Educationedit

Patients with irreversible airway compromise and bulbar paralysis due to various chronic, systemic and autoimmune diseases often have to continue with a lifelong tracheostomy These patients require a cautious and meticulous home care of the tracheostomy tube and the stoma Many centers and hospitals have their integrated pre-discharge patient education program and checklist This is particularly mandatory and warrants due attention in regard of sending a patient home with a tracheostomy A brief span hands-on training and comprehensive educational materials are to be ensured sincerely It is vital to have/organize the support of relatives or a companion At least one individual ought to learn how to help the patient in case of emergency That person should join the patient when he/she gets guidelines in the hospital Medical information and communication technology and digital modules should also be made easily accessible and user-friendly to the mass people9

USedit

Incidence is five in 100,000 12,500 new cases per year in the USA10 The American Cancer Society estimated that 9,510 men and women 7,700 men and 1,810 women would be diagnosed with and 3,740 men and women would die of laryngeal cancer in 2006

Laryngeal cancer is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases ORD of the National Institutes of Health NIH This means that laryngeal cancer affects fewer than 200,000 people in the US11

Referencesedit

  1. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators 17 December 2014 "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013" Lancet 385: 117–71 PMC 4340604  PMID 25530442 doi:101016/S0140-67361461682-2 
  2. ^ "SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Larynx Cancer" NCI Retrieved 18 June 2014 
  3. ^ Laryngeal cancer at Mount Sinai Hospital
  4. ^ DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology 10th edition ISBN 9781451192940
  5. ^ http://wwwmedbroadcastcom/channel_condition_info_detailsaspdisease_id=267&channel_id=2055&relation_id=42622#VSSGuPnF9HY
  6. ^ Ridge JA, Glisson BS, Lango MN, et al "Head and Neck Tumors" in Pazdur R, Wagman LD, Camphausen KA, Hoskins WJ Eds Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach 11 ed 2008
  7. ^ Mirisola V, Mora R, Esposito AI, Guastini L, Tabacchiera F, Paleari L, Amaro A, Angelini G, Dellepiane M, Pfeffer U, Salami A August 2011 "A prognostic multigene classifier for squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx" Cancer Letters 307 1: 37–46 PMID 21481529 doi:101016/jcanlet201103013 
  8. ^ Cancer - throat or larynx, MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
  9. ^ Rabiul Alam; Mahbuba Rehana; Abdullah Raied "Obligation of home care education for tracheostomy" Safety in Health doi:101186/s40886-017-0053-x 
  10. ^ Samuel W Beenken, MD "Laryngeal Cancer Cancer of the larynx" Laryngeal Cancer Cancer of the larynx Armenian Health Network, Healtham Retrieved 2007-03-22 
  11. ^ "Annual Report on the Rare Diseases and Conditions Research" National Institutes of Health Retrieved 2007-03-22 

External linksedit

  • Staging cancer of the larynx
  • Cancer Management Handbook: Head and Neck Cancers
  • A Video of a Physician Who is a Laryngectomee Discusses his Personal Experiences
  • Clinically reviewed laryngeal cancer information for patients, from Cancer Research UK
  • UK laryngeal cancer statistics from Cancer Research UK
  • CancerNet: Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer
  • Oncolex, Cancer Encyclopedia on Laryngeal cancer

laryngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer fact sheet, laryngeal cancer icd 10, laryngeal cancer pathophysiology, laryngeal cancer pictures, laryngeal cancer prognosis, laryngeal cancer staging, laryngeal cancer survival rates, laryngeal cancer symptoms, laryngeal cancer treatment


Laryngeal cancer Information about

Laryngeal cancer


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    Laryngeal cancer beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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