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Larry Sanger

larry sanger, larry sanger net worth
Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger /sæŋər/ born July 16, 1968 is an American Internet project developer, co-founder of Wikipedia, and the founder of Citizendium He grew up in Anchorage, Alaska From an early age he has been interested in philosophy Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Reed College in 1991 and a Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000 Most of his philosophical work has focused on epistemology, the theory of knowledge

He has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects He is the former editor-in-chief of Nupedia, chief organizer 2001–02 of its successor, Wikipedia, and founding editor-in-chief of Citizendium From his position at Nupedia, he assembled the process for article development Sanger proposed implementing a wiki, which led directly to the creation of Wikipedia Initially Wikipedia was a complementary project for Nupedia He was Wikipedia's early community leader and established many of its original policies

Sanger left Wikipedia in 2002, and has since been critical of the project He states that, despite its merits, Wikipedia lacks credibility due to, among other things, a lack of respect for expertise In October 2006, Sanger started a somewhat similar encyclopedia to Wikipedia, Citizendium

Sanger has taught philosophy at Ohio State University and was an early strategist for the expert-authored Encyclopedia of Earth He has worked on developing educational projects for individuals behind WatchKnowLearn He has designed a web-based reading program named Reading Bear which aims to teach children how to read In February 2013, he attempted to start a news crowdsourcing project named Infobitt; it ran out of money in mid-2015 without the code being ready to handle a fullscale launch


  • 1 Early life and education
  • 2 Philosophy
  • 3 Nupedia and Wikipedia
    • 31 Origins of Wikipedia
  • 4 Post-Wikipedia
  • 5 Citizendium
  • 6 Post-Citizendium
  • 7 Personal life
  • 8 Selected writings
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Early life and education

Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington His father was a marine biologist and his mother cared for the children When he was seven years old, the family moved to Anchorage, Alaska At an early age, he was interested in philosophical topics

He graduated from high school in 1986 and went off to Reed College, majoring in philosophy In college he became interested in the Internet and its publishing abilities He set up a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet up for "expert tutoring" and "to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting" He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list, the Association for Systematic Philosophy Sanger wrote in 1994 a manifesto for the discussion group: "The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one's intellectual forebears"

Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed College in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000 Beginning in 1998 he ran a website called "Sanger's Review of Y2K News Reports", a resource for those concerned about the year 2000 problem, such as managers of computer systems


In 2007, Sanger examined the possibilities for education online He explained, "Imagine that education were not delivered but organized and managed in a way that were fully digitized, decentralized, self-directed, asynchronous, and at-a-distance" He further stated, "There would be no bureaucracy to enforce anything beyond some very basic rules, and decision-making would be placed almost entirely in the hands of teachers and students"

In 2007, Sanger wrote an essay for the Edge stating in part: "As it turns out, our many Web 20 revolutionaries have been so thoroughly seized with the successes of strong collaboration that they are resistant to recognizing some hard truths As wonderful as it might be that the hegemony of professionals over knowledge is lessening, there is a downside: our grasp of and respect for reliable information suffers With the rejection of professionalism has come a widespread rejection of expertise—of the proper role in society of people who make it their life's work to know stuff This, I maintain, is not a positive development; but it is also not a necessary one We can imagine a Web 20 with experts We can imagine an Internet that is still egalitarian, but which is more open and welcoming to specialists The new politics of knowledge that I advocate would place experts at the head of the table, but—unlike the old order—gives the general public a place at the table as well"

In 2008, Sanger was at Oxford University to debate the proposition that "the internet is the future of knowledge" Sanger agreed that today's wikis and blogs are fundamentally changing the way knowledge is created and distributed

In 2010, Sanger wrote an article for Educause stating in part: "In the last several years, many observers of education and learning have been stunned by the abundance of information online, the ever-faster findability of answers, and the productivity of online 'crowds,' which have created information resources like Wikipedia and YouTube The enormous scope of these developments has surprised me too, despite the fact that they are more or less what many of us had hoped for and deliberately tried to bring into being These sudden, revolutionary developments demand analysis: How is this latest information explosion changing the way we live Is the relationship between society and individual changing More to the point for this article, how is the Internet revolution changing education"

Nupedia and Wikipedia

Further information: History of Wikipedia The Bomis staff in the summer of 2000 Sanger is second from the left in the front row seated Nupedia's logo

Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles, written by volunteer contributors possessing relevant subject matter expertise and reviewed by editors prior to publication, would be licensed as free content It was co-founded by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by Bomis, with Sanger hired as editor-in-chief In February 2000, Sanger began to oversee Nupedia He developed a review process for articles and recruited editors Articles were reviewed through Nupedia's e-mail system before being posted on the site With Wales and Sanger frustrated at the slow progress of Nupedia, in January 2001, Sanger proposed a wiki be created to spur article development, and the result of this proposal was Wikipedia, officially launched on January 15, 2001 It was initially intended as a collaborative wiki for the public to write entries that would then be fed into the Nupedia review process of expertise, but the majority of Nupedia's experts wanted little to do with this project Originally, Bomis planned to make Wikipedia profitable

Shortly after a blank wiki was set up Sanger wrote the initial pages and promoted the site To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching, Wikipedia had outgrown Nupedia, and a small community of editors gathered By virtue of his position with Nupedia, Sanger ran the project, and formulated much of the original policy, including "Ignore all rules", "Neutral point of view", and "Verifiability" Wikipedia quickly took off, but just months after it was launched, things started to go off the rails, Sanger says, and by the summer of 2001 the new online community was being "overrun" by what he described as "trolls" and "anarchist-types", who were "opposed to the idea that anyone should have any kind of authority that others do not" Sanger responded by proposing a stronger emphasis for expert editors, individuals with the authority to resolve disputes and enforce the rules

Tired of endless content battles and feeling he had a lack of support from Wales, Sanger eventually left the project Sanger was the only paid editor of Wikipedia, a status he held from January 15, 2001, until March 1, 2002 In early 2002 Bomis announced plans to sell advertising on Wikipedia in part to pay for Sanger's job, but the project was against any commercialization Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002 after the collapse in Internet advertising spending; Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as chief organizer of Wikipedia on March 1 Sanger's stated reason for ending his participation in Wikipedia and Nupedia as a volunteer was that he could not do justice to the task as a part-time volunteer Nupedia shut down in 2003, shortly after Wikipedia's second anniversary

Origins of Wikipedia

A screenshot of Wikipedia's main page on September 28, 2002

Wales started to play down Sanger's role in the founding of the project in 2005, a few years after Sanger left Wikipedia In light of Wales' view, Sanger posted on his personal webpage several links which supported his role as a co-founder Sanger was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia at least as early as September 2001 Wales identified himself in August 2002 as "co-founder" of Wikipedia Sanger said "While I was organizing Wikipedia, Wales was in the background and focused on Bomiscom" Wales stated in 2005 that he had initially heard of the wiki concept in 2001 not from Sanger, but instead from Jeremy Rosenfeld Wales stated in October 2001 that it was "Larry who had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project"

The critical concept of marrying the three fundamental elements of Wikipedia, namely an encyclopedia, a wiki, and essentially unrestricted editorial access to the public, first took form when Sanger met up with an old friend, Ben Kovitz This meeting occurred at a dinner on January 2, 2001, and it was here that Sanger was first introduced to the functionality of wiki software Kovitz was a computer programmer and a regular on Ward Cunningham's wiki Sanger thought a wiki would be a good platform to use and decided to present the idea to Jimmy Wales, at that time the head of Bomis Sanger initially proposed the wiki concept to Wales and suggested it be applied to Nupedia and, after some initial skepticism, Wales agreed to try it

It was Jimmy Wales, along with other people, who came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from ordinary people and it was Wales who invested in it Sanger came up with the name "Wikipedia", which he later said was "a silly name for what was at first a very silly project" Sanger first conceived of the wiki-based encyclopedia project only as a means to hopefully accelerate Nupedia's slow growth During Wikipedia's critical first year of growth, Sanger spearheaded and guided the following that gathered around this nucleus Through this early period, he served as Wikipedia's "chief organizer", a position which has not been filled since his departure from Wikipedia Sanger is also credited with creating and enforcing many of the policies and strategy that made Wikipedia possible during its first formative year By the end of the year in 2001, the site had about 15,000 articles and upwards of 350 Wikipedians


Since Sanger parted ways with Wikipedia in 2002, he has been critical of its accuracy, among other things In December 2004, Sanger wrote a critical article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he stated that Wikipedia is not perceived as credible among librarians, teachers, and academics when it does not have a formal review process and it is "anti-elitist" In September 2009, Sanger mentioned one reason for distancing himself from Wikipedia: "I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts" He pointed out "The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it" Wales responded by stating, "I think very highly of Larry Sanger, and think that it is unfortunate that this silly debate has tended to overshadow his work"

Sanger, a philosophy instructor, began work as a lecturer at The Ohio State University, where he taught philosophy until June 2005 His professional interests are epistemology in particular, early modern philosophy, and ethics

In December 2005, Digital Universe Foundation announced that Sanger had been hired as Director of Distributed Content Programs He would be a key organizer of the Digital Universe Encyclopedia web projects which was launched in early 2006 The Digital Universe encyclopedia has recruited recognized experts to write articles, and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy The first step in this effort was the expert-authored and edited Encyclopedia of Earth, an electronic reference about the Earth

The question of accuracy over Wikipedia article content spurred Sanger to unveil plans for a new encyclopedia called Citizendium, short for "citizens' compendium" At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced Citizendium as a fork of Wikipedia The objectives of the fork were to address various perceived flaws in the Wikipedia system The main differences would be no anonymous editing: every author/editor would have to be identified by his/her real name, no "top-down" hierarchy of editors: it would aspire to be a "real encyclopedia"

In 2015, Sanger was interviewed by Zach Schwartz in Vice In the interview, he said, among other things, that "I think Wikipedia never solved the problem of how to organize itself in a way that didn't lead to mob rule" and that since he left the project, "People that I would say are trolls sort of took over The inmates started running the asylum"


Main article: Citizendium A screenshot of Citizendium's homepage on 2 January 2010

On March 25, 2007, Citizendium officially launched In early 2007, Sanger announced he would not head Citizendium indefinitely Two weeks after the launch of Citizendium, Sanger criticized Wikipedia, stating the latter was "broken beyond repair," and had a range of problems "from serious management problems, to an often dysfunctional community, to frequently unreliable content, and to a whole series of scandals" Citizendium was an effort by Sanger to establish a scholarly and credible online encyclopedia which aimed to bring more accountability and academic quality to articles

Ars Technica reporter Timothy B Lee said in 2011 that Citizendium was "dead in the water" Lee noted that Citizendium's late start was a disadvantage, and that Citizendium's growth was also hindered by an "unwieldy editing model" In 2014, the number of Citizendium contributors was fewer than 100, and the number of edits per day was about "a dozen or so", according to Winthrop University's Dean of Library Services Citizendium has about 17,000 articles, of which 160 have been expert reviewed as of August 2016

Citizendium is wiki-based, but with a few differences from Wikipedia: Prospective contributors on Citizendium were required to sign in using real names in contrast to Wikipedia users who may remain anonymous The site attempted to implement an expert review process, and experts tried to reach a decision for disputes that cannot be resolved by consensus After a burst of initial work, however, the site went into decline, and most of the experts left


In early 2009, Sanger effectively ceased to edit Citizendium, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009, on the Citizendium-l mailinglist On September 22, 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium but said, at the time, that he would continue to support the project

In April 2010 Sanger sent a letter to the FBI detailing his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography in its pedophilia and lolicon categories later clarified as "obscene visual representations of the abuse of children" Sanger said that he felt it was his civic duty to report the images Sanger told FoxNewscom that, in 2012, he worked with NetSpark to get them to donate or heavily discount its pornographic image filtering technology for use by Wikipedia NetSpark attempted to contact the Wikimedia Foundation in July/August 2012, but received no response at that time

In December 2010, commenting in regard to WikiLeaks, Sanger said: "I consider you enemies of the US—not just the government, but the people"

He has worked at the WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit organization which focuses on educating young children using educational videos and other media on the web Sanger was the executive director of the system It is a non-profit funded by grants, philanthropists, and the Community Foundation of Northwest Mississippi Sanger headed the development of WatchKnowLearn from 2008 to 2010 It consists of a repository of educational videos for kindergarten to the 12th grade In February 2013, it ranked as the No 1 search result among educational videos on Google's search engine, with page views surmounting 6 million each month In 2010 and 2011, he continued working on developing a web-based reading-tutorial application for beginning readers which was launched as Reading Bear in 2012 It uses the principles of phonics, using multimedia presentations such as videos, PowerPoint presentations, and ebooks In addition to aiming to teach children to pronounce words, it aims to teach the meaning and context of each word

In February 2013, Sanger announced a project he named Infobitt - a crowdsourced news portal On Twitter, he wrote: "My new project will show the world how to crowdsource high-quality content—a problem I've long wanted to solve Not a wiki" The site, which sought to be a crowdsourced news aggregator, went online in December 2014 In July 2015, Sanger announced that the project had run out of money, he had let the programmers go, he was himself looking for a job, and that it was impossible to do a full launch of the project as the code behind it was still only capable of working "at a small scale" The site no longer exists

Personal life

Sanger moved to San Diego, California, in February 2000 when he was first hired by Wales to develop Nupedia He was married in Las Vegas, Nevada, in December 2001 In January 2002 he returned to Columbus, Ohio, where he currently resides with his wife and two children

Sanger supports the concept of baby reading He says that he started teaching his boy to read before age 2, and he posted videos his child reading

Selected writings

A partial list of academic work, essays, and presentations Sanger has written:

Academic work
  • Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – doctoral thesis
  • Descartes' methods and their theoretical background – bachelor thesis
  • Why Neutrality Ballotpedia, December 2015
  • How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read PDF LarrySangerorg, December 2010
  • Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age Educause Review, April 2010
  • The Fate of Expertise after Wikipedia PDF Episteme – Edinburgh University Press, February 2009
  • Who Says We Know: On The New Politics of Knowledge Edge Foundation – Edge Reality Club, April 2007
  • Why the Citizendium Will Probably Succeed LarrySangerorg, March 2007
  • Humanity's Coming Enlightenment Archived Edge Foundation – World Question Center, 2007
  • Toward a New Compendium of Knowledge Citizendium, September 2006
  • What Strong Collaboration Means for Scholarly Publishing Keynote at the Annual Meeting of Society for Scholarly Publishing, San Francisco, CA, June 7, 2007
  • How to Think about Strong Collaboration among Professionals Keynote at the Handelsblatt IT Congress, Bonn, Germany, January 30, 2007
  • Why Make Room for Experts in Web 20 Opening keynote at the SVForum, The Business of New Media, Santa Clara, CA, October 25, 2006


  1. ^ Western History for Kids, Part 1 - ancient and medieval - Sanger Academy on YouTube, video taken from Sanger's official educational YouTube channel, pronunciation confirmed around 0:10, accessed May 7, 2016
  2. ^ a b Jennifer Joline Anderson 2011 Wikipedia: The Company and Its Founders 1 ed Abdo Group p 20 ISBN 1617148121 
  3. ^ a b c Walker, Lauren 16 December 2014 "'Wikipedia for News' Becomes Open to the Public" Newsweek Retrieved 16 December 2014 
  4. ^ a b c Chillingworth, Mark November 27, 2006 "Expert edition" Information World Review Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  5. ^ Anderson, Nate November 21, 2007 "Larry Sanger says "tipping point" approaching for expert-guided Citizendium wiki" Ars Technica Retrieved 2007-11-21 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Roush, Wade January 2005 "Larry Sanger's Knowledge Free-for-All" Technology Review Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  7. ^ a b Sanger, Larry "Larry Sanger – Education" larraysangerorg Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  8. ^ a b c d Sidener, Jonathan September 23, 2006 "Wikipedia co-founder looks to add accountability, end anarchy" The San Diego Union-Tribune Retrieved 2007-03-25 The origins of Wikipedia date to 2000, when Sanger was finishing his doctoral thesis in philosophy and had an idea for a Web site 
  9. ^ Nauffts, Mitch March 27, 2007 "5 Questions For: Larry Sanger, Founder, Citizendium" Philanthropy News Digest Foundation Center Retrieved 2007-03-27 
  10. ^ a b c Moody, Glyn July 13, 2006 "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts" The Guardian London Retrieved 2007-03-25 Larry Sanger seems to have a thing about free online encyclopedias Although his main claim to fame is as the co-founder, along with Jimmy Wales, of Wikipedia, that is just one of several projects to produce large-scale, systematic stores of human knowledge he has been involved in saw that I was essentially looking for employment online and he was looking for someone to lead Nupedia Career: 1992–1996, 1997–1998 Graduate teaching associate, OSU; 2000–2002 Editor-in-chief, Nupedia; Co-founder and 'chief organiser,' Wikipedia 
  11. ^ a b LeClaire, Jennifer March 27, 2007 "Wikipedia Cofounder Launches Citizendium" NewsFactor Network Retrieved 2007-03-27 
  12. ^ a b c Gouthro, Liane March 10, 2000 "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia" PCWorld Archived from the original on September 6, 2009 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Poe, Marshall September 2006 "The Hive" The Atlantic Monthly Retrieved 2013-10-22 Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001 The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries that would then be 'fed into the Nupedia process' of authorization Most of Nupedia's expert volunteers, however, wanted nothing to do with this, so Sanger decided to launch a separate site called 'Wikipedia' Neither Sanger nor Wales looked on Wikipedia as anything more than a lark This is evident in Sanger's flip announcement of Wikipedia to the Nupedia discussion list 'Humor me,' he wrote 'Go there and add a little article It will take all of five or ten minutes' And, to Sanger's surprise, go they did Within a few days, Wikipedia outstripped Nupedia in terms of quantity, if not quality, and a small community developed In late January, Sanger created a Wikipedia discussion list Wikipedia-L to facilitate discussion of the project 
  14. ^ a b c Bergstein, Brian March 25, 2007 "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia" NBCNewscom Associated Press Retrieved 2007-03-25 The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy PhD who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp The claim doesn't seem particularly controversial – Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, isn't happy about it 
  15. ^ a b c Schiff, Stacy July 31, 2006 "Know It All" The New Yorker Archived from the original on February 23, 2009 Retrieved 2009-04-25 
  16. ^ a b "Wikipedia founder sets up rival" Australian IT October 19, 2006 Retrieved 2014-08-04 
  17. ^ a b c Pink, Daniel H March 2005 "The Book Stops Here" Wired Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  18. ^ a b Sanger, Larry December 31, 2004 "Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism" Kuro5hin Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  19. ^ a b c d Lee, Timothy B October 27, 2011 "Citizendium turns five, but the Wikipedia fork is dead in the water" Ars Technica Retrieved 2013-10-22 
  20. ^ a b c Terdiman, Daniel December 19, 2005 "Wikipedia alternative aims to be 'PBS of the Web'" CNET Archived from the original on 2016-01-31 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  21. ^ a b c d Sawers, Paul November 2, 2011 "Wikipedia co-founder launches Reading Bear, an online phonics tutorial for kids" The Next Web, Inc Retrieved 2013-10-09 
  22. ^ a b c Kelley, Michael "Web-based reading program targets young learners" Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group 
  23. ^ a b "Infobitt's Future, and Mine" 8 July 2015 
  24. ^ "Some thoughts, 15 years after Wikipedia's launch" at LarrySangerorg Quote: "We ran out of runway, as most startups do"
  25. ^ a b Lydgate, Chris June 2010 "Deconstructing Wikipedia" Reed Magazine Retrieved 2013-11-01 
  26. ^ a b c Poe, Marshall September 2006 "The Hive" The Atlantic Monthly p 2 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  27. ^ a b c Boraas, Alan September 2, 2006 "Hometown kid an Internet revolutionary" Anchorage Daily News Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  28. ^ Sanger, Larry August 30, 1995 "Tutor-L: Higher education outside the universities" scoutwiscedu Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  29. ^ Sanger, Larry March 22, 1994 "Association for Systematic Philosophy" George Mason University Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  30. ^ Sanger, Larry June 2007 "Education 20" Egon Zehnder International The Focus Online Archived from the original on June 15, 2007 Retrieved 2007-06-01 The future of education could lie in a digital degree-granting institution that lives on the Internet 
  31. ^ Sanger, Larry 2007 "WHO SAYS WE KNOW: On the New Politics of Knowledge" Edge Foundation, Inc Retrieved November 2, 2013 
  32. ^ Keen, Andrew June 2, 2008 "Andrew Keen on New Media" The Independent London Retrieved 2008-06-08 
  33. ^ Sanger, Larry April 15, 2010 "Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age" Educause Review Retrieved November 1, 2013 
  34. ^ "Nupediacom Editorial Policy Guidelines, Overview: Assignment" Nupediacom May 2000 Archived from the original on June 7, 2001 
  35. ^ Williams, Sam April 27, 2004 "Everyone is an editor" Salon Media Group p 2 Retrieved 2009-04-15 
  36. ^ Sidener, Jonathan December 6, 2004 "Everyone's Encyclopedia" The San Diego Union-Tribune Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  37. ^ a b Lanxon, Nate June 5, 2008 "The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters" CNET p 5 Archived from the original on August 22, 2008 Retrieved 2009-02-27 
  38. ^ Betz, Lindsay June 1, 2007 "Wikipedia formed by former Buckeye" The Lantern The Ohio State University Retrieved 2007-06-01 
  39. ^ Sanger, Larry August 19, 2012 "On the moral bankruptcy of Wikipedia's anonymous administration" Larry Sanger Retrieved November 1, 2013 
  40. ^ Walker, Leslie September 9, 2004 "Spreading knowledge, the Wiki way" Washington Post Retrieved 2008-02-05 
  41. ^ Long, Tony January 15, 2008 "Enter Wikipedia, for Better and Worse" Wired Wired News Retrieved 2008-02-05 
  42. ^ Finkelstein, Seth 2008-09-25 "Read me first: Wikipedia isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says" London: The Guardian 
  43. ^ Terdiman, Daniel December 21, 2005 "Wikipedia founder modifies his bio" CNET Retrieved 2014-03-26 
  44. ^ a b c Waters, Richard November 10, 2006 "Wikipedia stand-off in search for online truth" Financial Times Retrieved 2009-10-15 
  45. ^ a b c d Sanger, Larry April 18, 2005 "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir" SourceForge Slashdot Retrieved 2007-03-25 The actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he gave me to work on So I arrived in San Diego in early February, 2000, to get to work 
     • Sanger, Larry April 19, 2005 "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II" SourceForge Slashdot Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  46. ^ a b c Sanger, Larry March 1, 2002 "My resignation—Larry Sanger" Meta-Wiki Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  47. ^ a b c d e Ferraro, Nicole October 9, 2009 "Wikipedia Co-Founder Speaks Out Against Jimmy Wales" Internet Evolution UBM LLC Retrieved 2013-10-23 Nupedia was started first, and is extremely high quality in the limited content that it does produce After a year or so of working on Nupedia, Larry had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project specifically for people like you and me! who are intimidated and bored sorry, Nupedia! with the tedium of the process 
  48. ^ Youngwood, Susan April 1, 2007 "Wikipedia: What do they know; when do they know it, and when can we trust it" Vermont Sunday Magazine Rutland Herald Retrieved 2007-04-01 
  49. ^ Mitchell, Dan December 24, 2005 "Insider Editing at Wikipedia" The New York Times Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  50. ^ Hansen, Evan December 19, 2005 "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio" Wired Wired News Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  51. ^ Finkelstein, Seth February 12, 2009 "What's in a name Everything, when you're talking wiki value" The Guardian London Retrieved 2009-02-12 
  52. ^ Meyers, Peter September 20, 2001 "Fact-Driven Collegial This Site Wants You" The New York Times Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  53. ^ Wales, Jimmy August 6, 2002 "3apes open content web directory" Yahoo! Tech Groups forum post Archived from the original on March 31, 2009 Retrieved 2009-04-01 I'm Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Nupedia and Wikipedia, the open content encyclopedias 
  54. ^ "Wikipedia boss challenged over claims made in Hot Press" Hot Press April 24, 2009 Retrieved 2009-05-25 
  55. ^ a b NewsAssignmentnet May 3, 2007 "Assignment Zero First Take: Wiki Innovators Rethink Openness" Wired Retrieved 2009-04-25 
  56. ^ "Ben Kovitz" WikiWikiWeb January 19, 2008 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  57. ^ a b c Poe, Marshall September 2006 "The Hive" The Atlantic Monthly p 3 Retrieved 2007-03-25  Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia's lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system As Nupedia was then structured, no stage of the editorial process could proceed before the previous stage was completed Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out "wiki magic," the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project With Kovitz in tow, Sanger rushed back to his apartment and called Wales to share the idea Over the next few days he wrote a formal proposal for Wales and started a page on Cunningham's wiki called "WikiPedia"
  58. ^ "WikiPedia" WikiWikiWeb January 19, 2008 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  59. ^ Sidener, Jonathan October 9, 2006 "Wikipedia family feud rooted in San Diego" The San Diego Union-Tribune Retrieved 2009-05-05 
  60. ^ a b O'Toole, Jason May 7, 2009 "Citizen Sanger" Hot Press Retrieved 2009-05-25 
  61. ^ "Larry Sanger on co-founding Wikipedia and how online education could change the world" Retrieved 2012-12-28 At first I resigned as Chief Organizer of Wikipedia – that was my title, by the way I was never called 'Editor' 
  62. ^ Singer, Michael January 16, 2002 "Free Encyclopedia Project Celebrates Year One" Jupitermedia Archived from the original on March 16, 2003 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  63. ^ Tally, Steve March 20, 2006 "Wikipedia co-founder to speak on campus" Purdue University News Service Archived from the original on October 17, 2007 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  64. ^ Aviv, Rachel January 10, 2006 "Mondo Wikipedia" The Village Voice Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  65. ^ Terdiman, Daniel January 6, 2006 "Wikipedia's co-founder eyes a Digital Universe" CNET Archived from the original on 2013-08-17 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  66. ^ "Digital Universe Seeks to Become Free 'PBS of the Web'" PR Newswire Digital Universe January 17, 2006 Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  67. ^ "Contributor: Lawrence Sanger" Encyclopedia of Earth Digital Universe Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  68. ^ "About the EoE" Encyclopedia of Earth Digital Universe Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  69. ^ Niccolai, James September 26, 2006 "Wikipedia to fight vandals in Germany" InfoWorld Retrieved 2009-10-15 
  70. ^ "Next Wikipedia, take a right" Wikipedia, Citizendium, and the politics of knowledge: An interview with Larry Sanger Dossier Open Source Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  71. ^ a b Schwartz, Zach 11 November 2015 "Wikipedia's Co-Founder Is Wikipedia's Most Outspoken Critic" Vice Retrieved 15 November 2015 
  72. ^ Bergstein, Brian March 25, 2007 "Citizendium aims to be better Wikipedia" USA Today Associated Press Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  73. ^ a b Anderson, Nate February 25, 2007 "Citizendium: building a better Wikipedia" Ars Technica Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  74. ^ Thomson, Iain April 13, 2007 "Wikipedia 'broken beyond repair' says co-founder" iTnews Retrieved 2011-12-18 
  75. ^ Lyman, Jay September 20, 2006 "Wikipedia Co-Founder Planning New Expert-Authored Site" ECT News Network Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  76. ^ Dawson, Christopher February 23, 2007 "Citizendium seeks to be the Wikipedia you can cite" ZDNet Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  77. ^ Tiwari, Neha April 5, 2007 "Wikipedia today, Citizendium tomorrow" CNET Archived from the original on 2014-03-04 Retrieved 2007-04-05 
  78. ^ Mark Y Herring 2014 Are Libraries Obsolete: An Argument for Relevance in the Digital Age 1 ed McFarland & Company p 52 ISBN 0786473568 
  79. ^ Citizendium front page, accessed 4 August 2016
  80. ^ a b c Cohen, Jason Z March 3, 2008 "Citizendium's Larry Sanger: Experts Make It Better" LinuxInsider ECT News Network Retrieved 2008-03-08 
  81. ^ Lombardi, Candace March 26, 2007 "Wikipedia rival makes its debut" ZDNet Archived from the original on July 12, 2007 Retrieved 2007-10-04 
  82. ^ Read, Brock April 5, 2007 "Citizendium's Creator in His Own Words" The Chronicle of Higher Education Retrieved 2007-04-05 
  83. ^ Heater, Brian January 26, 2007 "Q&A With Citizendium Creator Dr Larry Sanger" AppScoutcom Retrieved 2007-03-25 
  84. ^ McCarthy, Caroline January 23, 2007 "Citizendium: Wikipedia co-founder Sanger's Wikipedia rival" CNET News Retrieved 2007-04-05 
  85. ^ Sanger, Larry July 30, 2009 " My recent absence" Citizendium Retrieved 2009-07-30 
  86. ^ Sanger, Larry September 22, 2010 "Citizendium Charter Ratified" Citizendium blog Retrieved 2010-12-17 
  87. ^ "Wikimedia pornography row deepens as Wales cedes rights" BBC News May 10, 2010 Retrieved 2010-05-19 
  88. ^ Metz, Cade May 9, 2010 "Jimbo Wales exiles 'porn' from Wikiland" The Register Retrieved 2010-10-09 
  89. ^ Farrell, Nick April 29, 2010 "Wikipedia denies child abuse allegations: Co-founder grassed the outfit to the FBI" The Inquirer Retrieved 2010-10-09 
  90. ^ a b Chiaramonte, Perry September 10, 2012 "Exclusive: Wikipedia ignores solution to rampant porn problem" FoxNewscom Retrieved 2013-11-19 
  91. ^ Gordon Crovitz, L December 6, 2010 "Julian Assange, Information Anarchist" The Wall Street Journal Dow Jones & Company Retrieved 2010-12-22 
  92. ^ Sawers, Paul November 19, 2011 "Larry Sanger on co-founding Wikipedia and how online education could change the world" The Next Web Retrieved January 8, 2011 
  93. ^ Lei, Owen October 28, 2011 "CEO hits road to spread word about non-profit 'YouTube for teachers'" King Broadcasting Company Retrieved 2013-11-09 
  94. ^ "WatchKnowLearn" EPIC 2020 November 2, 2011 Retrieved 2013-10-11 
  95. ^ Tomaszewski, Jason 2013 "Site Review: Watch-Know-Learn" Education World Retrieved 2013-11-13 
  96. ^ Lee Long, Robert February 16, 2013 "WatchKnowLearnorg No 1" Desoto Times Tribune Retrieved 2013-11-09 
  97. ^ Morris, Kevin 13 February 2013 "Wikipedia cofounder Larry Sanger on his next revolution" The Daily Dot Retrieved 14 February 2013 
  98. ^ Joseph Michael Reagle 2010 Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia 1 ed MIT Press p 35 ISBN 1452567905 
  99. ^ Jennifer Joline Anderson 2011 Wikipedia: The Company and Its Founders 1 ed Abdo Group p 74 ISBN 1617148121 
  100. ^ a b Carey, Tanith December 12, 2012 "Can you teach a baby to read It's the latest obsession for pushy parents - reading lessons for newborns And, incredibly, there's evidence it actually works" The Daily Mail 
  101. ^ Sanger, Larry "Larry Sanger" larrysangerorg Retrieved 2007-10-04 

External links

  • Larry Sanger on Twitter
  • Larry Sanger on Facebook
  • Larry Sanger's channel on YouTube
  • Larry Sanger – Sanger's personal website
  • Larry Sanger's – account on the English Wikipedia
  • Origins of Wikipedia – An essay discussing the origins of Wikipedia
  • Wikipedia's forgotten founder Larry Sanger – Sanger was interviewed on This Week in Startups
  • Larry Sanger - SISCTI 34 – Sanger spoke at Monterrey, Mexico during the SISCTI 34 conference
  • Video interview: Larry Sanger talks about Wikipedia and his plans with Citizendium – Mostly in English, with a German introduction and subtitles
  • A 2015 interview by Vice

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