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LAMP (software bundle)

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LAMP is an archetypal model of web service solution stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system RDBMS, and the PHP programming language The LAMP components are largely interchangeable and not limited to the original selection As a solution stack, LAMP is suitable for building dynamic web sites and web applications

Since its creation, the LAMP model has been adapted to other componentry, though typically consisting of free and open-source software For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is known as WAMP


  • 1 Overview
    • 11 Variants
  • 2 Software components
    • 21 Linux
    • 22 Apache
    • 23 MySQL and alternatives
    • 24 PHP and alternatives
  • 3 High availability and load balancing
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links


Originally popularized from the phrase "Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP", the acronym "LAMP" now refers to a generic software stack model The modularity of a LAMP stack may vary, but this particular software combination has become popular because it is entirely free and open-source software This means that each component can be interchanged and adapted without overt vendor lock-in, and that the complete software stack is available free of cost The components of the LAMP stack are present in the software repositories of most Linux distributions, providing a LAMP stack with some automation

The LAMP bundle can be combined with many other free and open-source software packages, such as the following:

  • netsniff-ng for security testing and hardening
  • Snort, an intrusion detection IDS and intrusion prevention IPS system
  • RRDtool for diagrams
  • Nagios, Collectd or Cacti, for monitoring

As another example, the software which Wikipedia and other Wikimedia projects use for their underlying infrastructure is a customized LAMP stack with additions such as Linux Virtual Server LVS for load balancing and Ceph and Swift for distributed object storages


"WAMP" redirects here For other uses, see WAMP disambiguation Main article: List of AMP packages See also: Comparison of web frameworks

With the growing use of the archetypal LAMP, variations and retronyms appeared for other combinations of operating system, web server, database, and software language For example, an equivalent installation on the Microsoft Windows operating system family is known as WAMP An alternative running IIS in place of Apache is called WIMP Variants involving other operating systems include MAMP OS X, SAMP Solaris, FAMP FreeBSD, iAMP iSeries and XAMPP cross-platform

The web server or database management system also varies LEMP is a version where Apache has been replaced with the more lightweight web server Nginx A version where MySQL has been replaced by PostgreSQL is called LAPP, or sometimes by keeping the original acronym, LAMP Linux / Apache / Middleware Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby / PostgreSQL

Software components

A high-level overview of LAMP's determining components Firefox serves just as a browser example


Main article: Linux

Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open source software development and distribution Most Linux distributions, as collections of software based around the Linux kernel and often around a package management system, provide complete LAMP setups through their packages According to W3Techs in October 2013, 585% of web server market share was shared between Debian and Ubuntu, while RHEL, Fedora and CentOS together shared 373%


Main article: Apache HTTP Server

The role of LAMP's web server has been traditionally supplied by Apache, and has since included other web servers such as Nginx

The Apache HTTP Server has been the most popular web server on the public Internet In June 2013, Netcraft estimated that Apache served 542% of all active websites and 533% of the top servers across all domains In June 2014, Apache was estimated to serve 5227% of all active websites, followed by nginx with 1436%

Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation Released under the Apache License, Apache is open-source software A wide variety of features are supported, and many of them are implemented as compiled modules which extend the core functionality of Apache These can range from server-side programming language support to authentication schemes

MySQL and alternatives

Main articles: MySQL, MariaDB, and MongoDB

MySQL's original role as the LAMP's relational database management system RDBMS has since been alternately provisioned by other RDBMSs such as MariaDB or PostgreSQL, or even NoSQL databases such as MongoDB

MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL database management system DBMS, acquired by Sun Microsystems in 2008, which was then acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010 Since its early years, the MySQL team has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements

MariaDB is a community-developed fork of MySQL, led by its original developers PostgreSQL is also an ACID-compliant relational database, unrelated to MySQL

MongoDB is a widely used open-source NoSQL database that eschews the traditional table-based relational database structure in favor of JSON-like documents with dynamic schemas calling the format BSON, making the integration of data in certain types of applications easier and faster

PHP and alternatives

Main articles: PHP, Perl, and Python programming language

PHP's role as the LAMP's application programming language has also been performed by other languages such as Perl and Python

PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language PHP code is interpreted by a web server via a PHP processor module, which generates the resulting web page PHP commands can optionally be embedded directly into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data It has also evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications

PHP is free software released under the terms of PHP License, which is incompatible with the GNU General Public License GPL due to the restrictions PHP License places on the usage of the term PHP

Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6 They provide advanced text processing facilities without the arbitrary data-length limits of many contemporary Unix commandline tools, facilitating manipulation of text files Perl 5 gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language for the Web, in part due to its parsing abilities

Python is a widely used general-purpose high-level programming language Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative, functional and procedural paradigms It features a dynamic type system, automatic memory management, a standard library, and strict use of whitespace Like other dynamic languages, Python is often used as a scripting language, but is also used in a wide range of non-scripting contexts

High availability and load balancing

Main articles: High availability, Load balancing, and Replication

Specific solutions are required for websites that serve large numbers of requests, or provide services that demand high uptime High-availability approaches for the LAMP stack may involve multiple web and database servers, combined with additional components that perform logical aggregation of resources provided by each of the servers, as well as distribution of the workload across multiple servers The aggregation of web servers may be provided by placing a load balancer in front of them, for example by using Linux Virtual Server LVS For the aggregation of database servers, MySQL provides internal replication mechanisms that implement a master/slave relationship between the original database master and its copies slaves

Such high-availability setups may also improve the availability of LAMP instances by providing various forms of redundancy, making it possible for a certain number of components separate servers to experience downtime without interrupting the users of services provided by a LAMP instance as a whole Such redundant setups may also handle hardware failures resulting in data loss on individual servers in a way that prevents collectively stored data from actually becoming lost Beside higher availability, such LAMP setups are capable of providing almost linear improvements in performance for services having the number of internal database read operations much higher than the number of write/update operations

See also

  • Free software portal
  • List of Apache–MySQL–PHP packages
  • LYME software bundle – a solution stack based on Erlang
  • MEAN software bundle – a JavaScript software stack for building dynamic web sites and web applications
  • Web content management system
  • Content management system
  • Dynamic web page


  1. ^ "LAMP Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP" SearchEnterpriseLinux Retrieved 28 August 2014 
  2. ^ "LEMP Stack Linux, Nginx, MySQL, PHP" lempio Retrieved 2014-10-15 
  3. ^ "Featured Users" PostgreSQL Retrieved 2014-01-22 
  4. ^ "Debian/Ubuntu extend the dominance in the Linux web server market" W³Techs 2013-10-21 
  5. ^ "June 2013 Web Server Survey" Netcraft Retrieved 2014-06-27 
  6. ^ "June 2014 Web Server Survey" Netcraft Retrieved 2014-06-27 
  7. ^ "Top Reasons for Product Managers to Embed" MySQL Retrieved 2014-07-27 
  8. ^ Category: Computer Articles 2014-05-21 "Dispelling the Myths" GrnLightnet Retrieved 2014-07-27 
  9. ^ "Sun Locks Up MySQL, Looks To Future Web Development" InformationWeek Retrieved 2014-07-27 
  10. ^ "Introduction: What can PHP do" PHP Manual Retrieved 2009-03-05 
  11. ^ "GPL-Incompatible, Free Software Licenses" Various Licenses and Comments about Them Free Software Foundation Retrieved 2012-03-11 
  12. ^ "About Perl" perlorg Retrieved 2013-04-20 "Perl" is a family of languages, "Perl 6" is part of the family, but it is a separate language which has its own development team Its existence has no significant impact on the continuing development of "Perl 5" 
  13. ^ Wall, Larry, Tom Christiansen and Jon Orwant July 2000 Programming Perl, Third Edition O'Reilly Media ISBN 0-596-00027-8  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  14. ^ Smith, Roderick W 21 Jun 2002 Advanced Linux Networking Addison-Wesley Professional p 594 ISBN 978-0-201-77423-8 
  15. ^ "Programming Language Trends – O'Reilly Radar" Radaroreillycom 2006-08-02 Retrieved 2013-07-17 
  16. ^ "About Python" Python Software Foundation Retrieved 24 April 2012 
  17. ^ a b Simic, Dragan; Ristic, Srecko; Obradovic, Slobodan April 2007 "Measurement of the Achieved Performance Levels of the WEB Applications With Distributed Relational Database" PDF Electronics and Energetics Facta Universitatis p 31–43 Retrieved 30 January 2014 

External links

  • Install a LAMP server on Ubuntu Linux
  • Install a LAMP server on Debian GNU/Linux
  • Install a LAMP server on SUSE Linux

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