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Laboratory Syrian hamster

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Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus are one of several rodents used in animal testing Syrian hamsters are used to model human medical conditions including various cancers, metabolic diseases, non-cancer respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and general health concerns1 In 2014, Syrian hamsters accounted for 146% of the total animal research participants in the United States covered by the Animal Welfare Act2

Contents

  • 1 Use in research
  • 2 Human medical research
    • 21 Cancer research
    • 22 Metabolic disorders
    • 23 Non-cancer respiratory disease
    • 24 Cardiovascular
    • 25 Infection research
    • 26 Other medical conditions
  • 3 Research on Syrian hamsters themselves
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References

Use in researchedit

Since 1972 the use of hamsters in animal testing research has declined3 In 2014 in the United States, animal research used about 120,000 hamsters, which was 146% of the total research animal use under the Animal Welfare Act which excludes mice, rats and fish for that year in that country32 According to the Canadian Council for Animal Care, a total of 1,931 hamsters were used for research in 2013 in Canada, making them the sixth-most popular rodent after mice 1,233,196, rats 228,143, guinea pigs 20,687, squirrels 4,446 and voles 2,4574

Human medical researchedit

Cancer researchedit

Humans get lung cancer from tobacco smoking5 Syrian hamsters are a model for researching Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, which is one of the types of human lung cancer5 In research, when hamsters are injected with the carcinogen NNK several times over six months, they will develop that sort of cancer6 In both Syrian hamsters and humans, this cancer is associated with mutations to the KRAS gene7 For various reasons, collecting data on the way that Syrian hamsters develop this lung cancer provides insight on how humans develop it6

Oral squamous-cell carcinoma is a common cancer in humans and difficult to treat8 Scientists studying this disease broadly accept Syrian hamsters as animal models for researching it8 In this research, the hamster is given anesthesia, has its mouth opened to expose the inside of its cheeks, and the researcher brushes the carcinogen DMBA on its cheeks8 The scientist can take cell samples from the mouth of the hamster to measure the development of the cancer8 This process has good reproducibility8 The cancer itself develops tumors in a predictable way starting with hyperkeratosis, then hyperplasia, then dysplasia, then carcinoma8 In humans with this cancer there is increased ErbB2 production of receptor tyrosine kinase and Syrian hamsters with this cancer also have increased levels of that kinase9 As the tumor develops in the hamster, they also have increased gene expression in p53 and c-myc which is similar to human cancer development10 Because hamsters develop this cancer so predictably, researchers are comfortable in using hamsters in research on prevention and treatment11

There is scientific and social controversy about the virus SV40 causing cancers in human12 Leaving that controversy aside, Syrian hamsters injected with SV40 certainly will develop various cancers in predictable ways depending on how they are exposed to the virus13 The hamster has been used as a research model to clarify what SV40 does in humans14

The golden hamster can contract contagious reticulum cell sarcoma15 which can be transmitted from one golden hamster to another by means of the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti16

Metabolic disordersedit

Syrian hamsters are susceptible to many metabolic disorders which affect humans17 Because of this, hamsters are an excellent animal model for studying human metabolic disorder17

Gallstones may be induced in Syrian hamsters by giving the hamster excess dietary cholesterol or sucrose18 Hamsters metabolize cholesterol in a way that is similar to humans19 Different sorts of fats are more or less likely to produce gallstones in hamsters20 The gender differences in gallstone formation in hamsters is significant20 Hamsters of different genetic strains have significant differences in susceptibility to forming gallstones20

Diabetes mellitus is studied in various ways using Syrian hamsters Hamsters which are feed fructose for 7 days get hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia21 Such hamsters then have an increase in hepatic lipase and other measurable responses which are useful for understanding diabetes in humans21 Streptozotocin or alloxan may be administered to induce chronic diabetes in hamsters21

Atherosclerosis may be studied with Syrian hamsters because both organizations have similar lipid metabolism22 Hamsters develop atherosclerosis as a result of dietary manipulation22 Hamsters develop atherosclerotic plaques as humans do22

Non-cancer respiratory diseaseedit

Smoke inhalation can be studied on Syrian hamsters by putting the hamster in a laboratory smoking machine23 Pregnant hamsters have been used to model the effects of smoking on pregnant humans24

The emphysema component of COPD may be induced in hamsters by injecting pancreatic elastase into their tracheas25

Pulmonary fibrosis may be induced in hamsters by injecting bleomycin into their tracheas2627

Cardiovascularedit

Cardiomyopathy in hamsters is an inherited condition and there are genetic lines of hamsters which are bred to retain this gene so that they may be used to study the disease28

Microcirculation may be studied in hamster cheek pouches29 The pouches of hamsters are thin, easy to examine without stopping bloodflow, and highly vascular29 When examined, the cheek pouch is pulled through the mouth while being grasped with forceps30 At this point the cheek is everted and can be pinned onto a mount for examination30

Reperfusion injury may be studied with everted hamster pouches also31 To simulate reperfusion, one method is to tie a cuff around the pouch to restrict blood flow and cause ischemia32 Another method could be to compress the veins and arteries with microvascular clips which do not cause trauma33 In either case, after about an hour of restricting the blood, the pressure is removed to study how the pouch recovers34

Several inbred strains of hamsters have been developed as animal models for human forms of dilated cardiomyopathy The gene responsible for hamster cardiomyopathy in a widely studied inbred hamster strain, BIO146, has been identified as being delta-sarcoglycan35 Pet hamsters are also potentially prone to cardiomyopathy, which is a not infrequent cause of unexpected sudden death in adolescent or young adult hamsters

Infection researchedit

Syrian hamsters have been infected with a range of disease causing agents to study both the disease and the cause of the disease

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a medical condition in humans caused by any of the Hantavirus species Syrian hamsters easily contract Hantavirus species, but they do not get the same symptoms as humans, and the same infection that is deadly in humans have effects ranging from nothing to flu to death in Syrian hamsters36 Because hamsters become easily infected, they are used to study the pathogenesis of Hantavirus37 Andes virus and Maporal viruses infect hamsters and cause pneumonia and edema3839 The Sin Nombre virus and Choclo virus will infect hamsters but not cause any disease3640

SARS coronavirus causes severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans Syrian hamsters may be infected with the virus, and like humans will have viral replication and lesions in the respiratory tract which can be examined with histopathological tests41 However, hamsters do not develop clinical symptoms of the disease42 Hamsters might be used to study the infection process43

Leptospira viruses cause Leptospirosis in humans and similar symptoms in Syrian hamsters4144 Syrian hamsters are used to test drugs to treat the disease45

Bacteria which have been studied by infection Syrian hamsters with them include Leptospira, Clostridium difficile, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Treponema pallidum46

Parasites which have been studied by infecting Syrian hamsters with them include Toxoplasma gondii, Babesia microti, Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma cruzi, Opisthorchis viverrini, Taenia, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and Schistosoma47

Syrian hamsters are infected with scrapie so that they get transmissible spongiform encephalopathy 48

Other medical conditionsedit

Scientists use male hamsters to study the effects of steroids on male behavior49 The behavior of castrated hamsters is compared to typical male hamsters49 Castrated hamsters are then given steroids and their behavior noted49 Some steroid treatments will cause castrated hamsters to do behaviors that typical male hamsters do49

Poor nutrition may cause female infertility in mammals50 When hamsters do not have enough of the right food, they have fewer estrous cycles51 Studies in hamsters identify the nutritional needs for maintaining fertility52

Syrian hamsters are used to study how NSAIDs can cause reactive gastropathy53 One way to study is to inject hamsters with indometacin, which causes an ulcer within 1–5 hours depending on the dose54 If repeatedly given doses, hamsters get severe lesions and die within 5 days from peptic ulcers in their pyloric antrum54 A model for creating a chronically ill hamster which will not die from the ulcers is to give naproxen by gavage55 When the hamster is chronically ill, it can be used to test anti-ulcer drugs55

Syrian hamsters are also widely used in research into alcoholism, by virtue of their large livers, and ability to metabolise high doses56

Research on Syrian hamsters themselvesedit

In captivity, golden hamsters follow well-defined daily routines of running in their hamster wheel, which has made them popular subjects in circadian rhythms research For example, Martin Ralph, Michael Menaker, and colleagues used this behavior to provide definitive evidence that the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain is the source of mammalian circadian rhythms57

Hamsters have a number of fixed action patterns that are readily observed, including scent-marking and body grooming, which is of interest in the study of animal behavior

Scientific studies of animal welfare concerning captive golden hamsters have shown they prefer to use running wheels of large diameters 35 cm diameter was preferred over 23 cm,58 and 23  cm over 175  cm,59, and that they prefer bedding material which allows them to build nests, if nesting material is not already available60 They prefer lived-in bedding up to two weeks old – longer durations were not tested over new bedding, suggesting they may prefer bedding changes at two-week intervals rather than weekly or daily61 They also prefer opaque tubes closed at one end, 15 cm in diameter, to use as shelter in which to nest and sleep62

Notesedit

  1. ^ Valentine 2012, pp 875–898
  2. ^ a b Speaking of Research 2015, US Statistics, Speaking of Research, retrieved 18 April 2016 
  3. ^ a b Smith 2012, p 750
  4. ^ CCAC – CCAC Animal Data Report 2013
  5. ^ a b Valentine 2012, p 877 cites
    • Koletsis, Efstratios N; Prokakis, Christos; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Apostolakis, Efstratios; Dougenis, Dimitrios 2009 "Current role of surgery in small cell lung carcinoma" Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 4 1: 30 ISSN 1749-8090 doi:101186/1749-8090-4-30 
  6. ^ a b Valentine et al 2012, p 877
  7. ^ Valentine 2012, p 877 cites
    • Oreffo, VI; Lin, HW; Gumerlock, PH; Kraegel, SA; Witschi, H 1992 "Mutational analysis of a dominant oncogene c-Ki-ras-2 and a tumor suppressor gene p53 in hamster lung tumorigenesis" Molecular carcinogenesis 6 3: 199–202 PMID 1445620 doi:101002/mc2940060305 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Valentine 2012, pp 877–878 cites
    • Vairaktaris, E; Spyridonidou, S; Papakosta, V; Vylliotis, A; Lazaris, A; Perrea, D; Yapijakis, C; Patsouris, E April 2008 "The hamster model of sequential oral oncogenesis" Oral oncology 44 4: 315–24 PMID 18061531 doi:101016/joraloncology200708015 
  9. ^ Valentine 2012, pp 877–878 cites
    • Werkmeister, R; Brandt, B; Joos, U January 2000 "Clinical relevance of erbB-1 and -2 oncogenes in oral carcinomas" Oral oncology 36 1: 100–5 PMID 10889928 doi:101016/s1368-83759900069-x 
  10. ^ Valentine 2012, pp 877–878 cites
    • Papakosta, V; Vairaktaris, E; Vylliotis, A; Derka, S; Nkenke, E; Vassiliou, S; Lazaris, A; Mourouzis, C; Rallis, G; Spyridonidou, S; Anagnostopoulou, S; Perrea, D; Donta, I; Yapijakis, C; Patsouris, E nd "The co-expression of c-myc and p53 increases and reaches a plateau early in oral oncogenesis" Anticancer research 26 4B: 2957–62 PMID 16886620 
  11. ^ Valentine 2012, p 877-878 cites
    • Shklar, G December 1999 "Development of experimental oral carcinogenesis and its impact on current oral cancer research" Journal of dental research 78 12: 1768–72 PMID 10598904 
  12. ^ Valentine 2012, pp 877–878 cites
    • Pershouse, Mark A; Heivly, Shane; Girtsman, Teri 2006 "The Role of SV40 in Malignant Mesothelioma and Other Human Malignancies" Inhalation Toxicology 18 12: 995–1000 ISSN 0895-8378 PMID 16920674 doi:101080/08958370600835377 
  13. ^ Valentine 2012, p 878 cites
    • Cicala, C; Pompetti, F; Carbone, M May 1993 "SV40 induces mesotheliomas in hamsters" The American Journal of Pathology 142 5: 1524–33 PMC 1886912  PMID 8388174 
  14. ^ Valentine et al 2012, p 878
  15. ^ Copper, H L; MacKay, C M; Banfield, W G 1 October 1964 "Chromosome Studies of a Contagious Reticulum Cell Sarcoma of the Syrian Hamster" Journal of the National Cancer Institute 33: 691–706 PMID 14220251 doi:101093/jnci/334691 
  16. ^ Banfield, William G; Woke, P A; MacKay, C M; Cooper, H L 28 May 1965 "Mosquito Transmission of a Reticulum Cell Sarcoma of Hamsters" Science 148 3674: 1239–1240 PMID 14280009 doi:101126/science14836741239 
  17. ^ a b Valentine et al 2012, p 879 cites
    • Ginsberg, HN July 1996 "Diabetic dyslipidemia: basic mechanisms underlying the common hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels" Diabetes 45 Suppl 3: S27–30 PMID 8674885 doi:102337/diab453s27 
    • Gotto AM, Jr 14 December 1992 "Hypertriglyceridemia: risks and perspectives" The American journal of cardiology 70 19: 19H–25H PMID 1466313 
    • Laakso, Markku 2009 "Lipids and Lipoproteins as Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus" Annals of Medicine 28 4: 341–345 ISSN 0785-3890 doi:103109/07853899608999091 
    • Lamarche, B; Lewis, GF June 1998 "Atherosclerosis prevention for the next decade: risk assessment beyond low density lipoprotein cholesterol" The Canadian journal of cardiology 14 6: 841–51 PMID 9676170 
  18. ^ Valentine et al 2012, p 880 cites Trautwein, EA; Siddiqui, A; Hayes, KC September 1999 "Characterization of the bile acid profile in developing male and female hamsters in response to dietary cholesterol challenge" Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 124 1: 93–103 PMID 10605070 doi:101016/s1095-64339900095-1 
    • Cohen, BI; Matoba, N; Mosbach, EH; McSherry, CK February 1989 "Dietary induction of cholesterol gallstones in hamsters from three different sources" Lipids 24 2: 151–6 PMID 2755304 doi:101007/bf02535254 
  19. ^ Khallou, J; Riottot, M; Parquet, M; Verneau, C; Lutton, C November 1991 "Biodynamics of cholesterol and bile acids in the lithiasic hamster" The British journal of nutrition 66 3: 479–92 PMID 1772872 doi:101079/bjn19910049 
  20. ^ a b c Valentine & 2012 880
  21. ^ a b c Valentine 2012, p 881
  22. ^ a b c Valentine 2012, p 882
  23. ^ Valentine 2012, p 883
  24. ^ Magers, T; Talbot, P; DiCarlantonio, G; Knoll, M; Demers, D; Tsai, I; Hoodbhoy, T nd "Cigarette smoke inhalation affects the reproductive system of female hamsters" Reproductive toxicology Elmsford, NY 9 6: 513–25 PMID 8597648 doi:101016/0890-62389502002-0 
  25. ^ Valentine 2012, p 883 cites
    • Borzone, G; Liberona, L; Olmos, P; Sáez, C; Meneses, M; Reyes, T; Moreno, R; Lisboa, C September 2007 "Rat and hamster species differences in susceptibility to elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema relate to differences in elastase inhibitory capacity" American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 293 3: R1342–9 PMID 17634200 doi:101152/ajpregu003432007 
    • Hayes, JA; Christensen, TG; Snider, GL October 1977 "The hamster as a model of chronic bronchitis and emphysema in man" Laboratory animal science 27 5 Pt 2: 762–70 PMID 592728 
    • Snider, GL; Sherter, CB October 1977 "A one-year study of the evolution of elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters" Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 43 4: 721–9 PMID 908690 
  26. ^ Valentine 2012, p 884
  27. ^ Lazo, JS; Hoyt, DG; Sebti, SM; Pitt, BR 1990 "Bleomycin: a pharmacologic tool in the study of the pathogenesis of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis" Pharmacology & therapeutics 47 3: 347–58 PMID 1705351 doi:101016/0163-72589090061-6 
  28. ^ Valentine 2012, p 885
  29. ^ a b Valentine 2012, p 885 cites
    • Davis, MJ; Gore, RW January 1985 "A new preparation for microcirculatory studies of the hamster cheek pouch" The American journal of physiology 248 1 Pt 2: H143–6 PMID 3881981 
    • Kerger, H; Torres Filho, IP; Rivas, M; Winslow, RM; Intaglietta, M February 1995 "Systemic and subcutaneous microvascular oxygen tension in conscious Syrian golden hamsters" The American journal of physiology 268 2 Pt 2: H802–10 PMID 7864208 
    • Klitzman, B; Popel, AS; Duling, BR January 1983 "Oxygen transport in resting and contracting hamster cremaster muscles: experimental and theoretical microvascular studies" Microvascular research 25 1: 108–31 PMID 6835096 doi:101016/0026-28628390047-x 
    • Svensjö, E December 1990 "The hamster cheek pouch as a model in microcirculation research" The European respiratory journal Supplement 12: 595s–600s; discussion 600s–601s PMID 2076153 
  30. ^ a b Davis, MJ; Gore, RW January 1985 "A new preparation for microcirculatory studies of the hamster cheek pouch" The American journal of physiology 248 1 Pt 2: H143–6 PMID 3881981 
  31. ^ Valentine 2012, pp 886–7
  32. ^ Persson, NH; Erlansson, M; Svensjö, E; Takolander, R; Bergqvist, D 1985 "The hamster cheek pouch – an experimental model to study postischemic macromolecular permeability" International journal of microcirculation, clinical and experimental 4 3: 257–63 PMID 2415477 
  33. ^ Bertuglia, S; Marchiafava, PL; Colantuoni, A June 1996 "Melatonin prevents ischemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation" Cardiovascular research 31 6: 947–52 PMID 8759251 doi:101016/0008-63639600030-2 
  34. ^ Valentine, 2012 & 886-7
  35. ^ Nigro, V; Okazaki, Y; Belsito, A; Piluso, G; Matsuda, Y; Politano, L; Nigro, G; Ventura, C; et al 1997 "Identification of the Syrian hamster cardiomyopathy gene" Human Molecular Genetics 6 4: 601–607 PMID 9097966 doi:101093/hmg/64601 
  36. ^ a b Valentine et al 2012, p 887
  37. ^ Hooper, JW; Larsen, T; Custer, DM; Schmaljohn, CS 10 October 2001 "A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome" Virology 289 1: 6–14 PMID 11601912 doi:101006/viro20011133 
  38. ^ McElroy, AK; Smith, JM; Hooper, JW; Schmaljohn, CS 15 August 2004 "Andes virus M genome segment is not sufficient to confer the virulence associated with Andes virus in Syrian hamsters" Virology 326 1: 130–9 PMID 15262501 doi:101016/jvirol200405018 
  39. ^ Milazzo, ML; Eyzaguirre, EJ; Molina, CP; Fulhorst, CF 15 November 2002 "Maporal viral infection in the Syrian golden hamster: a model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome" The Journal of Infectious Diseases 186 10: 1390–5 PMID 12404153 doi:101086/344735 
  40. ^ Eyzaguirre, EJ; Milazzo, ML; Koster, FT; Fulhorst, CF April 2008 "Choclo virus infection in the Syrian golden hamster" The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 78 4: 669–74 PMC 2689364  PMID 18385367 
  41. ^ a b Valentine et al 2012, p 888
  42. ^ Roberts, A; Vogel, L; Guarner, J; Hayes, N; Murphy, B; Zaki, S; Subbarao, K January 2005 "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of golden Syrian hamsters" Journal of Virology 79 1: 503–11 PMC 538722  PMID 15596843 doi:101128/jvi791503-5112005 
  43. ^ Schaecher, SR; Stabenow, J; Oberle, C; Schriewer, J; Buller, RM; Sagartz, JE; Pekosz, A 25 October 2008 "An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection" Virology 380 2: 312–21 PMC 3722600  PMID 18760437 doi:101016/jvirol200807026 
  44. ^ Silva, Éverton F; Santos, Cleiton S; Athanazio, Daniel A; Seyffert, Núbia; Seixas, Fabiana K; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Fagundes, Michel Q; Brod, Claudiomar S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Dellagostin, Odir A; Ko, Albert I 2008 "Characterization of virulence of Leptospira isolates in a hamster model" Vaccine 26 31: 3892–3896 ISSN 0264-410X PMC 2519131  PMID 18547690 doi:101016/jvaccine200804085 
  45. ^ Moon, JE; Rivard, RG; Griffith, ME; Ressner, RA; McCall, S; Reitstetter, RE; Hospenthal, DR; Murray, CK January 2007 "Effect of timing and duration of azithromycin therapy of leptospirosis in a hamster model" The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 59 1: 148–51 PMID 17110394 doi:101093/jac/dkl453 
  46. ^ Valentine et al 2012, pp 888–890
  47. ^ Valentine et al 2012, pp 891–894
  48. ^ Prusiner, SB; Cochran, SP; Groth, DF; Downey, DE; Bowman, KA; Martinez, HM April 1982 "Measurement of the scrapie agent using an incubation time interval assay" Annals of Neurology 11 4: 353–8 PMID 6808890 doi:101002/ana410110406 
  49. ^ a b c d Valentine et al 2012, p 895
  50. ^ Valentine et al 2012, p 896 cites
    • FH, Bronson, 1989 Mammalian Reproductive Biology London: University of Chicago Press ISBN 9780226075594 
  51. ^ Valentine et al 2012, p 896 cites
    • Wade, GN; Schneider, JE; Li, HY January 1996 "Control of fertility by metabolic cues" The American journal of physiology 270 1 Pt 1: E1–19 PMID 8772468 
  52. ^ Valentine et al 2012, p 896
  53. ^ Valentine et al 2012, pp 897–898
  54. ^ a b Valentine et al 2012, p 897 cites
    • Kolbasa, KP; Lancaster, C; Olafsson, AS; Gilbertson, SK; Robert, A October 1988 "Indomethacin-induced gastric antral ulcers in hamsters" Gastroenterology 95 4: 932–44 PMID 3165897 doi:101016/0016-50858890166-7 
  55. ^ a b Valentine 2012, p 897 cites
    • Fitzpatrick, LR; Sakurai, K; Le, T November 1999 "Effect of naproxen on the hamster gastric antrum: ulceration, adaptation and efficacy of anti-ulcer drugs" Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 13 11: 1553–62 PMID 10571615 doi:101046/j1365-2036199900624x 
    • Dajani, EZ; Agrawal, NM March 1995 "Prevention and treatment of ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: an update" Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 46 1: 3–16 PMID 7599335 
  56. ^ Alcohol: an ancient medicine New York Times Nathalie Angier 11 September 2007
  57. ^ Ralph, MR, et al, Transplanted Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Determines Circadian Period Science, 1990 2474945: pp 975–978
  58. ^ Reebs, S G; St-Onge, P 2005 "Running wheel choice by Syrian hamsters" Laboratory Animals 39 4: 442–451 PMID 16197712 doi:101258/002367705774286493 
  59. ^ Mrosovsky, N; Salmon, PA; Vrang, N 1998 "Revolutionary science: an improved running wheel for hamsters" Chronobiology International 15 2: 147–158 PMID 9562919 doi:103109/07420529808998679 
  60. ^ Lanteigne, M; Reebs, SG 2006 "Preference for bedding material in Syrian hamsters" Laboratory Animals 40 4: 410–418 PMID 17018212 doi:101258/002367706778476424 
  61. ^ Veillette, M; Reebs, SG 2010 "Preference of Syrian hamsters to nest in old versus new bedding" Applied Animal Behaviour Science 125 3–4: 189–194 doi:101016/japplanim201004001 
  62. ^ Veillette, M; Reebs, SG 2011 "Shelter choice by Syrian hamsters Mesocricetus auratus in the laboratory" Animal Welfare 20: 603–611 

Referencesedit

  • Smith, Gerald D 2012 "Hamsters – Taxonomy and History" In Suckow, Mark A; Stevens, Karla A; Wilson, Ronald P The laboratory rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, and other rodents 1st ed Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press pp 747–753 ISBN 0123809207 
  • Valentine, Helen; Daugherity, Erin K; Singh, Bhupinder; Maurer, Kirk J 2012 "The Experimental Use of Syrian Hamsters" In Suckow, Mark A; Stevens, Karla A; Wilson, Ronald P The laboratory rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, and other rodents 1st ed Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press pp 875–898 ISBN 0123809207 

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