Korean People's Army


The Korean People's Army KPA; Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군; Chosŏn inmin'gun constitutes the military force of North Korea and, under the Songun policy, the central institution of North Korean society Kim Jong-un is the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army and Chairman of the Central Military Commission The KPA defence force consists of five branches: Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Strategic Rocket Forces, and the Special Operation Force The Worker-Peasant Red Guards also come under control of the KPA

The KPA faces its primary adversaries, the Republic of Korea Armed Forces and United States Forces Korea, across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, as it has since the Armistice Agreement of July 1953 As of 2016update, with 5,889,000 paramilitary personnel, it is the largest paramilitary organization on Earth This number represents 25% of the North Korean population67

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Conflicts and events
  • 2 Organization
    • 21 Commission and leadership
    • 22 Conscription and terms of service
      • 221 Paramilitary organizations
    • 23 Budget and commercial interests
  • 3 Service branches
    • 31 People's Ground Force
    • 32 People's Navy
    • 33 People's Army Air Force and Air Defence Forces
    • 34 People's Strategic Rocket Forces
    • 35 Worker-Peasant Red Guard Militia
  • 4 Capabilities
  • 5 Military equipment
    • 51 Weapons
    • 52 Chemical weapons
    • 53 Nuclear weapons
      • 531 Nuclear tests
      • 532 Other
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

Historyedit

A monument in Pyongyang, depicting North Korean airmen and a MiG fighter

North Korea officially dates the foundation of the KPA back to the establishment of Kim Il-sung's anti-Japanese guerrilla army In 1978, "Military Foundation Day" was changed from 8 February to 25 April, the nominal day of establishment of this army in 19328

In 1939, the Korean Volunteer Army KVA, was formed in Yan'an, China The two individuals responsible for the army were Kim Tu-bong and Mu Chong At the same time, a school was established near Yan'an for training military and political leaders for a future independent Korea By 1945, the KVA had grown to approximately 1,000 men, mostly Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms and ammunition After the defeat of the Japanese, the KVA accompanied the Chinese communist forces into eastern Jilin, intending to gain recruits from ethnic Koreans in China, particularly from Yanbian, and then enter Korea9 By September 1945, the KVA had a 2,500 strong force at its disposalcitation needed

Just after World War II and during the Soviet Union's occupation of the part of Korea north of the 38th Parallel, the Soviet 25th Army headquarters in Pyongyang issued a statement ordering all armed resistance groups in the northern part of the peninsula to disband on 12 October 1945 Two thousand Koreans with previous experience in the Soviet army were sent to various locations around the country to organize constabulary forces with permission from Soviet military headquarters, and the force was created on 21 October 194510

The headquarters felt a need for a separate unit for security around railways, and the formation of the unit was announced on 11 January 1946 That unit was activated on 15 August of the same year to supervise existing security forces and creation of the national armed forces10

Military institutes such as the Pyongyang Academy became No 2 KPA Officers School in Jan 1949 and the Central Constabulary Academy became KPA Military Academy in Dec 1948 soon followed for education of political and military officers for the new armed forces

After the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean People's Army General Headquarters The previously semi-official units became military regulars with distribution of Soviet uniforms, badges, and weapons that followed the inception of the headquarters10

The State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of People's Defense, was created as part of the Interim People's Committee on 4 February 1948 The formal creation of the Korean People's Army was announced on four days later on 8 February, the day after the Fourth Plenary Session of the People’s Assembly approved the plan to separate the roles of the military and those of the police,11 seven months before the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed on 9 September 1948 In addition, the Ministry of State for the People's Armed Forces was established, which controlled a central guard battalion, two divisions, and an independent mixed and combined arms brigade10

Conflicts and eventsedit

The Memorial of Soldiers at the Mansudae Grand Monument

Before the outbreak of the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern tanks, trucks, artillery, and small arms at the time, the South Korean Army had nothing remotely comparable either in numbers of troops or equipment During the opening phases of the Korean War in 1950, the KPA quickly drove South Korean forces south and captured Seoul, only to lose 70,000 of their 100,000-strong army in the autumn after US amphibious landings at the Battle of Incheon and a subsequent drive to the Yalu River On 4 November, China openly staged a military intervention On 7 December, Kim Il-sung was deprived of the right of command of KPA by China12 The KPA subsequently played a secondary minor role to Chinese forces in the remainder of the conflict By the time of the Armistice in 1953, the KPA had sustained 290,000 casualties and lost 90,000 men as POWs

In 1953, the Military Armistice Commission MAC was able to oversee and enforce the terms of the armistice The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission NNSC, originally made up of delegations from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary on the Communist side, and Sweden and Switzerland on the United Nations side, monitored the activities of the MAC

Soviet thinking on the strategic scale was replaced since December 1962 with a people's war concept The Soviet idea of direct warfare was replaced with a Maoist war of attrition strategy Along with the mechanization of some infantry units, more emphasis was put on light weapons, high-angle indirect fire, night fighting, and sea denial13

Organizationedit

North Korean soldier, 2005

Commission and leadershipedit

The primary path for command and control of the KPA extends through the State Affairs Commission which was led by its chairman Kim Jong-il until 2011, to the Ministry of People's Armed Forces and its General Staff Department14 From there on, command and control flows to the various bureaus and operational units A secondary path, to ensure political control of the military establishment, extends through the Workers' Party of Korea's Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea

Since 1990, numerous and dramatic transformations within the DPRK have led to the current command and control structure The details of the majority of these changes are simply unknown to the world What little is known indicates that many changes were the natural result of the deaths of the aging leadership including Kim Il-sung July 1994, Minister of People's Armed Forces O Chin-u February 1995 and Minister of People's Armed Forces Choi Kwang February 1997

The vast majority of changes were undertaken to secure the power and position of Kim Jong-il Formerly the State Affairs Commission, from its founding in 1972 originally the National Defence Commission, was part of the Central People's Committee while the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces, from 1982 onward, was under direct presidential control At the Eighteenth session of the sixth Central People's Committee, held on 23 May 1990, the SAC became established as its own independent commission, rising to the same status as the CPC now the Cabinet of North Korea and not subordinated to it, as was the case before Concurrent with this, Kim Jong-il was appointed first vice-chairman of the State Affairs Commission The following year, on 24 December 1991, Kim Jong-il was appointed Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army Four months later, on 20 April 1992, Kim Jong-il was awarded the rank of Marshal and his father, in virtue of being the KPA's founding commander in chief, became Grand Marshal as a result and one year later he became the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission, by now under Supreme People's Assembly control under the then 1992 constitution as amended

Almost all officers of the KPA have begun their military careers as privates; only very few people are admitted to a military academy without prior service The results is an egalitarian military system where officers are familiar with the life of a military private and "military nobility" is all but nonexistent15

Within the KPA, between December 1991 and December 1995, nearly 800 high officers out of approximately 1,200 received promotions and preferential assignments Three days after Kim Jong-il became Marshal, eight generals were appointed to the rank of Vice-Marshal In April 1997, on the 85th anniversary of Kim Il-sung's birthday, Kim Jong-il promoted 127 general and admiral grade officers The following April he ordered the promotions of another 22 generals and flag officers Along with these changes many KPA officers were appointed to influential positions within the Korean Workers' Party These promotions continue today, simultaneous with the celebration of Kim Il-sung's birthday and the KPA anniversary celebrations every April and since recently in July to honor the end of the Korean War Under Kim Jong-il's leadership, political officers dispatched from the party monitored every move of a general’s daily life, according to analysts16 similar to the work of Soviet political commissars during the early and middle years of the military establishment

Today the KPA exercises full control of both the Politburo and the Central Military Commission of the WPK, the KPA General Political and General Staff Departments and the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces, all having KPA representatives with a minimum general officer rank Following changes made during the 4th session of the 13th Supreme People’s Assembly on 29 June, 2016, the State Affairs Commission has overseen the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces as part of its systemic responsibilities All members of the State Affairs Commission have membership status regular or alternate on the WPK Political Bureau

Conscription and terms of serviceedit

Korean People's Army soldiers

North Korea has universal conscription for males and selective conscription for females with many pre- and post-service requirementscitation needed Article 86 of the North Korean Constitution states: "National defence is the supreme duty and honour of citizens Citizens shall defend the country and serve in the armed forces as required by law"17

KPA soldiers serve a minimum of 10 years of military service in the KPA, which also runs its own factories, farms and trading arms16

Paramilitary organizationsedit

The Young Red Guards are the youth cadet corps of the KPA for secondary level and university level students Every Saturday, they hold mandatory 4-hour military training drills, and have training activities on and off campus to prepare them for military service when they turn 18 or after graduation, as well as for contingency measures in peacetime

Under the Ministry of People's Security and the wartime control of the Ministry of People's Armed Forces, and formerly the Korean People's Security Forces, the Korean People's Internal Security Forces forms the national gendarmerie and civil defense force of the KPA The KPISF has its units in various fields like civil defense, traffic management, civil disturbance control, and local security It has its own special forces units The service shares the ranks of the KPA with the exception of Marshals but wears different uniforms

Budget and commercial interestsedit

The KPA's annual budget is approximately US$6 billion The US Institute for Science and International Security reports that the DPRK may possess fissile material for around two to nine nuclear warheads18 The North Korean Songun "Military First" policy elevates the KPA to the primary position in the government and society

Korean People's Army vehicles on parade

According to North Korea's state news agency, military expenditures for 2010 made up 158 percent of the state budget19 Most analyses of North Korea’s defense sector, however, estimate that defense spending constitutes between one-quarter and one-third of all government spending As of 2003, according to the International Institute of Strategic Studies, North Korea’s defense budget consumed some 25 percent of central government spending20 In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, according to figures released by the Polish Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, between 32 and 38 percent of central government expenditures went towards defense21

Vice Marshal Jo Myong-rok meets Bill Clinton at the White House, October 2000

North Korea sells missiles and military equipment to many countries worldwide22 In April 2009, the United Nations named the Korea Mining and Development Trading Corporation KOMID as North Korea's primary arms dealer and main exporter of equipment related to ballistic missiles and conventional weapons It also named Korea Ryonbong as a supporter of North Korea's military related sales23

Historically, North Korea has assisted a vast number of revolutionary, insurgent and terrorist groups in more than 62 countries A cumulative total of more than 5,000 foreign personnel have been trained in North Korea, and over 7,000 military advisers, primarily from the Reconnaissance Bureau, have been dispatched to some forty-seven countries Some of the organisations which received North Korean aid include the Polisario Front, Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, the Communist Party of Thailand, the Palestine Liberation Organization and the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution The Zimbabwean Fifth Brigade received its initial training from KPA instructors24 North Korean troops allegedly saw combat during the Libyan–Egyptian War and the Angolan Civil War25 Up to 200 KPAF pilots took part in the Vietnam War,26 scoring several kills against US aircraft272829 Two KPA anti-aircraft artillery regiments were sent to North Vietnam as well30

North Korean instructors trained Hezbollah fighters in guerrilla warfare tactics around 2004, prior to the Second Lebanon War31 During the Syrian Civil War, Arabic-speaking KPA officers may have assisted the Syrian Arab Army in military operations planning and have supervised artillery bombardments in the Aleppo area32

Service branchesedit

People's Ground Forceedit

Koksan, one of North Korea's principal heavy artillery pieces This example was captured in Iraq DPRK soldiers standing at the JSA between the blue buildings Main article: Korean People's Army Ground Force

The Korean People's Army Ground Force KPAGF is the main branch of the Korean People's Army responsible for land-based military operations It is the de facto army of North Korea

People's Navyedit

Main article: Korean People's Navy

The Korean People's Navy is organized into two fleets which are not able to support each other The East Fleet is headquartered at T'oejo-dong and the West Fleet at Nampho A number of training, shipbuilding and maintenance units and a naval air wing report directly to Naval Command Headquarters at Pyongyang33 The majority of the navy's ships are assigned to the East Fleet Due to the short range of most ships, the two fleets are not known to have ever conducted joint operations or shared vessels34

People's Army Air Force and Air Defence Forcesedit

A former Indonesian Lim-5 on display in the United States in North Korean markings Main article: Korean People's Army Air Force

The KPAF is also responsible for North Korea's air defence forces through the use of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air SAM missiles While much of the equipment is outdated, the high saturation of multilayered, overlapping, mutually supporting air defence sites provides a formidable challenge to enemy air attacks35

People's Strategic Rocket Forcesedit

Main article: Strategic Rocket Forces North Korea

The Korean People's Strategic Rocket Forces is a major division of the KPA that controls the DPRK's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles It is mainly equipped with surface-to-surface missiles of Soviet and Chinese design, as well as locally developed long-range missiles

Worker-Peasant Red Guard Militiaedit

Main article: Worker-Peasant Red Guards

The Red Guards 1997 complement 35 million is the DPRK equivalent of an Army Reserve US/Home Guard UK/National Guard US/Territorial Army UK As a part of the Ministry of the People's Armed Forces, its service flag enjoys the same status as that of the other services With units organized from University level down to the village level made of part-time national servicemen and women from all walks of life, it provides the Korean People's Army with a ready-available pool of trained reinforcements during both peacetime and wartime deployments As part of its responsibilities as a national militia, the WPRG also reports to the Workers' Party of Korea's Military Affairs Department until 2010 it reported also to the Civil Defense Department

Capabilitiesedit

Semi-submersible infiltration craft used by North Korean Special Forcescitation needed

After the Korean War, North Korea maintained a powerful, but smaller military force than that of South Korea In 1967 the KPA forces of about 345,000 were much smaller than the South Korean ground forces of about 585,00036 North Korea's relative isolation and economic plight starting from the 1980s has now tipped the balance of military power into the hands of the better-equipped South Korean military22 In response to this predicament, North Korea relies on asymmetric warfare techniques and unconventional weaponry to achieve parity against high-tech enemy forces22 North Korea is reported to have developed a wide range of technologies towards this end, such as stealth paint to conceal ground targets,37 midget submarines and human torpedoes,38 blinding laser weapons,39 and probably has a chemical weapons program and is likely to possess a stockpile of chemical weapons40 The Korean People's Army operates ZM-87 anti-personnel lasers, which are banned under the United Nations Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons39

Since the 1980s, North Korea has also been actively developing its own cyber warfare capabilities As of 2014, the secretive Bureau 121 - the elite North Korean cyber warfare unit - comprises approximately 1,800 highly trained hackers In December 2014, the Bureau was accused of hacking Sony and making threats, leading to the cancellation of The Interview, a comedy based on the assassination of Kim Jong-un4142 The Korean People's Army has also made advances in electronic warfare by developing GPS jammers43 Current models include vehicle-mounted jammers with a range of 50 kilometres 31 mi-100 kilometres 62 mi Jammers with a range of more than 100 km are being developed, along with electromagnetic pulse bombs44 The Korean People's Army has also made attempts to jam South Korean military satellites45

Despite the general fuel and ammunition shortages for training, it is estimated that the wartime strategic reserves of food for the army are sufficient to feed the regular troops for 500 days, while fuel and ammunition - amounting to 15 million and 17 million tonnes respectively - are sufficient to wage a full-scale war for 100 days46

The KPA does not operate aircraft carriers, but has other means of power projection Korean People's Air Force Il-76MD aircraft provide a strategic airlift capacity of 6,000 troops, while the Navy's sea lift capacity amounts to 15,000 troops47 The Strategic Rocket Forces operate more than 1,000 ballistic missiles according to South Korean officials in 2010,48 although the US Department of Defense reported in 2012 that North Korea has fewer than 200 missile launchers40 North Korea acquired 12 Foxtrot class and Golf-II class missile submarines as scrap in 199349 Some analysts suggest that these have either been refurbished with the help of Russian experts or their launch tubes have been reverse-engineered and externally fitted to regular submarines or cargo ships50 However GlobalSecurity reports that the submarines were rust-eaten hulks with the launch tubes inactivated under Russian observation before delivery,51 and the US Department of Defense does not list them as active40

A photograph of Kim Jong-un receiving a briefing from his top generals on 29 March 2013 showed a list that purported to show that the military had a minimum of 40 submarines, 13 landing ships, 6 minesweepers, 27 support vessels and 1,852 aircraft52

The Korean People's Army operates a very large amount of equipment, including 4,100 tanks, 2,100 APCs, 8,500 field artillery pieces, 5,100 multiple rocket launchers,40 11,000 air defense guns and some 10,000 MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles53 in the Ground force; about 500 vessels in the Navy40 and 730 combat aircraft in the Air Force,40 of which 478 are fighters and 180 are bombers54 North Korea also has the largest special forces in the world, as well as the largest submarine fleet55 The equipment is a mixture of World War II vintage vehicles and small arms, widely proliferated Cold War technology, and more modern Soviet or locally produced weapons

North Korea possesses thousands of artillery pieces along the Korean Demilitarized Zone It is generally accepted that a pre-emptive or a retaliatory strike on South Korea, using their vast arsenal of Artillery along the Demilitarized Zone, would result in an enormous amount of casualties in a very short period of time This has prompted the United States and their allies to look for a diplomatic solution instead of Military Action

Military equipmentedit

Weaponsedit

The KPA possess a variety of Chinese and Soviet sourced equipment, as well as locally produced versions and improvements of the former56 Soldiers are mostly armed with indigenous Kalashnikov-type rifles as the standard issue weapon Front line troops are issued the Type 88, while the older Type 58 assault rifle and Type 68A/B have been shifted to rear echelon or home guard units57 A rifle of unknown nomenclature was seen during the 2017 'Day of the Sun' military parade, appearing to consist of a grenade launcher and a standard assault rifle, similar to the US OICW or South Korean S&T Daewoo K1158 North Korea generally designates rifles as "Type XX", similar to the Chinese naming system

Chemical weaponsedit

Main article: North Korea and weapons of mass destruction

The US Department of Defense believes North Korea probably has a chemical weapons program and is likely to possess a stockpile of weapons40

Nuclear weaponsedit

Nuclear testsedit

Main article: North Korean nuclear program

On 9 October 2006, the North Korean government announced that it had unsuccessfully fulfilled a nuclear test for the first time Experts at the United States Geological Survey and other Japanese seismological authorities detected an earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 43 from the site in North Korea, proving the official claims to be true59

North Korea also went on to claim that it had developed a nuclear weapon in 2009 It is widely believed to possess a small stockpile of relatively simple nuclear weapons The IAEA has met with Ri Je Son, The Director General of the General Department of Atomic Energy GDAE of DPRK, to discuss nuclear matters6061 Ri Je Son was also mentioned in this role in 2002 in a United Nations article62

2006 North Korean nuclear test 2009 North Korean nuclear test 2013 North Korean nuclear test January 2016 North Korean nuclear test September 2016 North Korean nuclear test

Otheredit

Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground Ryanggang explosion Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center Songun Asymmetric warfare The launching of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 in 2012

See alsoedit

  • North Korea portal
  • Korean conflict
  • Republic of Korea Armed Forces
  • Songun

Notesedit

  1. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies 2010-02-03 Hackett, James, ed The Military Balance 2010 London: Routledge ISBN 1-85743-557-5 
  2. ^ "Archived copy" Archived from the original on 6 July 2010 Retrieved 2010-05-10  World Wide Military Expenditures
  3. ^ Pike, John "Military Spending" wwwglobalsecurityorg Archived from the original on 6 February 2017 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  4. ^ "North Korea in financial trouble after blowing $100 million on tributes to dead leader Kim Jong-il" Archived from the original on 6 March 2016 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  5. ^ "North Korea Exports $100 Million a Year in Arms, UN Report Says" Bloomberg 10 November 2010 Archived from the original on 5 January 2015 
  6. ^ UNFPA 1 October 2009 한반도 인구 7천400만명 시대 임박 in Korean United Nations Archived from the original on 24 May 2013 Retrieved 21 November 2012 
  7. ^ "Archived copy" PDF Archived from the original PDF on 31 March 2010 Retrieved 2011-02-19 
  8. ^ See "Puk chuyo’gi’nyŏm’il 5-10 nyŏnmada taegyumo yŏlpyŏngsik" North Korea Holds Large Military Parades for Anniversaries Every 5-10 years, Chosŏn Ilbo, 25 April 2007; Chang Jun-ik, "Pukhan Inmingundaesa" History of the North Korean Military, Seoul, Sŏmundang, 1991, pp 19-88; Kim Kwang-su, "Chosŏninmingun’ŭi ch’angsŏlgwa palchŏn, 1945~1990" Foundation and Development of the Korean People’s Army, 1945~1990, Chapter Two in Kyŏngnam University North Korean Studies Graduate School, Pukhan’gunsamunje’ŭi chaejomyŏng The Military of North Korea: A New Look, Seoul, Hanul Academy, 2006, pp 63-78
  9. ^ Elleman, Bruce Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia Routledge 2014 pp 116-117
  10. ^ a b c d Scobell, Andrew; Sandford, John M April 2007 "North Korea's Military Threat" PDF Strategic Studies Institute Archived PDF from the original on 10 February 2014 Retrieved 8 September 2014 
  11. ^ James M Minnich, The North Korean People’s Army, p 36
  12. ^ Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, MAO: The Unknown Story
  13. ^ "The Evolution of North Korean Military Thought" North Korea Country Study Library of Congress Country Studies 1993 
  14. ^ United States Department of Defense Virtual Information Center, North Korea Primer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine accessed 27 June 2011
  15. ^ Tertitskiy, Fyodor 6 June 2016 "The good things in North Korea" NK News Archived from the original on 17 June 2016 Retrieved 20 July 2016 
  16. ^ a b Sang-hun, Choe 24 December 2011 "Kim Jong-un Hailed as Supreme Commander of North Korea’s Military" Archived from the original on 20 December 2016 Retrieved 11 June 2017 – via NYTimescom 
  17. ^ "Chapter V, Article 86" Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea PDF Pyongyang: Foreign Languages Publishing House 2014 p 18 ISBN 978-9946-0-1099-1 Archived from the original on 8 June 2016 Amended and supplemented on April 1, Juche 102 2013, at the Seventh Session of the Twelfth Supreme People's Assembly 
  18. ^ ISIS Fast Facts on North Korea Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine; accessed 21 April 2009
  19. ^ "Report on Implementation of 2009 Budget and 2010 Budget" Korean Central News Agency 9 April 2010 Archived from the original on 29 April 2011 
  20. ^ Military Balance, 2004-2005, pp 353-357
  21. ^ Scobell, Going Out of Business, p 14, Table 2, p 17
  22. ^ a b c Bradley Martin, Bradley Martin 25 March 2013 "The Regime That Will Not Die: The North Korean Hybrid Threat" International Affairs Review Archived from the original on 28 March 2013 Retrieved 26 March 2013 
  23. ^ "UN Listing of KOMID and Ryonbong" PDF Archived PDF from the original on 3 November 2012 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  24. ^ "Relations with the Third World" North Korea Country Study Library of Congress Country Studies 1993 
  25. ^ "Angola - Foreign Influences" Country-datacom Archived from the original on 10 May 2012 Retrieved 2012-08-17 
  26. ^ Asia Times, 18 August 2006, Richard M Bennett Missiles and madness
  27. ^ "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 1" Archived from the original on 9 February 2013 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  28. ^ "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 2 ACIGorg" Archived from the original on 4 March 2013 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  29. ^ "Far Eastern Air-to-Air Victories ACIGorg" Archived from the original on 26 February 2014 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  30. ^ Pribbenow, Merle 2003 "The 'Ology War: technology and ideology in the defense of Hanoi, 1967" Journal of Military History 67:1: 183 
  31. ^ Farquhar, Scott Back to Basics: A Study of the Second Lebanon War and Operation CAST LEAD PDF Combat Studies Institute Press p 9 Archived PDF from the original on 13 October 2011 
  32. ^ "NKorean Officers 'Helping Syrian Gov't Forces'" The Chosun Ilbo 5 June 2013 Archived from the original on 13 August 2013 Retrieved 26 August 2013 
  33. ^ Bermudez 2001, pg 93–95
  34. ^ Bermudez 2001, pg 101
  35. ^ "Air Defense" North Korea Country Study Library of Congress Country Studies 1993 
  36. ^ North Korean Intentions and Capabilities With Respect to South Korea PDF Report CIA 21 September 1967 p 7,11 SNIE 142-67 Retrieved 13 March 2017 
  37. ^ North Korea 'develops stealth paint to camouflage fighter jets' Archived 16 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph, 23 August 2010
  38. ^ North Korea's Human Torpedoes Archived 30 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine, DailyNK, 06-05-2010
  39. ^ a b North Korea's military aging but sizable Archived 3 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, CNN, 25 November 2010
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Military and Security Developments Involving the Democratic People's Republic of Korea PDF Report US Department of Defense 2012 Archived PDF from the original on 10 June 2013 Retrieved 23 May 2013 
  41. ^ Gardener, Josh 5 December 2014 "Inside the secretive world of Bureau 121: The North Korean genius state-sponsored hackers believed to be behind the Sony take-down" Daily Mail London: Reuters, Associated Press Archived from the original on 18 December 2014 Retrieved 19 December 2014 
  42. ^ Pearson, James; Park, Ju-min 5 December 2014 "In North Korea, hackers are a handpicked, pampered elite" Reuters Archived from the original on 19 December 2014 Retrieved 19 December 2014 
  43. ^ "North Korea Appears Capable of Jamming GPS Receivers" globalsecurityorg 7 October 2010 Archived from the original on 6 July 2014 Retrieved 8 September 2012 
  44. ^ "NKorea Developing High-Powered GPS Jammer" The Chosun Ilbo 7 September 2011 Archived from the original on 24 September 2012 Retrieved 8 September 2012 
  45. ^ "Satellite in Alleged NK Jamming Attack" Daily NK 15 November 2012 Archived from the original on 6 October 2014 Retrieved 12 December 2012 
  46. ^ Lawmaker Points to 1 Million Tons of War Rice Archived 10 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, DailyNK, 7 April 2011
  47. ^ 2009 North Korea Country Study, p 252
  48. ^ Kim, Jack 17 March 2010 "North Korea has 1,000 missiles, South says" Reuters Archived from the original on 16 October 2015 
  49. ^ "North Korea's New Missiles" International Assessment and Strategy Center 20 September 2004 Archived from the original on 9 November 2012 Retrieved 8 September 2012 
  50. ^ "North Korea Develops a Submarine Missile With Shooting Range 2,500km" DailyNK 2 July 2007 Archived from the original on 19 November 2012 Retrieved 8 September 2012 
  51. ^ "SSG Golf Class" GlobalSecurity Archived from the original on 8 April 2013 Retrieved 14 June 2013 
  52. ^ "N Korea's photo offers glimpse of major weapons" Yonhap 29 March 2013 Archived from the original on 1 April 2013 Retrieved 29 March 2013 
  53. ^ Армии стран мира : К Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, soldieringru
  54. ^ Order of Battle – North Korea Archived 8 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, MilAviaPress
  55. ^ North Korea Country Study 2009 Archived 2 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Library of Congress, pp288-293 on PDF reader
  56. ^ Bird, Mike "This is the military equipment that the North Korean military's packing" Business Insider Archived from the original on 4 August 2016 Retrieved 30 May 2017 
  57. ^ Shea, Dan "North Korean Small Arms" Small Arms Defense Journal Archived from the original on 14 June 2017 Retrieved 30 May 2017 
  58. ^ F, Nathaniel 21 April 2017 "North Korean "OICW" Combined Assault Rifle and Automatic Grenade Launcher Revealed During Day of the Sun Parade - The Firearm Blog" The Firearm Blog Archived from the original on 19 June 2017 
  59. ^ Magnitude 43—North Korea 2006 October 09 01:35:28 UTC Report United States Geological Survey USGS 9 October 2006 Archived from the original on 27 April 2014 Retrieved 1 December 2010 
  60. ^ Application of Safeguards in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Archived 25 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine IAEA - Board of Governors General Conference
  61. ^ http://wwwwashingtontimescom, The Washington Times "Nuke agency wary of N Korea’s invitation" Archived from the original on 27 February 2017 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  62. ^ Section, United Nations News Service 12 December 2002 "UN News - DPR of Korea informs IAEA of intent to lift 'freeze' on nuclear power plants" UN News Service Section Archived from the original on 11 April 2016 Retrieved 11 June 2017 
  •  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army document "North Korea's Military Threat"

Referencesedit

  • Bermudez, Joseph S 2001 Shield of the Great Leader The Armed Forces of North Korea The Armed Forces of Asia Sydney: Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86448-582-5 
  • Homer T Hodge, North Korea’s Military Strategy, Parameters, Spring 2003, pp 68–81
  • The International Institute for Strategic Studies IISS 2007 The Military Balance 2007 Abingdon: Routledge Journals ISBN 978-1-85743-437-8 
  • Jane's World Air Forces Issue 25, 2007 Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group 
  • Saunders, Stephen editor Jane's Fighting Ships Vol 110, 2007-2008 Coulsdon: Jane’s Information Group CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list link
  • North Korea Country Study PDF Library of Congress 2009 

Further readingedit

  • Bermudez, Joseph S 1998 North Korean special forces Annapolis: Naval Institute Press ISBN 1-55750-066-5 
  • Boik, William A 2008 Orders, Decorations, and Medals of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea Springfield, VA: DBMPresscom ISBN 978-0-615-19087-7 

External linksedit

  • North Korea Military-Political Background
  • KPA Equipment Holdings
  • CIA World Factbook


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