Kingisepp


Kingisepp Russian: Ки́нгисепп or Кингисе́пп; Finnish: Jaama, formerly Yamburg Я́мбург, Yam Ям, and Yama Я́ма, is an ancient town and the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located along the Luga River 138 kilometers 86 mi southwest of St Petersburg, 20 kilometers 12 mi east of Narva, and 40 kilometers 25 mi south of the Gulf of Finland Population: 48,488 2010 Census; 50,295 2002 Census; 49,954 1989 Census

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 14th century
    • 12 15-16th century
    • 13 17th century
    • 14 18th century
    • 15 20th century
      • 151 Russian Civil War
      • 152 Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive
      • 153 Administrative changes
  • 2 Administrative and municipal divisions
  • 3 Economy
    • 31 Industry
    • 32 Transportation
  • 4 Culture
  • 5 Twin towns and sister cities
  • 6 Notable people
  • 7 References
    • 71 Notes
    • 72 Sources
  • 8 External links

History

14th century

The town was first documented in 1384, when the Novgorodians under Patrikas built there a fortress against the Swedes It was called Yama or Yamsky Gorodok, after the Ingrian ethnic Finnic group name Jaama The environs of the town are still cited as the main location of speakers of the nearly extinct Ingrian language The citadel withstood sieges by the Swedes in 1395 and by the Teutonic Knights during the 1444–1448 war

15-16th century

The town became the most important economic center of the Vodskaya pyatina of the Novgorod Republic There were 201 homesteads in the 15th century in the town; its total population can only be evaluated roughly based on the estimates of three to five persons per homestead At the end of the Livonian War, it was ceded to Sweden, only to be returned twelve years later, in 1595

17th century

Following the Treaty of Stolbovo, it again passed to the Swedes, who kept the name which in Swedish orthography became Jama or Jamo The town was completely destroyed by Russian armies during the war of 1656–1658, after which only the citadel remained intact It is questionable whether the town, with its exclusively Russian population, ever recovered

18th century

First held by the Russians for a month in late 1700, the citadel was finally taken by the Russians in the course of the Great Northern War in 1703 On May 14, 1703, Yam was renamed Yamburg a German version of the name Five years later, Peter the Great granted the town to Alexander Menshikov in his capacity of the Duke of Izhora In the course of the administrative reform, Yamburg was included into Ingermanland Governorate known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate In 1780, Catherine the Great re-approved with some changes a previously existing coat of arms Uyezd town status was granted to it in 1784

20th century

Russian Civil War

Yamburg Bridge, destroyed by the White Army, 1919

Vladimir Lenin reportedly stayed in Yamburg in January 1919, when he ordered the Bolshevik troops to retake the town of Narva from Estonian forces In October 1919, the anti-Bolshevist commander, General Nikolai Yudenich captured Yamburg, which marked the beginning of the push by the Northwestern White Army towards Petrograd However, the Bolsheviks subsequently re-captured Yamburg on November 14, 1919 On November 16, 1919, the forces of General Yudenich were "crowded together in a small space near Yamburg" "in a serious state of disorganization", reported The New York Times

The German form of the town name was retained until 1922, when the Bolsheviks renamed it in honor of the Estonian Communist leader Viktor Kingissepp

Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive

Main article: Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive

During World War II, Kingisepp was occupied by German troops from August 16, 1941 until February 1, 1944, when the 109th Rifle Corps captured the town, forcing the German 18th Army into new positions on the eastern bank of Narva

Administrative changes

In the beginning of the 20th century, Yamburg was the seat of Yamburgsky Uyezd of St Petersburg Governorate later known as Petrograd and Leningrad Governorate On May 17, 1922, Yamburgsky Uyezd was renamed Kingiseppsky, simultaneously with the town

On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Kingiseppsky District, with the administrative center in Kingisepp, was established The governorates were also abolished, and the district became a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast Between March 22, 1935 and September 19, 1940, Kingisepp was the administrative center of Kingisepp Okrug of Leningrad Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union After Kingisepp Okrug was abolished on September 19, 1940, Kingisepp became a town of oblast significance on December 17, 1940 In 2010, the administrative structure of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal structure and Kingisepp became a town of district significance

Administrative and municipal divisions

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kingisepp serves as the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District As an administrative division, it is, together with the village of Porkhovo, incorporated within Kingiseppsky District as Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation As a municipal division, Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Kingiseppsky Municipal District as Kingiseppskoye Urban Settlement

Economy

Industry

The economy of Kingisepp is based on chemical, glass, and food industries

Transportation

The railway connecting St Petersburg with Tallinn passes through Kingisepp There is infrequent suburban service to the Baltiysky railway station in St Petersburg and to Ivangorod

The A180 Highway, connecting St Petersburg and Ivangorod, passes Kingisepp as well It coincides with the European route E20 connecting St Petersburg via Tallinn Kingisepp is also connected by road with Volosovo and Slantsy

Culture

Kingisepp contains thirteen cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally seventeen objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance The federal monuments include the Yam Fortress, the St Catherine Cathedral by Antonio Rinaldi, and the complex of military barracks of the 19th century

Yamburg's St Catherine Cathedral was built in 1764-1782 to a late Baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi

Kingisepp has a local history museum It was open in 1960 and is located in the buildings of the St Catherine Cathedral In 1990, the cathedral was transferred to Russian Orthodox Church and the museum was closed until 1999, when it re-opened in the former building of the commercial school, an architecture monument

Kingisepp museum

Twin towns and sister cities

Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Kingisepp is twinned with:

  • Jõhvi, Estonia
  • Narvik, Norway
  • Sassnitz, Germany
  • Raisio, Finland
  • Bielsk Podlaski, Poland

Notable people

  • Grigory Spiridonovich Petrov 1868–1925, politician
  • Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann 1861–1938, scientist
  • Aleksandr Kerzhakov 1982, association football player
  • Mikhail Kerzhakov 1987, association football player
  • Aleksei Ionov 1989, association football player
  • Pavel Mogilevets 1993, association football player
  • Ivan Shpakov 1986, association football player
  • Vera Karelina 1870–1931, labor activist and revolutionary

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #81-oz
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service 2011 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года Том 1" Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года 2010 All-Russia Population Census in Russian Federal State Statistics Service Retrieved June 29, 2012 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г «Об исчислении времени», в ред Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"» Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования 6 августа 2011 г Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г Government of the Russian Federation Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time" Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication
  5. ^ a b c Bernadsky, Viktor Nikolayevich 1961 Новгород и новгородская земля в XV веке Novgorod and the Novgorod Land in the 15th century Leningrad: published by the USSR Academy of Sciences pp 123–124 
  6. ^ a b c d Кингисепп - официальный сайт Администрации МО Кингисеппское городское поселение - История in Russian Официальный сайт Администрации Archived from the original on March 3, 2014 Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  7. ^ Почта России Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО Russian Post Поиск объектов почтовой связи Postal Objects Search in Russian
  8. ^ a b http://wwwhsfi/english/article/Last+of+the+Ingrian+grannies+hold+on/1329104265831
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service May 21, 2004 "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" XLS Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года in Russian Retrieved August 9, 2014 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly 1989 "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года in Russian Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики Retrieved August 9, 2014 
  11. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия 2003 p 188 ISBN 5-7107-7399-9 
  12. ^ "Allies Repulse Reds' Attack at the Dvina" New York Tribune January 29, 1919 Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  13. ^ "Push on Petrograd Marked by Taking of Russian Town" The Democratic Banner Columbus, OH Ohio Historical Society October 14, 1919 p 1 Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  14. ^ "Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd" New York Tribune Washington, DC Library of Congress November 15, 1919 p 4 Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  15. ^ "Yudenitch a Refuge Bolshevist Commander Said to Have Arrived in Esthonian Capital" The New York Times November 23, 1919 p 7 Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  16. ^ David M Glantz 2002 The Battle for Leningrad: 1941-1944 Lawrence: University Press of Kansas ISBN 0-7006-1208-4 
  17. ^ Ямбург, город in Russian Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Retrieved 3 March 2014 
  18. ^ a b Ямбургский уезд 1917 г - май 1922 г, Кингисеппский уезд май 1922 г - август 1927 г in Russian Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  19. ^ a b Кингисеппский район август 1927 г in Russian Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга Retrieved February 28, 2014 
  20. ^ Отчет о работе комитета по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Ленинградской области в 2010 году in Russian Комитет по печати и связям с общественностью Ленинградской области Retrieved March 3, 2014 
  21. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации in Russian Russian Ministry of Culture Retrieved 2 June 2016 
  22. ^ Кингисеппский историко-краеведческий музей in Russian Российская сеть культурного наследия Archived from the original on April 13, 2013 Retrieved April 3, 2013 

Sources

  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы» Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws Effective as of the day of the official publication
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области Областной закон №81-оз от 28 октября 2004 г «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Кингисеппский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в связи с совершенствованием организации местного самоуправления"» Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования 29 ноября 2004 г Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №34, 19 ноября 2004 г Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast Oblast Law #81-oz of October 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of Kingiseppsky Municipal District and to the Municipal Formations Comprised By It, as amended by the Oblast Law #17-oz of May 6, 2010 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Due to the Adoption of the Federal Law "On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation Due to the Improvement of the Organization of the Local Self-Government" Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication November 29, 2004

External links

  • Official website of Kingisepp in Russian
  • Pictures of Kingisepp


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