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Kingdom of Breifne


The Kingdom of Breifne or Bréifne ˈbrʲeːfnʲe; anglicized Breffni, Breffny, Brefnie, Brenny was a confederation of Irish túaithe headed by a ruirí drawn from the Uí Briúin Bréifne The Bréifne territory included current day Irish counties of Leitrim and Cavan, along with parts of County Sligo an area roughly equivalent to the modern Roman Catholic Diocese of Kilmore

Breifne is said to derive from an obsolete Irish word meaning "hilly", a description which describes the topography of this part of Ireland It was referred to as the rough third of Connacht

Alternatively, the Metrical Dindshenchas states the name is derived from Brefne, daughter of Beoan mac Bethaig, a brave soldier-woman1

At its height in the 12th century, when Tigernán Ua Ruairc was king of Bréifne, it extended from Kells in County Meath to Drumcliffe in County Sligo

In 1296, according to the Annals of the Four Masters "Maelpeter O'Duigennan, Archdeacon of Breifnydied"

In 1256, a great battle was fought between the O'Rourkes and the O'Reillys near Ballinamore This led to the division of Breifne between the O'Rourkes and O'Reillys The Bréifne region was split into East Bréifne and West Bréifne

The Ó Ruairc kings O'Rourke maintained lordship over West Bréifne mainly County Leitrim, while the Ó Raghallaigh kings O'Reilly retained lordship over East Bréifne County Cavan The Kingdom of Bréifne region was part of the kingdom of Connacht up until the time of Queen Elizabeth I In that time it was shired into the modern counties Cavan and Leitrim, Leitrim remaining a part of the province of Connacht while Cavan became part of Ulster

The Ó Ruaircs were effectively lords of Breifne O'Rourke through the turbulent 16th century

Contents

  • 1 History of Breifne
  • 2 Old Territories that were at one stage part of Breifne
  • 3 List of the Kings of Breifne
    • 31 Early kings
    • 32 Ó Ruairc dynasty, Kings of Bréifne, c 964 - 1257
    • 33 Lords of Bréifne Ó Ruairc, 1257-1605
    • 34 Lords of Bréifne Ó Raghallaigh Muintir Maelmordha
    • 35 O Ruairc, Kings of Breifne, c1128–1605
    • 36 O'Reillys of East Breifne: O Raghalliagh, Kings of Muintir Maoilmhordha, c1161–1607
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading

History of Breifneedit

In ancient times the area that became to be known as Bréifne was said to be occupied by the Erdini, called in Irish 'Ernaigh', who possessed the entire country bordering Lough Erne

At the time of the Christianization of Ireland c 5th–6th century tribal groupings believed to be in or near Breifne included the Glasraighe, Masraige, Dartraige, Armhaighe, Gallraighe, the Fir Manach, and the Gailenga

Around the 6th century a people known as the Conmaicne Rein are thought to have moved north from around the present Dunmore in County Galway and settled in Magh Rein the area around Fenagh From here they peopled what is now South Leitrim, which became known as Magh Rein, and its inhabitants as the Conmaicne Magh Rein They consisted of different family groupings – Muintir Eolais, Muintir Cearbhallain O Mulvey, and Cinel Luachain, among others

About the 8th century, the area since known as Breifne was conquered and settled by the Uí Briúin who were a branch of the royal family of Connacht The Uí Briúin established themselves first in modern county Leitrim and then into what is now County Cavan It can be argued that there is no contemporary evidence to support these speculationscitation needed

By the 9th century the O'Ruaircs had established themselves as kings of Breifne

In the 10th and 11th centuries the O'Ruairc kings of Breifne fought some battles for the title of king of Connacht, four different kings of Breifne gaining the title

During the 12th century the reign of Tighearnán Ua Ruairc, the kingdom of Breifne was said to comprise most of the modern counties of Leitrim and Cavan, and parts of Longford, Meath, Fermanagh and Sligo

In the 16th century Breifne O'Rourke eventually became County Leitrim and Breifne O'Reilly became County Cavan

Old Territories that were at one stage part of Breifneedit

  • Cenél Cairpre Cairbre – northern County Sligo and northeast County Leitrim The territory of Coirpre, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, around the 6th century extended from the Drowes west to the Owenmore river in Ballysadare

Duncarbry Dun Chairbre marks the border of Cairbre's territory on the Drowes, while the Barony of Carbury in North Sligo still reminds us also today

Noted chiefs of Cenél Cairpre included O'Mulclohy Ó Maolchloiche

  • Cairpre Gabra – northern County Longford, barony of Granard O'Ronan Ó Ronáin were chieftains in the barony of Granard until dispossessed by the O'Farrells in the 13th century

According to the Annals of the Four Masters about 476 AD, the battle of Granard was fought by Eochaidh, son of Cairbre, son of Oilioll, son of Dunlaing, son of Enda Niadh against the Ui Dunlainge, Ui Briúin Cualann and Ui Fergusa of North Leinster

  • Cenél Laegaire – County Fermanagh The Fir Manach, the Cinéal Eanna and the Cenél Laegaire were early indigenous tribes in the County Fermanagh area The Cenél Laegairi mic Neill were noted west of Loch Erne Book of Lecan The Cenél Laegairi mic Neill were also noted in central Ireland Mide, Meath

List of the Kings of Breifneedit

Note: Where mentioned spelling used in the document is used here

Early kingsedit

  • Echu Mugmedón, father to Brión, Fiachra, and Niall of the Nine Hostages
  • Brión: son of Echu Mugmedón and the ancestor of the O'Briuin Kings of Connacht
  • Aodh Fionn mac Fergna: king of Breifne
  • Maenach mac Báithin: king of Ui Briuin Breifne – c653–
  • Dub Dothra: king of the Ui Briuin & Conmaicne & Breifne – c743–
  • Cormacc mac Duibh Dá Críoch: king of Breifni – c790
  • Muircheartach mac Donnghal, king of Breifne: c800–806
  • Mael Dúin mac Échtgal, king of Breifne: died822
  • Ceallach son of Cearnach, son of Dubh Dothra, king of Breithfne
  • Tighearnán mac Seallachan, king of Breifne: c888 – father of Ruarc
  • Ruarc mac Tighearnáin, lord of Ui Briuin Breifne: c 893 – grandfather of Sean Fergal
  • Flann mac Tighearnáin, lord of Breifne: c910
  • Cernachan mac Tighearnáin, king of Breifne: died 931
  • Conghalach mac Cathaláin, lord of Breifne: c935
  • Cléircén son of Tigernán, king of Bréifne: C 937
  • Fergal ua Ruairc, king of Bréifne

Ó Ruairc dynasty, Kings of Bréifne, c 964 - 1257edit

  • Sean Fergal Ó Ruairc king of Connacht & Breifne: c964–67
  • Niall Ó Ruairc, heir of Breifne: 1000–1001
  • Aedh Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: died 1014–1015 – son of Fergal
  • Art an caileach Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: c1020–1030 – son of Fergal
  • Aedh Ó Ruairc, lord of Dartraige: 1029
  • Art uallach oirdnidhe Ó Ruairc, king of Connacht & Breifne: c1030–1046 – son of Aedh mac Fergal
  • Niall Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne Connacht: 1047 – son of Art uallach
  • Domnall Ó Ruairc, lord of Breifne: c1057 – son of Niall
  • Cathal Ó Ruairc, lord of Breifne: c1051–1059 – son of Tighernan
  • Aedh in Gilla Braite Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1066 – son of Niall son of Art Uallach
  • Aed Ó Ruairc, king of Connacht & Breifne: c1067–1087 – son of Art Uallach
  • Donnchadh cael Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: c1084 – son of Art an caileach
  • Ualgharg Ó Ruairc, royal heir of Connacht: 1085 – son of Niall son of Art uallach
  • Donnchadh Ó Ruairc, lord of Ui Briuin and Conmaicne: 1101 – son of Art Uí Ruairc
  • Domnall Ó Ruairc, king of Connacht & Breifne: c1095–1102 – son of Tigernán son of Ualgharg
  • Cathal Ó Ruairc, lord of Ui Briuin Breifne and Gailenga: 1105 – son of Gilla Braite son of Tigernán
  • Domnall Ó Ruairc, lord of Ui Briúin: c1108 – son of Donnchadh
  • Aedh an Gilla Sronmaol Ó Ruairc king of Conmaicne: c1117–1122 – son of Domnall or Donnchadh
  • Tigernán mór Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: c1124–1152, 1152–1172 – son of Donnchad macDomnail
  • Aedh Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1152–1152, 1172–1176 – son of Gilla Bruide son of Domnall
  • Amlaíb Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1176–1184 – son of Fergal son of Domnall son of Tigernán
  • Aedh Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1184–1187 – son of Máelsechlann son of Tigernán mór
  • Domnall Ó Ruairc, lord of greater part of Breifne: c1207 – son of Ferghal mac Domnall son of Fergal
  • Ualgarg Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: c1196–1209 – son of Cathal son of Aedh son of Donnchadh
  • Art Ó Ruairc, king of Bréifne: 1209–1210 – son of Domnall son of Fergal son of Domnall
  • Niall O'Ruairc, king of Dartry and clann Fermaige: 1228 – son of Congalach son of Fergal son of Domnall
  • Ualgarg Ó Ruairc, king of Breifne: c1210–1231 – son of Cathal son of Aedh son of Donnchadh
  • Cathal riabach O'Ruairc, king of Bréifne: 1231–1236 – son of Donnchadh son of Aedh son of Gilla Braite
  • Conchobar O'Ruairc, king of Bréifne: 1250–1257 – son of Tigernán son of Domnall son of Cathal

Lords of Bréifne Ó Ruairc, 1257-1605edit

  • Sitric O'Ruairc, king of Bréifne: elected and killed 1257–1257 – son of Ualgarg son of Cathal
  • Amlaíb O'Ruairc, king of Breifne West : 1257–1258 – son of Art son of Domnall son of Fergal
  • Domnall O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1258 to 1258 deposed – son of Conchobar son of Tigernán
  • Art O'Ruairc, king of Breifne East: 1258–1259 deposed – son of Cathal riabach son of Donnchadh
  • Domnall O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1259 to 1260 killed – son of Conchobar son of Tigernán
  • Art bec O'Ruairc, king of Breifne West: 1260–1260 killed – son of Art son of Domnall son of Fergal
  • Art O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1261–1266 deposed– son of Cathal riabach son of Donnchadh
  • Conchobar buide O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1266–1273 – son of Amlaíb son of Art
  • Tigernán O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1273–1274 – son of Aedh son of Ualgarg son of Cathal
  • Art O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1275–1275 – son of Cathal riabach son of Donnchadh
  • Amlaib O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1275–1307 – son of Art son of Cathal riabach
  • Domnall carrach O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1307–1311 – son of Amlaíb son of Art
  • Ualgarg mór O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1316–1346 – son of Domnall carrach
  • Flaithbheartach O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1346–1349 deposed – son of Domnall carrach
  • Aodh bán O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1349–1352 – son of Ualgarg mór son of Domnall
  • Flaithbheartach O'Ruairc, king of Breifne: 1352–1352 died – son of Domnall carrach
  • Tadgh na gcoar O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1352–1376 – son of Ualgarg mór son of Domnall carrach
  • Gilla Crist O'Rourke, lord of Breifny: died 1378 – son of Ualgarg mór son of Domnall carrach
  • Tigernán mór O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1376–1418 – son of Ualgarg mór son of Domnall carrach
  • Aodh buidhe O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1418–1419 – son of Tigernán mór
  • Tadhg O'Rourke, king of West Breifne: 1419–1424 – son of Tigernán mór
  • Art O'Rourke, king of East Breifne: 1419–1424 – son of Tadhg na gcoar
  • Tadhg O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1424–1435 – son of Tigernán mór
  • Lochlann O'Rourke, king of East Breifne: 1435–1458 – son of Tadhg na gcoar
  • Donnchadh bacagh O'Rourke, king of West Breifne: 1435–1445 – son of Tigernán mór
  • Donnchadh O'Rourke, king of West Breifne: 1445–1449 – son of Tigernán óg son of Tigernán mór
  • Tigernán óg O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1449–1468 – son of Tadhg son of Tigernán mór
  • Donnchadh losc O'Rourke, half-king of Breifne: 1468–1476 – son of Tigernán mór son of Ualgarg mór
  • Domnall O'Rourke, half-king of Breifne: 1468–1476, – son of Tadhg son of Tigernán mór
  • Feidhlimidh O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1476–1500 – son of Donnchadh son of Tigernán óg
  • Eóghan O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1500–1528 – son of Tigernán óg son of Tadhg
  • Feidhlimidh O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1528–1536 – son of Feidhlimidh son of Donnchadh
  • Brian ballach mór O'Rourke, king of Bréifne, 1528–1559, 1560–1562 – son of Eóghan son of Tigernán óg
  • Tadhg O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1559–1560 – son of Brian ballach
  • Aodh gallda O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1562–1564 – son of Brian ballach
  • Aodh buidhe O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1564–1566 – son of Brian ballach
  • Brian na múrtha O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1566–1591 – son of Brian ballach
  • Brian óg na samhthach O'Rourke, king of Breifne: 1591–1600 – son of Brian na múrtha
  • Tadhg O'Rourke, lord of Breifne: 1600–1605 – son of Brian na múrtha

Lords of Bréifne Ó Raghallaigh Muintir Maelmordhaedit

  • Godfrey Ua Raghallaigh, lord of Muintir-Maelmordha: 1161
  • Cathal Ua Raghallaigh, lord of Muintir-Maelmordha: 1161–1162 – son of Godfrey
  • Fergal son of Cu Chonnacht O'Raigillig, King of Dartry and Clann Fermaige: 1239
  • Cathal Ua Raghallaigh, lord of Muintir-Maelmordha: 1256
  • Con Ua Raghallaigh, chief of Muintir-Maelmordha: 1256–1257
  • Matha Ua Raghallaigh, lord of Muintir-Maelmordha: 1282
  • Ferghal O'Raigillig, East Breifne: 1282–1293
  • Gilla-Isa Ruaid O'Raigillig, East Breifne: ↑1327 or 1330
  • Matha son of Gilla-Isa O'Raigillig, East Breifne: 1304
  • Mael Sechlainn O'Raigillig, East Breifne: 1328
  • Richard Risderd O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1349– ↑1346 or 1349
  • Cu Chonnacht O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1362 or 1365 resigned – son of Gilla-Isa Ruaid
  • Philip O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1365–1366/69 deposed – son of Gilla-Isa Ruaid
  • Magnus O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1366/69–1366/69 deposed
  • Philip O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1366/69–1384 – son of Gilla-Isu Ruaid
  • Thomas, son of Mathgamain Ua Raighillaigh, king of Muinter-Mailmordha: 1384–1390
  • John, son of Philip O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1390–1400 – son of Philip son of Gilla-Isa-Ruaid
  • Gilla-Isa son of Anrig O'Raigillig, East Breifny: 1400–1400
  • Maelmordha, son of Cuconnaught O'Reilly, Muintir Reilly: 1403–1411 – son of Cu Chonnacht son of Gilla-Isa Ruaid
  • Richard, son of Thomas O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1411–1418
  • Owen, son of John O'Reilly, Muintir-Maelmordha: 1418–1449
  • Farrell, son of Thomas O'Reilly, Muintir-Maelmordha: 1450 deposed – AM1450
  • John, son of Owen O'Reilly, Muintir-Maelmordha: 1450–1460 – son of Owen son of John son of Philip son of Gilla-Isa-Roe
  • Cathal O'Reilly, Muintir-Maelmordha: 1467
  • Turlough, son of John O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1468–1487 – son of John son of Owen
  • John, son of Turlough O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1487–1491
  • John, son of Cathal O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1491–1510 – son of Cathal son of Owen son of John
  • Hugh, son of Cathal O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1514
  • Owen, son of Cathal O'Reilly, East Breifny:1526
  • Farrell, son of John O'Reilly, East Breifny & Conmaicne: 1526–1536 – son of John, son of Cathal
  • Maelmordha, son of John O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1537–1565 – son of John son of Cathal
  • Hugh Conallagh O'Reilly, son of Maelmordha O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1583 – son of Maelmordha son of John
  • John Roe, son of Hugh Conallagh O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1583–1596
  • Philip, son of Hugh O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1596–1596
  • Edmond, son of Maelmordha O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1596–1601 – son of Maelmordha son of John son of Cathal
  • Owen, son of Hugh Conallagh O'Reilly, East Breifny: 1601–

O Ruairc, Kings of Breifne, c1128–1605edit

This is a list of the Kings of Breifne from after 1128 to 1605

  • Tigernan Mór mac Aeda after 1128-1172
  • Aed mac Gilla Braite 1172-1176
  • Amlaib mac Fergaile 1176-1184
  • Aed mac Mael Sechlainn 1184-1187
  • Ualagarg mac Cathail Leith after 1196-1209
  • Art mac Domnaill 1209-1210
  • Ualagarg mac Cathail Leith after 1214-1231
  • Cathal Riabach mac Donnchada 1231-1236
  • Conchobhar mac Tigernain after 1250-1257
  • Sigtrygg Sitric mac Ualgairg 1256-1257
  • Amblaib mac Airt 1257-1258
  • Domnall mac Conchobair 1258-1260
  • Art mac Cathail Riabaig 1261-1266
  • Conchobar Buide mac Amlaib 1266-1273
  • Art mac Cathail Riabaig 1273-1275
  • Tigernan mac Aeda 1273-1274
  • Amlaib mac Airt 1275-1307
  • Domnall Carrach mac Amlaib 1307-1311
  • Ualgarg mac Domnaill Charraig 1316-1346
  • Flaithbheartach mac Domhnaill Charraigh 1346-1349
  • Aodh Bán mac Ualghairg 1349-1352
  • Tadhg na gCaor mac Ualghairg 1352-1376
  • Tighearnan Mór mac Ualghairg 1376-c1 February 1418
  • Aodh Buidhe mac Tighearnain Mór 1418-1419
  • Tadhg mac Tighearnain Mór 1419-1435
  • Art mac Taidgh na gCaor 1419-1424
  • Lochlainn mac Taidhg na gCaor 1435-1440
  • Donnchadh Losc mac Tighearnain Mór 1440-1445
  • Donnchadh mac Tighearnain Óg 1445-1449
  • Lochlainn mac Taidgh na gCaor 1449-1458
  • Tighearnan Óg mac Taidhg 1449-1468
  • Domhnall mac Taidhg 1468-1468
  • Donnchadh Losc mac Tighearnain Mór 1468-1476
  • Feidhlimidh mac Donnchadha 1476-1500
  • Eoghan mac Tighearnain Óg 1500-1528
  • Feidhlimidh mac Feidhlimidh 1528-1536
  • Brian Ballach mac Eoghain 1536-c1559
  • Tadhg mac Briain Bhallaigh c1559-1560
  • Brian Ballach mac Eoghain 1560-1562
  • Aodh Gallda mac Briain Bhallaigh 1562-1564
  • Aodh Buidhe mac Briain Bhallaigh 1564-1566
  • Brian na Murtha mac Briain Bhalliagh 1566-3 November 1591
  • Brian Óg na Samhthach mac Briain na Murtha 1591-1600
  • Tadhg mac Briain na Murtha 1600-1605

O'Reillys of East Breifne: O Raghalliagh, Kings of Muintir Maoilmhordha, c1161–1607edit

  • Gofraid –1161
  • Cathal mac Gofraid 1161–1162
  • Cathal mac Annaid c 1220–c 3 May 1256
  • Conchobar mac Cathail 1256–1257
  • Domnall mac Annaid 1257–1283
  • Matha mac Domnaill 1285–1285
  • Fergal mac Domnaill 1285–1293
  • Gilla Isu Ruad mac Domnaill 1293–1330
  • Risdeard mac Giolla Iosa Ruaidh 1330–1349
  • Cu Chonnacht mac Giolla Iosa Ruaidh 1349–1365
  • Pilib mac Giolla Iosa Ruaidh 1365–1384
  • Maghnus mac Con Connacht 1369–1369
  • Tomas mor mac Mathghamhna 1384–1392
  • Seoan mac Pilib 1392–1400
  • Giolla Iosa mac Pilib 1400–1400
  • Maolmhordha mac Con Connacht 1403–1411
  • Risdeard mac Tomais Mhoir 1411–1418
  • Eoghan mac Seoain 1418–1449
  • Sean an Einigh mac Eoghain 1449–3 September 1460
  • Fearghal mac Tomais Mhoir 1449–1450
  • Cathal mac Eoghain 1460–1467
  • Toirdhealbhach mac Seaain an Einigh 1467–1 September 1487
  • Seaan mac Toirdhealbhaigh 1487–after 25 November 1491
  • Seaan mac Cathail 1491–1510
  • Aodh mac Cathail 1510–1514
  • Eoghan Ruadh mac Cathail 1514–1526
  • Fearghal mac Seaain 1526–1534
  • Maolmhordha mac Seaain 1534–1565
  • Aodh Connallach mac Maolmhordha 1565–1583
  • Sir Seaan Ruadh mac Aodha Connallaigh 1583–1596
  • Pilib Dubh mac Aodha Connallaigh 1596–1596
  • Eamonn mac Maolmhordha 1596–1601
  • Eoghan mac Aodha Connalaigh 1601–1603
  • Maolmhordha mac Aodha Connallaigh 1603–1607

See alsoedit

  • Irish nobility
  • Irish Royal Families
  • Pre-historic Irish battles
  • Maelsechlainn mac Tadhg Mor
  • Bélchú
  • Irish kings
  • East Breifne
  • Kings of Breifne
  • Saint Felim
  • Beara-Breifne Way

Notesedit

  1. ^ Part 71 of The Metrical Dindshenchas

Referencesedit

  • Egan, Terry, ed 2006 A Travel Guide to Bréifne: the Lost Kingdom of Ireland Belfast: The Stationery Office Ltd ISBN 978-0-337-08747-9 
  • Annals of Connacht
  • Annals of the Four Masters
  • Annals of Tigernach
  • Annals of Ulster
  • Annals of Innisfallen
  • Hennessy, William M, ed 1871 Annals of Loch Cé II London: Longman and Co 
  • Chronicon Scotorum
  • Martin; Moody 1984 A New History of Ireland IX 
  • O'Reillys of East Breifne: O Raghalliagh, Kings of Muintir Maoilmhordha, a1161–1607 pp 229–230 
    in Martin; Moody 1984
  • O Ruairc, Kings of Breifne, a1128-1605 pp 228–229 
    in Martin; Moody 1984
  • O'Duignan, Manus late 14th century Book of Ballymote On microfilm in Irish national archives
  • Keating, Geoffrey 1632 Forus Feasa ar Erinn The History of Ireland PDF Comyn, Edward and Dinneen, Patrick S trans Ex-Classics Project Retrieved 3 July 2012 
  • Cú Choigcríche Ó Cléirigh Book of Genealogies 1642 On microfilm in Irish national archives
  • Mac Fhirbhisigh, Dubhaltach Óg Leabhar na nGenealach 1650–1666 On microfilm in Irish national archives
  • O'Hart, John 1876 Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation 

Further readingedit

  • Joyce, P W 1903 A Social History of Ancient Ireland I London pp 70–71 Retrieved 3 July 2012 


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