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Kalachuris of Ratnapura

kalachuris of ratnapura postal code, kalachuris of ratnapura district
The Kalachuris of Ratnapura were a central Indian dynasty during 11th and 12th centuries They ruled parts of present-day Chhattisgarh from their capital at Ratnapura modern Ratanpur in Bilaspur district They were an offshoot of the Kalachuris of Tripuri, and ruled as vassals of the parent dynasty for many years

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 List of rulers
  • 3 Coinage
  • 4 Inscriptions
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
    • 61 Bibliography

Historyedit

Several inscriptions and coins of the Ratnapura branch have been found, but these do not provide enough information to reconstruct the political history of the region with complete certainty2

According to the 1114 CE Ratanpur inscription of Jajjaladeva I, the Tripuri Kalachuri king Kokalla had 18 sons, the eldest of whom succeeded him on the throne of Tripuri The younger ones became rulers of mandalas feudatory governors The Ratnapuri Kalachuris descended from one of these younger sons3 The new branch was established by Kalingaraja around 1000 CE2

Kalingaraja conquered Dakshina Kosala region, and made Tummana his capital His grandson Ratnaraja established Ratnapura modern Ratanpur4 The inscriptions of Kalingaraja's great-grandson Prithvideva I indicate that he Ratnapuri Kalachuris continued to rule as feudatories of the Tripuri Kalachuris2

Prithvideva's son Ratnadeva II repulsed an invasion by Anantavarman Chodaganga, the king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty5 The last known ruler of the dynasty was Pratapa-malla The fate of his successors is not known2

List of rulersedit

The following is a list of the Ratnapura Kalachuri rulers, with estimated period of their reigns:6

  • Kalinga-raja 1000-1020 CE
  • Kamala-raja 1020-1045 CE
  • Ratna-raja 1045-1065 CE, also called Ratna-deva I
  • Prithvi-deva I 1065-1090 CE, alias Prithvisha
  • Jajalla-deva I 1090-1120 CE
  • Ratna-deva II 1120-1135 CE
  • Prithvi-deva II 1135-1165 CE
  • Jajalla-deva II 1165-1168 CE
  • Jagad-deva 1168-1178 CE
  • Ratna-deva III 1178-1200 CE
  • Pratapa-malla 1200-1225 CE

Coinageedit

The Kalachuri rulers of Ratnapura issued gold, silver and copper coins, which bear the issuer's name in Nagari script The coins feature four types of design:7

  • Gaja-shardula: Depicts a fight between a lion and an elephant This design occurs on all their gold coins, and some copper coins
  • Hanumana: Depicts Hanuman in various poses, such as flying, crushing a demon while sitting or standing, holding a trishula, or holding a flag Only copper coins feature this design
  • Lion: Depicts a lion, sometimes with a human head Featured on copper and silver coins
  • Dagger: Features a dagger on copper coins

Hoards of their coins have been found at following places:8

  • Sanasari or Sonsari
    • 36 gold coins of Jajjaladeva
    • 96 gold coins of Ratnadeva
    • 459 gold coins of Prithvideva
  • Sarangarh
    • 26 gold coins of Jajjaladeva
    • 29 gold coins of Ratnadeva
    • 1 gold coin of Prithvideva
  • Bhagaund
    • 12 gold coins of Prithvideva
  • Dadal-Seoni
    • 136 gold coins of Jajjaladeva, Ratnadeva and Prithvideva
  • Bachchhanda
    • 9 gold coins, plus some other conins
  • Ratanpur
    • 10 gold coins of Ratnadeva
  • Sonpur and Baidyanatha
    • 11 gold coins of Jajjaladeva
    • 9 gold coins of Ratnadeva
    • 5 gold coins of Prithvideva

3 silver coins of Prithvideva were discovered from the Mahanadi riverbed near Balpur Thousands of copper coins issued by them have also been discovered, including a hoard of 3900 copper coins at Dhanpur in Bilaspur district9

Inscriptionsedit

The inscriptions of the Ratnapura Kalachuri rulers have been discovered at several places in present-day Chhattisgarh:12

  • Prithvideva I: Amora or Amoda, Lapha, Raipur
  • Jajalladeva I: Pali, Ratanpur
  • Ratandeva II: Akaltara, Paragaon, Shivrinarayan or Sheorinarayan, Sarkhon or Sarkho
  • Prithvideva II: Dahkoni or Daikoni, Rajim, Bilaigarh, Koni, Amora, Ghotia,
  • Jajalladeva II: Amora, Malhar or Mallar, Shivrinarayan
  • Ratnadeva III: Kharod, Pasid
  • Pratapamalla: Pendrawan or Pendrabandh and Bilaigarh

See alsoedit

  • Mahamaya Temple in Ratanpur, said to be built by the Kalachuri king Ratnadeva

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b Rajiv Kumar Verma 2015, p 59
  2. ^ a b c d e f Om Prakash Misra 2003, p 14
  3. ^ F Kielhorn 1888, pp 137-138
  4. ^ F Kielhorn 1888, p 138
  5. ^ Hermann Kulke & Dietmar Rothermund 1998, pp 172-173
  6. ^ V V Mirashi 1957, p 503
  7. ^ P C Roy 1980, pp 20-22
  8. ^ P C Roy 1980, pp 18-20
  9. ^ P C Roy 1980, p 19

Bibliographyedit

  • F Kielhorn 1888 Rajim stone inscription of Jagapala of the Kulachuri year 896 The Indian Antiquary 
  • Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund 1998 A History of India Psychology Press ISBN 978-0-415-15482-6 
  • Om Prakash Misra 2003 Archaeological Excavations in Central India: Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh Mittal Publications ISBN 978-81-7099-874-7 
  • P C Roy 1980 "The Coinage of the Kalachuris of Ratnapura" The Coinage of Northern India Abhinav Publications ISBN 978-81-7017-122-5 
  • Rajiv Kumar Verma 2015 "Kalachuri Inscriptions : A Reflection of Dwindling Political Power" PDF Veethika 1
  • V V Mirashi 1957 "The Kalacuris" In R S Sharma A Comprehensive history of India: AD 985-1206 4 Part 1 Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House ISBN 978-81-7007-121-1 

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