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Josephine County, Oregon

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Josephine County is a county in the US state of Oregon As of the 2010 census, the population was 82,7131 The county seat is Grants Pass2 The county is probably named after a stream in the area called Josephine Creek, which in turn is probably named after Virginia Josephine Rollins Ort Josephine County comprises the Grants Pass, OR Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Medford-Grants Pass, OR Combined Statistical Area

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Ethnic history
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Adjacent counties
    • 22 National protected areas
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 2000 census
    • 32 2010 census
  • 4 Economy
  • 5 Transportation
  • 6 Libraries
  • 7 Politics
  • 8 Communities
    • 81 Cities
    • 82 Census-designated places
    • 83 Unincorporated communities
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

Historyedit

The discovery of rich placers at Sailor Diggings later known as Waldo in 1852 and the resulting gold rush brought the first settlers to this region Several US Army forts were maintained in the county and many engagements during the Rogue River Indian War 1855–1858 took place within its boundaries In 1851, a group of prospectors moved to the Illinois Valley and made the first discovery of gold in Southern Oregon In this group was Floyd Rollins and his daughter, Josephine Rollins Ort, after whom the county is named3 On January 22, 1856, a bill was passed by the territorial legislature separating what is now Josephine County from Jackson County The bill made Sailor Diggings later known as Waldo the county seat4 It was the nineteenth, and last, county created before statehoodcitation needed

In 1885, the county seat was relocated to Kerby, where the county's first jail was built5 In 1885, the Oregon Legislature adjusted the boundary between Jackson and Josephine County, making Grants Pass a part of Josephine County This was done primarily to have a railroad head within the new county6 In June 1886 the voters of Josephine County considered three towns for the new county seat These were: Kerby, Wilderville and Grants Pass Grants Pass won with 116 votes out of the 716 ballots cast67

In the 1920s, the county improved its tourist facilities8 In 1922, the Grants Pass Cavemen booster club was created, where members dressed in furs and wielded clubs at events Events organized by the club ranged from simply blocking traffic, to bidding on the construction of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge at a cost of 23,756,000 deer hides, to initiating politicians into their club including Mark Hatfield and Thomas E Dewey during his 1948 presidential campaign Russian newspapers used images of the Grants Pass Cavemen to show 'how the rich "cavort" in America'9 Although bridges had been built across the Rogue River by the 1920s, ferries were still used to convey people and cars across The first Grants Pass bridge was destroyed by a flood in 189010 The first newspaper in Josephine County was the Argus, which began publication on March 13, 1885 It lasted only a few months, but the Grants Pass Courier began three weeks later11 In 1897, the first legal hanging took place in Josephine County L W Nelson confessed to the murder of Charles Perry while the noose was around his neck12

Ethnic historyedit

Although several tribes of Native Americans lived in the area from which Josephine County was created, most of their members had been moved to the reservation at Grand Ronde by the end of the Rogue River Indian War Soon afterwards all Indians in southwest Oregon, with the exception of a few small bands, were moved to the Coast reservation later known as the Siletz Reservation7 Josephine County was also the home to a large Chinese population Most had come to the area to work gold claims purchased from whites no longer interested in working them Even though they could not own land, they had to pay a tax to mine gold, and were usually relegated to inferior claims

Geographyedit

According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,642 square miles 4,250 km2, of which 1,640 square miles 4,200 km2 is land and 22 square miles 57 km2 01% is water13

Adjacent countiesedit

  • Curry County west
  • Jackson County east
  • Douglas County north
  • Del Norte County, California southwest
  • Siskiyou County, California south

National protected areasedit

  • Oregon Caves National Monument
  • Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest part

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1860 1,623
1870 1,204 −258%
1880 2,485 1064%
1890 4,878 963%
1900 7,517 541%
1910 9,567 273%
1920 7,655 −200%
1930 11,498 502%
1940 16,301 418%
1950 26,542 628%
1960 29,917 127%
1970 35,746 195%
1980 58,855 646%
1990 62,649 64%
2000 75,726 209%
2010 82,713 92%
Est 2016 85,904 39%
US Decennial Census15
1790-196016 1900-199017
1990-200018 2010-20161

2000 censusedit

As of the census19 of 2000, there were 75,726 people, 31,000 households, and 21,359 families residing in the county The population density was 46 people per square mile 18/km² There were 33,239 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile 8/km² The racial makeup of the county was 9390% White, 027% Black or African American, 125% Native American, 063% Asian, 011% Pacific Islander, 117% from other races, and 268% from two or more races 426% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race 185% were of German, 143% English, 104% Irish and 93% American ancestry according to Census 2000 956% spoke English and 28% Spanish as their first language

There were 31,000 households, out of which 2690% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 5440% were married couples living together, 1040% had a female householder with no husband present, and 3110% were non-families 2540% of all households were made up of individuals and 1210% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 241 and the average family size was 285

In the county, the population was spread out, with 2310% under the age of 18, 650% from 18 to 24, 2320% from 25 to 44, 2720% from 45 to 64, and 2010% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 43 years For every 100 females there were 9460 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 9110 males

The median income for a household in the county was $31,229, and the median income for a family was $36,894 Males had a median income of $30,798 versus $22,734 for females The per capita income for the county was $17,234 About 1130% of families and 1500% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2110% of those under age 18 and 680% of those age 65 or over

2010 censusedit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 82,713 people, 34,646 households, and 22,498 families residing in the county20 The population density was 504 inhabitants per square mile 195/km2 There were 38,001 housing units at an average density of 232 per square mile 90/km221 The racial makeup of the county was 924% white, 14% American Indian, 08% Asian, 04% black or African American, 02% Pacific islander, 15% from other races, and 32% from two or more races Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 63% of the population20 In terms of ancestry, 263% were German, 156% were Irish, 155% were English, 55% were Italian, and 55% were American22

Of the 34,646 households, 255% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 492% were married couples living together, 110% had a female householder with no husband present, 351% were non-families, and 283% of all households were made up of individuals The average household size was 234 and the average family size was 282 The median age was 473 years20

The median income for a household in the county was $38,035 and the median income for a family was $48,180 Males had a median income of $38,675 versus $27,926 for females The per capita income for the county was $21,539 About 135% of families and 178% of the population were below the poverty line, including 273% of those under age 18 and 91% of those age 65 or over23

Economyedit

Most of the commercial activity during the territorial period centered on gold mining and the supply of provisions to miners Miners had been active in the Rogue and Illinois valleys since 1851 By the late 1850s, however, gold mining was beginning to decline and population dwindled as well In 1859, gold was discovered along the Fraser River in British Columbia and numerous people left Josephine County to search for valuable claims there

Josephine County shares the Rogue Valley and Applegate Valley wine appellations with Jackson County The US government owns the majority of the land within the county boundaries, with the Bureau of Land Management owning 28% of the lands within the county boundaries, most of which are Oregon and California Railroad lands, and the Forest Service owning 39%

Grants Pass is now the departure point for most Rogue River scenic waterway guided fishing and boat trips, one of the destinations being Hellgate canyon The Illinois River, one of the Rogue's tributaries, has also been designated a scenic waterway

Transportationedit

Initially, freight was brought into Josephine County by pack train As the trails improved, freight wagons were used Stage coaches were the primary mode of transportation until 1914, when auto stages took over, halving the time from Crescent City to Grants Pass from 24 to 12 hours24

In 1883, the Oregon and California Railroad reached Grants Pass, in Jackson County at the time25 The first through train from Portland, Oregon arrived in Grants Pass on Christmas Eve of 1883 Due to delays in completing a railroad through the Siskiyou Mountains, the first train from California didn't arrive until 1887 Josephine County was served by the Oregon and California Railroad26 In 1923, commercial flight in Josephine County began when airplanes began taking off from the American Legion Air Field The airfield has since been replaced by an industrial park27

Librariesedit

In May 2007, all libraries in Josephine County were closed due to lack of county government funding In September 2007, committed community members formed Josephine Community Libraries, Inc, a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization On December 20, 2008, the Grants Pass library opened again On September 5, 2009, the Illinois Valley library was reopened On November 7, 2009, the Williams library was reopened With the reopening of the Wolf Creek branch on December 19, 2009, all four library branches in Josephine County were restored Josephine Community Libraries, Inc JCLI is a nonprofit, nongovernmental library system serving the 82,000 residents of Josephine County It is a privately run, public library that relies on membership contributions for funding and a large and varied volunteer force to staff operations and support functions28

Politicsedit

Presidential Elections Results29
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 604% 26,923 302% 13,453 94% 4,184
2012 588% 23,673 372% 14,953 40% 1,612
2008 546% 22,973 414% 17,412 40% 1,664
2004 621% 26,241 360% 15,214 19% 820
2000 604% 22,186 323% 11,864 73% 2,683
1996 500% 16,048 346% 11,113 154% 4,950
1992 388% 13,003 328% 11,007 285% 9,549
1988 582% 15,876 390% 10,646 28% 750
1984 694% 19,470 304% 8,539 02% 53
1980 639% 16,827 270% 7,116 91% 2,393
1976 508% 10,726 429% 9,061 63% 1,323
1972 586% 9,911 301% 5,090 114% 1,926
1968 576% 8,456 297% 4,351 127% 1,864
1964 501% 6,918 497% 6,857 02% 26
1960 576% 7,387 422% 5,419 02% 25
1956 621% 7,967 379% 4,863 00% 0
1952 704% 8,200 288% 3,353 09% 102
1948 583% 5,004 383% 3,290 34% 294
1944 545% 4,010 437% 3,214 18% 131
1940 572% 3,964 417% 2,888 12% 80
1936 335% 1,992 477% 2,840 189% 1,123
1932 338% 1,757 589% 3,060 73% 381
1928 713% 2,625 261% 959 26% 97
1924 539% 1,756 200% 650 261% 851
1920 622% 1,606 317% 819 60% 156
1916 462% 1,660 461% 1,656 77% 277
1912 137% 305 315% 702 549% 1,223
1908 475% 967 359% 732 166% 338
1904 609% 914 218% 327 173% 260

Josephine County has been among the most consistently Republican counties in Oregon with regard to Presidential elections In 1964, it was along with Malheur County one of two Oregon counties to give a majority to Barry Goldwater30 The last Democratic candidate to win the county was Franklin D Roosevelt in 1936,31 and the solitary Democrat since 1900 to win an absolute majority was Roosevelt in 1932 Prior to the 1890s, Josephine was a generally Democratic county as the Rogue Valley and adjacent areas, like the San Joaquin Valley in California, had considerable anti-Union sympathies32

With the exception of a small area in and to the east of metropolitan Grants Pass that lies in the Second District, Josephine County lies within Oregon's 4th congressional district, which also includes the more liberal Eugene metropolitan area and has thus been represented by Democrat Peter A DeFazio since 1987 Within the Oregon State Senate, Josephine County is split between the 1st District northwestern half represented by Republican Jeff Kruse, and the 2nd District southeastern half represented by Republican Herman Baertschiger junior In the Oregon House of Representatives, Josephine County is split between four districts The northwestern part adjacent to Curry County lies in the 1st District represented by Republican David Brock Smith, whilst a small area in the northeast is in the 2nd District extending into Roseburg, Douglas County represented by Republican Dallas Heard The majority of Josephine County, including the core of Grants Pass, lies within the 3rd District represented by Republican Carl Wilson, whilst outlying areas of the city and rural areas eastward to Jackson County are in the 4th district represented by Republican Duane Stark

In 2004 Democrat Dennis Kucinich spoke publicly while campaigning in Josephine County, making appearances in both Grants Pass and Cave Junction Robert Kennedy made a campaign stop in Grants Pass in late May 1968 at the conclusion of a whistle stop campaign tour by train originating in Portland Kennedy spoke to a crowd of several hundred in a supermarket parking lot on the site of the former Southern Pacific passenger station which had been demolished some years previously just a week before his assassination in California June 5, 196833

Communitiesedit

Citiesedit

  • Cave Junction
  • Grants Pass county seat

Census-designated placesedit

  • Kerby
  • Merlin
  • New Hope
  • O'Brien
  • Redwood
  • Selma
  • Takilma
  • Williams

Unincorporated communitiesedit

  • Dryden
  • Fruitdale former
  • Galice
  • Golden
  • Greenback
  • Harbeck former
  • Holland
  • Hugo
  • Leland
  • Murphy
  • Placer
  • Pleasant Valley
  • Sunny Valley
  • Waldo
  • Wilderville
  • Wolf Creek
  • Wonder

See alsoedit

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Josephine County, Oregon

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts" United States Census Bureau Retrieved November 15, 2013 
  2. ^ "Find a County" National Association of Counties Archived from the original on 2011-05-31 Retrieved 2011-06-07 
  3. ^ Sutton, p 6
  4. ^ Sutton, p 10
  5. ^ Sutton, pp 15–17
  6. ^ a b Sutton, p 18
  7. ^ a b Edna May Hill 1976 "Josephine County Historical Highlights" Josephine County Library System & Josephine County Historical Society pp 73, 74 
  8. ^ Sutton, p 65
  9. ^ Sutton, pp 59–61
  10. ^ Sutton, pp 59–74
  11. ^ Sutton, pp 59–76–78
  12. ^ Sutton, pp 59–79
  13. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files" United States Census Bureau August 22, 2012 Retrieved February 26, 2015 
  14. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  15. ^ "US Decennial Census" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on May 12, 2015 Retrieved February 26, 2015 
  16. ^ "Historical Census Browser" University of Virginia Library Retrieved February 26, 2015 
  17. ^ Forstall, Richard L, ed March 27, 1995 "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 26, 2015 
  18. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4 Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" PDF United States Census Bureau April 2, 2001 Retrieved February 26, 2015 
  19. ^ "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  20. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  21. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  22. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  23. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  24. ^ Sutton, pp 86
  25. ^ Sutton, p 201
  26. ^ Sutton, pp 92–94
  27. ^ Sutton, pp 99
  28. ^ "Josephine Community Libraries" Retrieved 2010-06-07 
  29. ^ http://uselectionatlasorg/RESULTS
  30. ^ David Leip Presidential Election Atlas
  31. ^ Geographie Electorale
  32. ^ Menendez, Albert J; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868-2004, pp 284-286 ISBN 0786422173
  33. ^ Oregon Collegiate Broadcast System "Oregon 1968 - RFK Campaign Train" Youtube RW Rynerson Retrieved June 5, 2016 
General
  • Jack Sutton 1966 "110 Years with Josephine: The History of Josephine County, Oregon" The Josephine County Historical Society 

External linksedit

  • Josephine County official website

Coordinates: 42°22′N 123°34′W / 4236°N 12356°W / 4236; -12356

‹ The template below Geographic location is being considered for deletion See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus ›

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