Sat . 18 Nov 2018

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

john hasbrouck van vleck
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980 was an American physicist and mathematician, co-awarded the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids

Contents

  • 1 Education and early life
  • 2 Career and research
    • 21 Publications
  • 3 Awards and honors
  • 4 Personal life
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Education and early lifeedit

Born in Middletown, Connecticut, the son of mathematician Edward Burr Van Vleck and grandson of astronomer John Monroe Van Vleck, he grew up in Madison, Wisconsin, and received an AB degree from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1920 Then he went to Harvard for graduate studies and earned a PhD degree in 1922

Career and researchedit

He joined the University of Minnesota as an assistant professor in 1923, then moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison before settling at Harvard He also earned Honorary D Sc, or D Honoris Causa, degree from Wesleyan University in 19362

J H Van Vleck established the fundamentals of the quantum mechanical theory of magnetism and the crystal field theory chemical bonding in metal complexes He is regarded as the Father of Modern Magnetism345

During World War II, J H Van Vleck worked on radar at the MIT Radiation Lab He was half time at the Radiation Lab and half time on the staff at Harvard He showed that at about 125-centimeter wavelength water molecules in the atmosphere would lead to troublesome absorption and that at 05-centimeter wavelength there would be a similar absorption by oxygen molecules6789 This was to have important consequences not just for military and civil radar systems but later for the new science of radioastronomy

Van Vleck left receives the Lorentz Medal from Hendrik Brugt Gerhard Casimir at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam

J H Van Vleck participated in the Manhattan Project In June 1942, J Robert Oppenheimer held a summer study for confirming the concept and feasibility of nuclear weapon at the University of California, Berkeley Eight theoretical scientists, including J H Van Vleck, attended it From July to September, the theoretical study group examined and developed the principles of atomic bomb design101112

J H Van Vleck's theoretical work led to the establishment of the Los Alamos Nuclear Weapons Laboratory He also served on the Los Alamos Review committee in 1943 The committee, established by General Leslie Groves, also consisted of W K Lewis of MIT, Chairman; E L Rose, of Jones & Lamson; E B Wilson of Harvard; and Richard C Tolman, Vice Chairman of NDRC The committee's important contribution originating with Rose was a reduction in the size of the firing gun for the Little Boy atomic bomb, a concept that eliminated additional design weight and sped up production of the bomb for its eventual release over Hiroshima However, it was not employed for the Fat Man bomb at Nagasaki, which relied on implosion of a plutonium shell to reach critical mass1314

In 1961/62 he was George Eastman Visiting Professor at University of Oxford15 and Professorship of Balliol College16

In 1950 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences17 He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 196618 and the Lorentz Medal in 197419 For his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids, Van Vleck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1977, along with Philip W Anderson and Sir Nevill Mott20 Van Vleck transformations and Van Vleck paramagnetism21 are also named after him

Van Vleck died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, aged 8122

Publicationsedit

  • The Absorption of Radiation by Multiply Periodic Orbits, and its Relation to the Correspondence Principle and the Rayleigh–Jeans Law Part I Some Extensions of the Correspondence Principle, Physical Review, vol 24, Issue 4, pp 330–346 1924
  • The Absorption of Radiation by Multiply Periodic Orbits, and its Relation to the Correspondence Principle and the Rayleigh–Jeans Law Part II Calculation of Absorption by Multiply Periodic Orbits, Physical Review, vol 24, Issue 4, pp 347–365 1924
  • Quantum Principles and Line Spectra, Bulletin of the National Research Council; v 10, pt 4, no 54, 1926
  • The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities Oxford at Clarendon, 1932
  • Quantum Mechanics, The Key to Understanding Magnetism, Nobel Lecture, December 8, 1977
  • The Correspondence Principle in the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, vol 14, pp 178–188 1928

Awards and honorsedit

He was awarded the Irving Langmuir Award in 1965, the National Medal of Science in 1966 and elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society ForMemRS in 19671 He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1971, the Lorentz Medal in 1974 and the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977

Personal lifeedit

J H Van Vleck and his wife Abigail were also important art collectors, particularly in the medium of Japanese woodblock prints principally Ukiyo-e, known as Van Vleck Collection It was inherited from his father Edward Burr Van Vleck They donated it to the Chazen Museum of Art in Madison, Wisconsin in 1980s23

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b Bleaney, B 1982 "John Hasbrouck Van Vleck 13 March 1899-27 October 1980" Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 28: 627–626 JSTOR 769913 doi:101098/rsbm19820024 
  2. ^ Autobiography, John H Van Vleck, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
  3. ^ John H van Vleck, International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science
  4. ^ On the verge of Umdeutung in Minnesota: Van Vleck and the correspondence principle Part One, Anthony Duncan, Michel Janssen; Elsevier Science, 8 May 2007
  5. ^ On the verge of Umdeutung in Minnesota: Van Vleck and the correspondence principle Part Two Archived 2009-05-20 at the Wayback Machine, Anthony Duncan, Michel Janssen; Elsevier Science, 8 May 2007
  6. ^ Norman F Ramsey Oral History 1991permanent dead link, NORMAN F RAMSEY: An Interview Conducted by John Bryant, IEEE History Center, 20 June 1991
  7. ^ Oral History Transcript, Interview with John H Van Vleck by Katherine Sopka at Lyman Laboratory of Physics, 28 January 1977
  8. ^ Louis Brown, A radar history of World War II, Institute of Physics Pub, 1999, ISBN 0750306599, pp 442, 521
  9. ^ Van Vleck, J; Weisskopf, V 1945 "On the Shape of Collision-Broadened Lines" PDF Reviews of Modern Physics 17 2–3: 227 Bibcode:1945RvMP17227V doi:101103/RevModPhys17227 
  10. ^ New Weapons Laboratory Gives Birth to the "Gadget", 50th Anniversary Article, Los Alamos National Laboratory
  11. ^ Berkeley Summer Study Group, The Atomic Heritage Foundation
  12. ^ Atomic History Timeline 1900– 1942 , The Atomic Heritage Foundation
  13. ^ "Oversight Committee Formed as Lab Begins Research – 50th Anniversary Article, Los Alamos National Laboratory" 
  14. ^ Leslie R Groves, Lieutenant General, US Army, Retired; Now It Can Be Told, Harper, 1962, pp 162–63
  15. ^ Nobel Laureates, University of Oxford
  16. ^ Inspiring minds: the Eastman Professors, Floreat Domus, Balliol College News, Issue 12, June 2006
  17. ^ "John Hasbrouck van Vleck 1899–1980" Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Retrieved 17 July 2015 
  18. ^ "The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details" National Science Foundation 
  19. ^ "The Lorentz medal" Lorentzleidenunivnl Retrieved 2012-07-27 
  20. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977" Nobelprizeorg Retrieved 2012-07-27 
  21. ^ "Van Vleck paramagnetism" Answerscom 
  22. ^ "John Van Vleck, Nobel Laureate Known for Work on Magnetism; Earned Three Degree" The New York Times October 28, 1980 p A32 
  23. ^ E B Van Vleck Collection, Chazen Museum of Art

External linksedit

  • The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities
  • John Hasbrouck van Vleck
  • NNDB
  • Duncan, Anthony and Janssen, Michel "On the verge of Undeutung in Minnesota: Van Vleck and the correspondence principle Part one," Archive for History of Exact Sciences 2007, 61:6, pages 553–624 1
  • Chazen Museum of Art
  • Oral history interview transcript with John Hasbrouck Van Vleck 14 October 1963, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives
  • Oral history interview transcript with John Hasbrouck Van Vleck 28 February 1966, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives
  • Oral history interview transcript with John Hasbrouck Van Vleck 28 January 1977, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives
Academic offices
Preceded by
Percy Williams Bridgman
Hollis Chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy
1951–1969
Succeeded by
Andrew Gleason

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