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Jimmy Wales

jimmy wales, jimmy wales monkey selfie
Jimmy Donal "Jimbo" Wales /ˈdʒɪmi ˈdoʊnəl ˈweɪlz/; born August 7, 1966 is an American Internet entrepreneur He is the co-founder and promoter of the online non-profit encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and the for-profit Wikia web hosting company

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama, where he attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school Later, he earned bachelor's and master's degrees in Finance from Auburn University and the University of Alabama, respectively

While in graduate school, Wales taught at two universities; however, he departed before completing a PhD to take a job in finance, and later worked as the Research Director of a Chicago, Illinois, futures and options firm In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, an adult web portal featuring entertainment and adult content The company would provide the initial funding for the peer-reviewed free encyclopedia, Nupedia 2000–03, and its successor, Wikipedia

On January 15, 2001, with Larry Sanger and others, Wales launched Wikipedia—a free, open content encyclopedia that enjoyed rapid growth and popularity; as Wikipedia's public profile grew, he became the project's promoter and spokesman He is historically cited as a co-founder of Wikipedia, though he has disputed the "co-" designation, declaring himself the sole founder

Wales serves on the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, the non-profit charitable organization that he helped establish to operate Wikipedia, holding its board-appointed "community founder" seat In 2004, he co-founded Wikia, a for-profit wiki hosting service His role in creating Wikipedia, which has become the world's largest encyclopedia, prompted Time Magazine to name him in their 2006 list of "The 100 Most Influential People in the World"


  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Career
    • 21 Chicago Options Associates and Bomis
    • 22 Nupedia and the origins of Wikipedia
    • 23 Wikipedia
      • 231 Controversy regarding Wales's status as co-founder
      • 232 Role
    • 24 Wikimedia Foundation
      • 241 Controversies
    • 25 Wikia and later pursuits
  • 3 Political and economic views
    • 31 Personal philosophy
    • 32 Philosophy in practice
    • 33 Development and management of Wikipedia
    • 34 Testimony before Senate Homeland Security Committee
    • 35 European Court of Justice Google ruling
    • 36 Other issues
  • 4 Personal life
  • 5 Honors, awards and positions
  • 6 Publications
  • 7 References
  • 8 Bibliography
  • 9 External links

Early life

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama, shortly before midnight on August 7, 1966; however, his birth certificate lists his date of birth as the 8th His father, Jimmy, worked as a grocery store manager, while his mother, Doris Ann née Dudley, and his grandmother, Erma, ran the House of Learning, a small private school in the tradition of the one-room schoolhouse, where Wales and his three siblings received their early education

As a child, Wales was a keen reader with an acute intellectual curiosity When he was three, his mother bought a World Book Encyclopedia from a door-to-door salesman As he grew up and learned to read, it became an object of reverence It put at his fingertips an abundant supply of knowledge complete with maps, illustrations, and a few cellophane layers of transparencies one could lift to explore such things as the muscles, arteries, and digestive system of a dissected frog But Wales soon discovered that the World Book had shortcomings: no matter how much was in it, there were many more things that were not World Book sent out stickers for owners to paste on the pages in order to update the encyclopedia, and Wales was careful to put the stickers to work, stating, "I joke that I started as a kid revising the encyclopedia by stickering the one my mother bought"

During an interview in 2005 with Brian Lamb, Wales described his childhood private school as a "Montessori influenced philosophy of education", where he "spent lots of hours poring over the Britannicas and World Book Encyclopedias" There were only four other children in Wales's grade, so the school grouped together the first through fourth-grade students and the fifth through eighth-grade students As an adult, Wales was sharply critical of the government's treatment of the school, citing the "constant interference and bureaucracy and very sort of snobby inspectors from the state" as a formative influence on his political philosophy

After eighth grade, Wales attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school in Huntsville, graduating at sixteen Wales said that the school was expensive for his family, but that "education was always a passion in my household  you know, the very traditional approach to knowledge and learning and establishing that as a base for a good life" He received his bachelor's degree in finance from Auburn University in 1986 Wales then entered the PhD finance program at the University of Alabama before leaving with a master's degree to enter the PhD finance program at Indiana University He taught at both universities during his postgraduate studies but did not write the doctoral dissertation required for a PhD, something he ascribed to boredom


Chicago Options Associates and Bomis

The staff of Wales's Internet company Bomis photographed in summer 2000 Wales is third from the left in the back row, with his then-wife Christine

In 1994, Wales took a job with Chicago Options Associates, a futures and options trading firm in Chicago, Illinois Wales has described himself as having been addicted to the Internet from an early stage and he wrote computer code during his leisure time During his studies in Alabama, he had become an obsessive player of Multi-User Dungeons MUDs—a type of virtual role-playing game—and thereby experienced the potential of computer networks to foster large-scale collaborative projects

Inspired by the remarkably successful initial public offering of Netscape in 1995, and having accumulated capital through "speculating on interest-rate and foreign-currency fluctuations", Wales decided to leave the realm of financial trading and became an Internet entrepreneur In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis, a web portal featuring user-generated webrings and, for a time, erotic photographs Wales described it as a "guy-oriented search engine" with a market similar to that of Maxim magazine; the Bomis venture did not ultimately turn out to be successful

Nupedia and the origins of Wikipedia

Main article: Nupedia Nupedia's logo

Though Bomis had struggled to make money, it provided Wales with the funding to pursue his greater passion, an online encyclopedia While moderating an online discussion group devoted to the philosophy of Objectivism in the early 1990s, Wales had encountered Larry Sanger, a skeptic of the philosophy The two had engaged in detailed debate on the subject on Wales's list and then on Sanger's, eventually meeting offline to continue the debate and becoming friends Years later, after deciding to pursue his encyclopedia project and seeking a credentialed academic to lead it, Wales hired Sanger—who at that time was a doctoral student in philosophy at Ohio State University—to be its editor-in-chief, and in March 2000, Nupedia "the free encyclopedia", a peer-reviewed, open-content encyclopedia, was launched The intent behind Nupedia was to have expert-written entries on a variety of topics, and to sell advertising alongside the entries in order to make profit The project was characterized by an extensive peer-review process designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias

The idea was to have thousands of volunteers writing articles for an online encyclopedia in all languages Initially we found ourselves organizing the work in a very top-down, structured, academic, old-fashioned way It was no fun for the volunteer writers because we had a lot of academic peer review committees who would criticize articles and give feedback It was like handing in an essay at grad school, and basically intimidating to participate in

— Jimmy Wales on the Nupedia project New Scientist, January 31, 2007

In an October 2009 speech, Wales recollected attempting to write a Nupedia article on Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert C Merton, but being too intimidated to submit his first draft to the prestigious finance professors who were to peer review it, even though he had published a paper on Option Pricing Theory and was comfortable with the subject matter Wales characterized this as the moment he realized that the Nupedia model was not going to work

In January 2001, Sanger was introduced to the concept of a wiki by extreme programming enthusiast Ben Kovitz after explaining to Kovitz the slow pace of growth Nupedia endured as a result of its onerous submission process Kovitz suggested that adopting the wiki model would allow editors to contribute simultaneously and incrementally throughout the project, thus breaking Nupedia's bottleneck Sanger was excited about the idea, and after he proposed it to Wales, they created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001 The wiki was initially intended as a collaborative project for the public to write articles that would then be reviewed for publication by Nupedia's expert volunteers The majority of Nupedia's experts, however, wanted nothing to do with this project, fearing that mixing amateur content with professionally researched and edited material would compromise the integrity of Nupedia's information and damage the credibility of the encyclopedia Thus, the wiki project, dubbed "Wikipedia" by Sanger, went live at a separate domain five days after its creation


Main article: History of Wikipedia External video
Jimmy Wales: The birth of Wikipedia, TED, 2005
Q&A with Jimmy Wales, C-SPAN, 2005
Lecture Jimmy Wales: Understanding failure as a route to success, Maastricht University, 2015

Originally, Bomis planned to make Wikipedia a profitable business Sanger initially saw Wikipedia primarily as a tool to aid Nupedia development Wales feared that at worst, it might produce "complete rubbish" To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching the number of articles on Wikipedia had outgrown that of Nupedia, and a small collective of editors had formed It was Jimmy Wales, along with other people, who came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from ordinary people Initially, neither Sanger nor Wales knew what to expect from the Wikipedia initiative Many of the early contributors to the site were familiar with the model of the free culture movement, and, like Wales, many of them sympathized with the open-source movement Wales has said that he was initially so worried about the concept of open editing, where anyone can edit the encyclopedia, that he would awake during the night and monitor what was being added Nonetheless, the cadre of early editors helped create a robust, self-regulating community that has proven conducive to the growth of the project In a talk at SXSW in 2016, he recalled that he wrote the first words on Wikipedia: "Hello world", a phrase computer programmers often use to test new software

Sanger developed Wikipedia in its early phase and guided the project The broader idea he originally ascribes to other people, remarking in a 2005 memoir for Slashdot that "the idea of an open source, collaborative encyclopedia, open to contribution by ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy's, not mine, and the funding was entirely by Bomis Of course, other people had had the idea", adding, "the actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he gave me to work on" Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002; Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as "chief organizer" of Wikipedia on March 1 of that year Early on, Bomis supplied the financial backing for Wikipedia, and entertained the notion of placing advertisements on Wikipedia before costs were reduced with Sanger's departure and plans for a nonprofit foundation were advanced instead

Controversy regarding Wales's status as co-founder

Further information: History of Wikipedia § Early roles of Wales and Sanger Wales with journalist Irina Slutsky at SXSW 2006, taken from her program Geek Entertainment TV

Wales has asserted that he is the sole founder of Wikipedia, and has publicly disputed Sanger's designation as a co-founder Sanger and Wales were identified as co-founders at least as early as September 2001 by The New York Times and as founders in Wikipedia's first press release in January 2002 In August of that year, Wales identified himself as "co-founder" of Wikipedia Sanger assembled on his personal webpage an assortment of links that appear to confirm the status of Sanger and Wales as co-founders For example, Sanger and Wales are historically cited or described in early news citations and press releases as co-founders Wales was quoted by The Boston Globe as calling Sanger's claim "preposterous" in February 2006, and called "the whole debate silly" in an April 2009 interview

In late 2005, Wales edited his own biographical entry on the English Wikipedia Writer Rogers Cadenhead drew attention to logs showing that in his edits to the page, Wales had removed references to Sanger as the co-founder of Wikipedia Sanger commented that "having seen edits like this, it does seem that Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history But this is a futile process because in our brave new world of transparent activity and maximum communication, the truth will out" Wales was also observed to have modified references to Bomis in a way that was characterized as downplaying the sexual nature of some of his former company's products Though Wales argued that his modifications were solely intended to improve the accuracy of the content, he apologized for editing his own biography, a practice generally discouraged on Wikipedia


In a 2004 interview with Slashdot, Wales outlined his vision for Wikipedia: "Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge That's what we're doing" Although his formal designation is board member and chairman emeritus of the Wikimedia Foundation, Wales's social capital within the Wikipedia community has accorded him a status that has been characterized as benevolent dictator, constitutional monarch and spiritual leader In two interviews with the Guardian in 2014, Wales elaborated on his role on Wikipedia In the first interview, he said that while he "has always rejected" the term "benevolent dictator", he does refer to himself as the "constitutional monarch" In the second, he elaborated on his "constitutional monarch" designation, saying that, like the Queen of England, he has no real power He was also the closest the project had to a spokesperson in its early years The growth and prominence of Wikipedia made Wales an Internet celebrity Although he had never traveled outside North America prior to the site's founding, his participation in the Wikipedia project has seen him flying internationally on a near-constant basis as its public face

When Larry Sanger left Wikipedia, Wales's approach was different from Sanger's Wales was fairly hands-off Despite involvement in other projects, Wales has denied intending to reduce his role within Wikipedia, telling The New York Times in 2008 that "Dialing down is not an option for me  Not to be too dramatic about it, but, 'to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language,' that's who I am That's what I am doing That's my life goal" In May 2010, the BBC reported that Wales had relinquished many of his technical privileges on Wikimedia Commons a Wikipedia sister project that hosts much of its multimedia content after criticism by the project's volunteer community over what they saw as Wales's hasty and undemocratic approach to deleting sexually explicit images he believed "appeal solely to prurient interests"

Wikimedia Foundation

Wales appearing as a member of the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees at Wikimania 2007

In mid-2003, Wales set up the Wikimedia Foundation WMF, a non-profit organization founded in St Petersburg, Florida and later headquartered in San Francisco, California All intellectual property rights and domain names pertaining to Wikipedia were moved to the new foundation, whose purpose is to establish general policy for the encyclopedia and its sister projects Wales has been a member of the Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees since it was formed and was its official chairman from 2003 through 2006 Since 2006 he has been accorded the honorary title of chairman emeritus and holds the board-appointed "community founder" seat His work for the foundation, including his appearances to promote it at computer and educational conferences, has always been unpaid Wales has often joked that donating Wikipedia to the foundation was both the "dumbest and the smartest" thing he had done On one hand, he estimated that Wikipedia was worth US$3 billion; on the other, he weighed his belief that the donation made its success possible

Wales gives an annual "State of the Wiki" address, at the Wikimania conference


Wales's association with the foundation has led to controversy In March 2008, Wales was accused by former Wikimedia Foundation employee Danny Wool of misusing the foundation's funds for recreational purposes Wool also stated that Wales had his Wikimedia credit card taken away in part because of his spending habits, a claim Wales denied Then-chairperson of the foundation Florence Devouard and former foundation interim Executive Director Brad Patrick denied any wrongdoing by Wales or the foundation, saying that Wales accounted for every expense and that, for items for which he lacked receipts, he paid out of his own pocket; in private, Devouard upbraided Wales for "constantly trying to rewrite the past" Later in March 2008, it was claimed by Jeffrey Vernon Merkey that Wales had edited Merkey's Wikipedia entry to make it more favorable in return for donations to the Wikimedia Foundation, an allegation Wales dismissed as "nonsense" In early 2016 Wikipedia editors perceived the WMF's Knowledge Engine project as a conflict of interest for Wales, whose business Wikia might benefit from having the WMF spend a lot of money on research in respect to search Wikia attempted to develop a search engine but it was closed in 2009

Wikia and later pursuits

In 2004, Wales and then-fellow member of the WMF Board of Trustees Angela Beesley founded the for-profit company Wikia Wikia is a wiki farm—a collection of individual wikis on different subjects, all hosted on the same website It hosts some of the largest wikis outside Wikipedia, including Memory Alpha devoted to Star Trek and Wookieepedia Star Wars Another service offered by Wikia was Wikia Search, an open source search engine intended to challenge Google and introduce transparency and public dialogue about how it is created into the search engine's operations, but the project was abandoned in March 2009 Wales stepped down as Wikia CEO to be replaced by angel investor Gil Penchina, a former vice president and general manager at eBay, on June 5, 2006 Penchina declared Wikia to have reached profitability in September 2009 In addition to his role at Wikia, Wales is a public speaker represented by the Harry Walker Agency He has also participated in a celebrity endorsement campaign for the Swiss watch maker Maurice Lacroix

On November 4, 2011, Wales delivered an hour-long address at The Sage Gateshead in the United Kingdom to launch the 2011 Free Thinking Festival on BBC Radio Three His speech, which was entitled "The Future of the Internet", was largely devoted to Wikipedia Twenty days later, on November 24, Wales appeared on the British topical debate television program Question Time

In May 2012, it was reported that Wales was advising the UK government on how to make taxpayer-funded academic research available on the internet at no cost His role reportedly involved working as "an unpaid advisor on crowdsourcing and opening up policymaking", and advising the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills and the UK research councils on distributing research

In January 2014, it was announced that Wales had joined The People's Operator as co-chair of the mobile phone network

On March 21, 2014, Wales spoke on a panel at a Clinton Global Initiative University conference held at Arizona State University, along with John McCain, Saudi Arabian women's rights activist Manal al-Sharif and Harvard University student Shree Bose The topic of discussion was "the age of participation" and the ability of an increasingly large number of citizens to "express their own opinions, pursue their own educations, and launch their own enterprises" Wales exhorted young people to use social media to try to bring about societal change, and compared government suppression of the Internet to a human rights violation

On May 26, 2014, Google appointed Wales to serve on a seven-member committee on privacy in response to Google v Gonzalez, which led to their being inundated with requests to remove websites from their search results Wales said he wanted the committee to be viewed as "a blue-ribbon panel" by lawmakers and for the committee to advise them as well as Google

Political and economic views

Personal philosophy

Wales in June 2008 Jimmy Wales 2014 on CeBIT Global Conferences, Wikipedia Zero

Wales is a self-avowed Objectivist, referring to the philosophy invented by writer Ayn Rand in the mid-20th century that emphasizes reason, individualism, and capitalism Wales first encountered the philosophy through reading Rand's novel The Fountainhead during his undergraduate period and, in 1992, founded an electronic mailing list devoted to "Moderated Discussion of Objectivist Philosophy" Though he has stated that the philosophy "colours everything I do and think", he has said, "I think I do a better job—than a lot of people who self-identify as Objectivists—of not pushing my point of view on other people"

When asked by Brian Lamb about Rand's influence on him in his appearance on C-SPAN's Q&A in September 2005, Wales cited integrity and "the virtue of independence" as personally important When asked if he could trace "the Ayn Rand connection" to a personal political philosophy at the time of the interview, Wales labeled himself a libertarian, qualifying his remark by referring to the US Libertarian Party as "lunatics", and citing "freedom, liberty, basically individual rights, that idea of dealing with other people in a manner that is not initiating force against them" as his guiding principles

An interview with Wales served as the cover feature of the June 2007 issue of the libertarian magazine Reason In that profile, he described his political views as "center-right" Prior to 2008, Wales attended George Soros' birthday

In a 2011 interview with The Independent, he expressed sympathy with the Occupy Wall Street and Occupy London protesters, saying, "You don't have to be a socialist to say it's not right to take money from everybody and give it to a few rich people That's not free enterprise"

Dan Hodges in The Telegraph has described Wales as a "Labour sympathizer"

In 2015, Wales signed up as the committee chair for Lawrence Lessig's 2016 presidential campaign

In 2016, Wales and eleven other business leaders signed on to an open letter to American voters urging them not to vote for Donald Trump in that year's United States presidential election

Philosophy in practice

The January/February 2006 issue of Maximum PC reported that Wales refused to comply with a request from the People's Republic of China to censor "politically sensitive" Wikipedia articles—other corporate Internet companies, such as Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft, had already yielded to Chinese government pressure Wales stated that he would rather see companies such as Google adhere to Wikipedia's policy of freedom of information In 2010, Wales criticized whistle blower website WikiLeaks and its editor-in-chief Julian Assange, saying that their publication of Afghan war documents "could be enough to get someone killed"; furthermore, he expressed irritation at their use of the name "wiki": "What they're doing is not really a wiki The essence of wiki is a collaborative editing "

Development and management of Wikipedia

Wales at the tenth anniversary celebration of the Bengali Wikipedia

Wales cites Austrian School economist Friedrich Hayek's essay, "The Use of Knowledge in Society", which he read as an undergraduate, as "central" to his thinking about "how to manage the Wikipedia project" Hayek argued that information is decentralized—that each individual only knows a small fraction of what is known collectively—and that as a result, decisions are best made by those with local knowledge, rather than by a central authority Wales reconsidered Hayek's essay in the 1990s, while reading about the open source movement, which advocated for the free distribution of free software He was particularly moved by "The Cathedral and the Bazaar", an essay, which was later adapted into a book of the same name, by one of the founders of the movement, Eric S Raymond, as it "opened eyes to the possibilities of mass collaboration"

From his background in finance, and working as a futures and options trader, Wales developed an interest in game theory and the effect of incentives on human collaborative activity He identifies this fascination as a significant basis for his developmental work on the Wikipedia project He has rejected the notion that his role in promoting Wikipedia is altruistic, which he defines as "sacrificing your own values for others", stating that the idea of "participating in a benevolent effort to share information is somehow destroying your own values makes no sense to me"

Testimony before Senate Homeland Security Committee

On December 11, 2007, Wales testified before to the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs He also submitted written testimony to the Senate Committee entitled "E-Government 20: Improving Innovation, Collaboration and Access"

Senator Joseph Lieberman introduced Wales by stating:

We are very glad to have as a witness Jimmy Wales, the founder of Wikipedia, one of the most thrilling examples of what collaborative technology can produce We have asked Mr Wales to take us through some of the ideas behind Wikipedia and then to relate them to our jurisdiction, which is to say to help us understand how similar technologies and collaborative activities can be applied to government for greater information sharing and communication, both within the government, but also between the government and the public

In fact, quite encouragingly, the intelligence community has already developed and is using a process collaborative technology that they call Intellipedia, which is based directly on the Wikipedia model So Mr Wales, if imitation is a form of flattery, you should feel flattered And the aim of this is to foster collaboration and information across the intelligence community, obviously on a closed site

Wales's testimony is available for viewing on CSPAN

European Court of Justice Google ruling

On May 14, 2014, Wales strongly reacted to the European Court of Justice ECJ's ruling on the right of individuals to request the removal of information from Google's search results He stated to the BBC that the ruling was "one of the most wide-sweeping internet censorship rulings that I've ever seen" In early June 2014, the TechCrunch media outlet interviewed Wales on the subject, as he had been invited by Google to join an advisory committee that the corporation had formed as an addition to the formal process that the ECJ requested from Google to manage such requests

The May 2014 ECJ ruling required swift action from Google to implement a process that allowed people to directly contact the corporation about the removal of information that they believe is outdated or irrelevant Google's Larry Page revealed that 30 percent of requests received by Google since the ruling was made were categorized as "other" Wales explained in email responses that he was contacted by Google on May 28, 2014, and "The remit of the committee is to hold public hearings and issue recommendations—not just to Google but to legislators and the public" When asked about his view on the ECJ's "right to be forgotten" ruling, Wales replied:

I think the decision will have no impact on people's right to privacy, because I don't regard truthful information in court records published by court order in a newspaper to be private information If anything, the decision is likely to simply muddle the interesting philosophical questions and make it more difficult to make real progress on privacy issues In the case of truthful, non-defamatory information obtained legally, I think there is no possibility of any defensible "right" to censor what other people are saying It is important to avoid language like "data" because we aren't talking about "data"—we are talking about the suppression of knowledge

Wales then provided further explanation, drawing a comparison with Wikipedia: "You do not have a right to use the law to prevent Wikipedia editors from writing truthful information, nor do you have a right to use the law to prevent Google from publishing truthful information" Wales concluded with an indication of his ideal outcome: "A part of the outcome should be the very strong implementation of a right to free speech in Europe—essentially the language of the First Amendment in the US"

Other issues

In 2012, the Home Secretary of the UK was petitioned by Wales in regard to his opposition to the extradition of Richard O'Dwyer to the US After an agreement was reached to avoid the extradition, Wales commented, "This is very exciting news, and I'm pleased to hear it What needs to happen next is a serious reconsideration of the UK extradition treaty that would allow this sort of nonsense in the first place"

In August 2013, Wales criticized UK Prime Minister David Cameron's plan for an Internet porn-filter, saying that the idea was "ridiculous" In November 2013, Wales also commented on the Snowden affair, describing Edward Snowden as "a hero" whom history would judge "very favourably"; additionally, Wales said the US public "would have never approved sweeping surveillance program ", had they been informed or asked about it

Personal life

Wales with his second wife, Christine Rohan

Jimmy Wales has been married three times At the age of twenty, he married Pamela Green, a co-worker at a grocery store in Alabama They divorced in 1993 He met his second wife, Christine Rohan, through a friend in Chicago while she was working as a steel trader for Mitsubishi The couple were married in Monroe County, Florida in March 1997, and had a daughter before separating Wales moved to San Diego in 1998, and after becoming disillusioned with the housing market there, relocated in 2002 to St Petersburg, Florida

Wales had a brief relationship with Canadian conservative columnist Rachel Marsden in 2008 that began after Marsden contacted Wales about her Wikipedia biography After accusations that Wales's relationship constituted a conflict of interest, Wales stated that there had been a relationship but that it was over and said that it had not influenced any matters on Wikipedia, a claim which was disputed by Marsden

Wales married Kate Garvey in London on October 6, 2012 She is Tony Blair's former diary secretary, whom Wales met in Davos, Switzerland Wales and Garvey have two daughters

Wales is an atheist In an interview with Big Think, he said his personal philosophy is firmly rooted in reason and he is a complete non-believer As of 2012, he lives in London, England

Honors, awards and positions

Wales at the Gottlieb Duttweiler Awards Show, 2011 Wales receives an honorary doctorate from Maastricht University, 2015 Jimmy Wales accepting the Dan David Prize at the Tel Aviv University, 2015
  • Wales is a former co-chair of the World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008, and a former board member of Socialtext
  • He is a member of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, and the board of directors at Creative Commons and Hunchcom
  • In 2006, Wales was listed in the "Scientists & Thinkers" section of the Time 100 and number 12 in Forbes "The Web Celebs 25"
  • Wales has also given a lecture in the Stuart Regen Visionary series at New Museum which "honors special individuals who have made major contributions to art and culture, and are actively imagining a better future" and by the World Economic Forum as one of the "Young Global Leaders" of 2007
  • The 2008 Global Brand Icon of the Year Award, and on behalf of the Wikimedia project the Quadriga award of Werkstatt Deutschland for A Mission of Enlightenment
  • The 2009 Nokia Foundation annual award, the Business Process Award at the 7th Annual Innovation Awards and Summit by The Economist
  • In April 2011, Wales served on the jury of the Tribeca Film Festival, Wales has received a Pioneer Award, the Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize and the Leonardo European Corporate Learning Award in 2011, the Monaco Media Prize, Wales has also received honorary degrees from Knox College, Amherst College, Stevenson University, Argentina's Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, and Russia's MIREA University
  • On December 5, 2013, Wales was awarded the UNESCO Niels Bohr Medal in Copenhagen, Denmark at a conference on "An Open World" to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Niels Bohr's atomic theory His presentation on "Wikipedia, Democracy and the Internet" emphasised the need to expand Wikipedia into virtually all the languages of the world The "Wikipedia Zero" initiative was beginning to prove successful in encouraging telecommunications companies to provide children in the developing world with free access to Wikipedia for educational purposes Wales was inducted into the Internet Hall of Fame in 2013
  • In February 2014, Wales was named one of "25 Web Superstars" by The Daily Telegraph On May 17, 2014, Wales became Doctor Honoris Causa of the Faculty of Communication Sciences of the Università della Svizzera italiana USI Lugano, Switzerland On June 25, 2014, Wales received an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters from Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland On July 10, 2014, Wales received the UK Tech4Good Awards "Special Award" for establishing Wikipedia He was one of eight winners in various categories meant to honor organizations and individuals who use digital technology to improve the lives of others In December 2014, Wales shared the inaugural $1-million Mohammed bin Rashid Knowledge Award with World Wide Web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee
  • In January 2015, Maastricht University awarded an honorary doctorate to Wales On April 25, 2015, Wales received the Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service along with Jon Bon Jovi and Edward Norton On May 17, 2015, Wales received the Dan David Prize of $1 million in the "Present" category others won that amount for "Past" and "Future" contributions to society He was awarded the prize for "launching the world's largest online encyclopedia"
  • In January 2016, Wales, along with Baroness Rebuck, became a non-executive director of the Guardian Media Group On February 2, 2016, he received an honorary doctorate from the Université Catholique de Louvain
  • In June 2016, during the opening ceremony on Wikimania 2016, Wales was awarded with the honour citizenship of Esino Lario


  • Brooks, Robert; Jon Corson, Jimmy Donal Wales 1994 "The Pricing of Index Options When the Underlying Assets All Follow a Lognormal Diffusion" Advances in Futures and Options Research 7 
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle December 31, 2008 "Foreword" In Fraser, Matthew; Dutta, Soumitra Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World 1st ed Wiley ISBN 0-470-74014-0 OCLC 233939846 
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle January 8, 2009 "Commentary: Create a tech-friendly US government" CNN 
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle February 10, 2009 "Foreword" In Powell, Juliette 33 Million People in the Room: How to Create, Influence, and Run a Successful Business with Social Networking 1st ed Financial Times Press ISBN 0-13-715435-6 OCLC 244066502 
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle March 3, 2009 "Foreword" In Weber, Larry Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business 2nd ed Wiley ISBN 0-470-41097-3 OCLC 244060887 
  • Wales, Jimmy March 17, 2009 "Foreword" In Lih, Andrew The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia 1st ed Hyperion ISBN 1-4013-0371-4 OCLC 232977686 
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle March 30, 2009 "Most Define User-Generated Content Too Narrowly" Advertising Age 80 
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle December 28, 2009 "Keep a Civil Cybertongue" The Wall Street Journal 
  • Mons, B; Ashburner, M; Chichester, C; Van Mulligen, E; Weeber, M; Den Dunnen, J; Van Ommen, G J; Musen, M; Cockerill, M; Hermjakob, H; Mons, A; Packer, A; Pacheco, R; Lewis, S; Berkeley, A; Melton, W; Barris, N; Wales, J; Meijssen, G; Moeller, E; Roes, P; Borner, K; Bairoch, A 2008 "Calling on a million minds for community annotation in WikiProteins" Genome Biology 9 5: R89 doi:101186/gb-2008-9-5-r89 PMC 2441475 PMID 18507872 


  1. ^ a b Hough, Stephen March 11, 2012 "Jimmy Wales: Wikipedia chief to advise Whitehall on policy" The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved May 30, 2012 
  2. ^ a b c d Garside, Juliette August 3, 2014 "Jimmy Wales: digital champion of free speech" The Observer London 
  3. ^ a b c Chozick, Amy June 30, 2013 "Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionaire" The New York Times 
  4. ^ Horovitz, David January 7, 2011 "Jimmy Wales's benevolent Wikipedia wisdom" The Jerusalem Post Retrieved February 24, 2015 
  5. ^ "Wikipedia: 50 languages, ½ million articles" Wikimedia Foundation Press Release Wikimedia Foundation April 25, 2004 Retrieved April 10, 2009 "The Wikipedia project was founded in January 2001 by Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales and philosopher Larry Sanger," quoted from April 25, 2004 first-ever press release issued by the Wikimedia Foundation
     •"Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, reaches its 100,000th article" Wikipedia Press Release Wikipedia January 21, 2003 Retrieved April 10, 2009 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Brain scan: The free-knowledge fundamentalist" The Economist June 5, 2008 Retrieved June 9, 2008 
  7. ^ Walden, Lea Ann, et al spring 2013 "Where Are They Now" Randolph Magazine 18 1 pp 20–7 Retrieved August 26, 2014
  8. ^ "Todd Chambers' answer to What did Jimmy Wales mostly think about when he was in High School - Quora" wwwquoracom Retrieved October 20, 2016 
  9. ^ "Did Jimmy Wales enjoy his time at Randolph School - Quora" Retrieved November 3, 2016 
  10. ^ a b c d e Bergstein, Brian March 25, 2007 "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia" MSNBC Associated Press Retrieved March 26, 2007 The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy PhD who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp The claim does not seem particularly controversial—Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, is not happy about it 
  11. ^ a b Olson, Parmy October 18, 2006 "A New Kid on the Wiki Block" Forbes Retrieved March 28, 2009 
  12. ^ "2006 TIME 100 Jimmy Wales" Time May 8, 2006 Retrieved November 10, 2013 
  13. ^ "Jimmy Wales" Encyclopædia Britannica July 16, 2014 Retrieved January 30, 2015 
  14. ^
    • "Jimmy Wales – Researcher's Note" Encyclopædia Britannica July 16, 2014 Retrieved January 30, 2015 
    • Rogoway, Mike July 27, 2007 "Wikipedia & its founder disagree on his birth date" Silicon Forest Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  15. ^ Kazek, Kelly August 11, 2006 "Geek to chic: Wikipedia founder a celebrity" The News Courier Doris Wales's husband, Jimmy, wasn't sure what she was thinking when she bought a World Book Encyclopedia set from a traveling salesman in 1968 
  16. ^ a b c d e Pink, Daniel H March 13, 2005 "The Book Stops Here" Wired 13 3 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  17. ^ "Jimmy Wales" Encyclopedia of Alabama Retrieved January 28, 2015 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mangu-Ward, Katherine June 2007 "Wikipedia and beyond: Jimmy Wales's sprawling vision" Reason 39 2 p 21 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  19. ^ Walter Isaacson October 19, 2014 "You Can Look It Up: The Wikipedia Story" The Daily Beast Retrieved November 1, 2016 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lamb, Brian September 25, 2005 "Q&A: Jimmy Wales, Wikipedia founder" C-SPAN Retrieved October 31, 2006 
  21. ^ Brown, David December 11, 2007 "Jimmy Wales '83" Alumni Profiles Randolph School Archived from the original on April 18, 2010 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  22. ^ Moore, Rebecca January 7, 2013 "Jimmy Wales '83: 'Information evangelist'", Randolph School Retrieved August 12, 2014
  23. ^ "Profile" BBC Radio 4 March 18, 2012 Retrieved August 12, 2014
  24. ^ "Todd Chambers' answer to what was jimmy wales' high school life like - Quora" wwwquoracom Retrieved October 18, 2016 
  25. ^ a b c d e f Barnett, Cynthia September 2005 "Wiki Mania" Florida Trend 48 5 p 62 Archived from the original on October 17, 2006 
  26. ^ a b Wilson, Claire July 13, 2010 "Jimmy Wales" Encyclopedia of Alabama Retrieved February 5, 2014 
  27. ^ a b c McNichol, Tom May 1, 2007 "Building a Wiki World" Business 20 CNN Retrieved October 31, 2007 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Schiff, Stacy July 31, 2006 "Know It All" The New Yorker Retrieved October 31, 2008 
    b "Even Wales has been caught airbrushing his Wikipedia entry—eighteen times in the past year He is particularly sensitive about references to the porn traffic on his Web portal 'Adult content' or 'glamour photography' are the terms that he prefers, though, as one user pointed out on the site, they are perhaps not the most precise way to describe lesbian strip-poker threesomes In January, Wales agreed to a compromise: 'erotic photography'"
  29. ^ a b c d e The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, p 93 "Wales, though, was a businessman He wanted to build a free encyclopedia, and Wikipedia offered a very rapid and economically efficient means to that end The articles flooded in, many were good, and they cost him almost nothing In 2003, Wales diminish his own authority by transferring Wikipedia and all of its assets to the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, whose sole purpose is to set general policy for Wikipedia and its allied projects Wales's benign rule has allowed Wikipedia to do what it does best: grow The numbers are staggering"
  30. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, p 88 "In 1996, Wales and two partners founded a Web directory called Bomis Wales focused on the bottom-up strategy using Web rings, and it worked Bomis users built hundreds of rings—on cars, computers, sports, and especially 'babes' eg, the Anna Kournikova Web ring, effectively creating an index of the 'laddie' Web Instead of helping all users find all content, Bomis found itself positioned as the Playboy of the Internet, helping guys find guy stuff"
  31. ^ a b Brennen, Jensen June 26, 2006 "Access for All" The Chronicle of Philanthropy 18 18 
  32. ^ a b c d e Hansen, Evan December 19, 2005 "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio" Wired News Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  33. ^ a b Rosenzweig, Roy June 2006 "Can History Be Open Source Wikipedia and the Future of the Past" reprint The Journal of American History 93 1: 117–46 doi:102307/4486062 Retrieved April 22, 2009 
  34. ^ Gouthro, Liane March 14, 2000 "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia" PC World CNN Archived from the original on March 3, 2006 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  35. ^ a b Marks, Paul February 3, 2007 "Interview with Jimmy Wales: Knowledge to the people" video New Scientist 193 2589: 44 doi:101016/S0262-40790760293-0 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  36. ^ Jimmy Wales October 7, 2009 The Future of Free Culture: Jimmy Wales, Founder of Wikipedia SWF,FLV,FLASH Videotape New Haven, Connecticut, United States: Yale University Event occurs at 43:19 Retrieved August 18, 2011 
  37. ^ a b c The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, p 91 "The wiki quickly gained a devoted following within the software community And there it remained until January 2001, when Sanger had dinner with an old friend named Ben Kovitz Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia's lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out 'wiki magic,' the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001 The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries that would then be "fed into the Nupedia process" of authorization"
  38. ^ a b Sidener, Jonathan December 6, 2004 "Everyone's encyclopedia" U-T San Diego p C1 Retrieved April 22, 2009 
  39. ^ "Jimmy Wales: The birth of Wikipedia" TED conference July 2005 Retrieved December 8, 2014 
  40. ^ "Lecture Jimmy Wales: Understanding failure as a route to success" Maastricht University on YouTube January 2015 Retrieved January 21, 2015 
  41. ^ a b Finkelstein, Seth September 25, 2008 "Wikipedia isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says" The Guardian London Retrieved April 27, 2009 
  42. ^ Sanger, Larry November 1, 2005 "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir" In DiBona, Chris; Cooper, Danese; Stone, Mark Open Sources 20: The Continuing Evolution O'Reilly Media, Inc p 312 ISBN 978-0-596-00802-4 To be clear, the idea of an open source, collaborative/encyclopedia, open to contribution by ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy's, not mine, and the funding was entirely by Bomis I was merely a grateful employee; I thought I was very lucky to have a job like that land in my lap Of course, other people had had the idea 
  43. ^ Getz, Arlene February 1, 2007 "In Search of an Online Utopia" Newsweek MSNBC Archived from the original on April 18, 2007 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  44. ^ Tapscott, Don; Anthony D 2008 Wikinomics Penguin Group p 71 ISBN 9781591842316 OCLC 263665459 
  45. ^ Carson, Biz March 13, 2016 "The first words on Wikipedia were a nerdy programmer in-joke" Business Insider Retrieved March 13, 2016 
  46. ^ a b Singer, Michael January 16, 2002 "Free Encyclopedia Project Celebrates Year One" Jupitermedia Archived from the original on March 16, 2003 Retrieved February 27, 2008 
  47. ^ Sanger, Larry April 18, 2005 "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir" Slashdot Retrieved October 31, 2005 
  48. ^ Sanger, Larry January 18, 2002 "What Wikipedia is and why it matters" metawikimediaorg Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  49. ^ Sanger, Larry March 5, 2007 "My resignation – Larry Sanger" metawikimediaorg Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved October 17, 2009 
  50. ^ Terdiman, Daniel January 6, 2006 "Wikipedia's co-founder eyes a Digital Universe" CNET News Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  51. ^ a b Smith, Wes January 15, 2007 "He's the "God-King," but you can call him Jimbo" The Seattle Times Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  52. ^ Slutsky, Irina; Codel, Eddie March 24, 2006 "SXSW2006: Jimmy Wales, Uber Wikipedian" Geek Entertainment TV Retrieved August 13, 2012 
  53. ^ Meyers, Peter September 20, 2001 "Fact-Driven Collegial This Site Wants You" The New York Times Retrieved August 8, 2015 I can start an article that will consist of one paragraph, and then a real expert will come along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph  – Larry Sanger
  54. ^ "Free Encyclopedia Project, Wikipedia, Creates 20,000 Articles in a Year Wikipedia 2002 Press release" Wikipedia January 15, 2002 Retrieved April 4, 2009 
  55. ^ Wales, Jimmy August 6, 2002 "3apes open content web directory" Yahoo! Tech Groups forum post WebCite Archived from the original on April 1, 2009 Retrieved April 3, 2009 I'm Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Nupedia and Wikipedia, the open content encyclopedias 
  56. ^ Mehegan, David February 12, 2006 "Bias, sabotage haunt Wikipedia's free world" Boston Globe p 4 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  57. ^ Paoletto, William April 2, 2009 "Interview with Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales" Big Oak Blog Retrieved April 2, 2009 
  58. ^ Cadenhead, Rogers December 19, 2005 "Wikipedia Founder Looks Out for Number 1" cadenheadorg Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  59. ^ Mitchell, Dan December 24, 2005 "Insider Editing at Wikipedia" The New York Times Retrieved April 22, 2009 
  60. ^ a b Blakely, Rhys December 20, 2005 "Wikipedia founder edits himself" The Times London Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  61. ^ Miller, Rob "Roblimo" July 28, 2004 "Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales Responds" Slashdot Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  62. ^ Cohen, Noam "Wikipedia" The New York Times Archived from the original on November 24, 2009 Retrieved January 19, 2009 
  63. ^ a b Cohen, Noam March 17, 2008 "Open-Source Troubles in Wiki World" The New York Times Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  64. ^ Gleick, James August 8, 2008 "Wikipedians Leave Cyberspace, Meet in Egypt" The Wall Street Journal Archived from the original on January 29, 2010 Retrieved May 12, 2009 
  65. ^ Cadwalladr, Carole February 7, 2014 "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales: 'It's true, I'm not a billionaire So' – interview" The Guardian London Retrieved February 8, 2014 
  66. ^ Arendse, Ilse April 20, 2007 "MySpace will fail" News24 Retrieved August 8, 2015 
  67. ^ a b c d Lipsky-Karasz, Alisa September 2008 "Mr Know-It-All" W magazine Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  68. ^ a b Anderson, Jennifer Joline 2011 Wikipedia: The Company and Its Founders 1st ed Abdo Group p 76 ISBN 1617148121 
  69. ^ "Wikimedia pornography row deepens as Wales cedes rights" BBC News British Broadcasting Corporation May 10, 2010 Retrieved March 15, 2010 
  70. ^ Twist, Jo November 5, 2005 "Open media to connect communities" BBC News Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  71. ^ Cadelago, Chris August 24, 2008 "Wikimedia pegs future on education, not profit" San Francisco Chronicle Retrieved May 19, 2009 
  72. ^ a b Neate, Rupert November 7, 2008 "Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales goes bananas" The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved April 21, 2009 
  73. ^ Anthere August 23, 2004 "Board of Trustees" wikimediafoundationorg Retrieved October 17, 2009 
  74. ^ Terdiman, Daniel April 30, 2008 "Wikimedia Foundation restructures its board" CNET News Retrieved May 19, 2009 
  75. ^ "Wikipedia Founder: 'Great Ideas Come From Different Places'" Deutsche Welle June 28, 2007 Retrieved May 30, 2010 
  76. ^ Pillay, Terence April 29, 2007 "Wikipedia rules" Independent Online Retrieved May 30, 2010 
  77. ^ Toor, Amar July 15, 2012 "Jimmy Wales, Mary Gardiner address Wikipedia's gender gap at Wikimania conference" The Verge Retrieved October 27, 2014 
  78. ^ a b Moses, Asher March 5, 2008 "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales accused of expenses rort" The Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved October 17, 2009 
  79. ^ Kim, Ryan March 5, 2007 "Allegations swirl around Wikipedia's Wales" San Francisco Chronicle Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  80. ^ Moses, Asher March 11, 2008 "More woes for Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales" The Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved March 11, 2008 
  81. ^ "Wiki boss 'edited for donation'" BBC News March 12, 2008 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  82. ^ a b Mullin, Joe February 29, 2016 "Wikimedia Foundation director resigns after uproar over "Knowledge Engine"" Ars Technica Archived from the original on March 1, 2016 
  83. ^ Bjortomt, Olav August 18, 2007 "The arts online" The Times London Retrieved May 11, 2009 
  84. ^ a b Deutschman, Alan March 2007 "Why Is This Man Smiling" Fast Company Retrieved October 31, 2008 Wales revealed that Wikia, his for-profit Silicon Valley startup, was working on Search Wikia, which he touted as "the search engine that changes everything  Just as Wikipedia revolutionized how we think about knowledge and the encyclopedia, we have a chance now to revolutionize how we think about search 
  85. ^ Wales, Jimmy March 31, 2009 "Update on Wikia – doing more of what’s working" blogjimmywalescom Retrieved May 4, 2009
  86. ^ "Wikia taps eBay exec as CEO" San Francisco Business Times June 5, 2006 Retrieved June 5, 2006 
  87. ^ LaVallee, Andrew September 9, 2009 "Wikia Hits Profit Target Early" Digits Retrieved October 17, 2009 
  88. ^ "Jimmy Wales" harrywalkercom Retrieved September 25, 2009 
  89. ^ "Jimmy Wales full biography" PDF harrywalkercom Retrieved September 25, 2009 
  90. ^ Rębała, Monika January 8, 2011 "Król Encyklopedii" Newsweek Polska in Polish Archived from the original on August 6, 2011 Retrieved July 5, 2011 
  91. ^ Jimmy Wales launches 2011 Free Thinking Festival, on BBC Radio Three November 4, 2011
  92. ^ "This week's panel" BBC Question Time November 23, 2011 Retrieved November 24, 2011 
  93. ^ a b Jha, Alok May 1, 2012 "Wikipedia founder to help in government's research scheme" The Guardian London Retrieved December 26, 2012 
  94. ^ "Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales backs 'viral mobile network' The People's Operator" The Daily Telegraph London January 20, 2014 Retrieved January 20, 2014 
  95. ^ "CGI U 2014 Meeting Agenda" Clinton Global Initiative March 21, 2014 Retrieved March 23, 2014 
  96. ^ Mak, Tim March 22, 2014 "Bill Clinton defends American control of Internet domain name system" Washington Examiner Retrieved March 23, 2014 
  97. ^ Fleischer, Lisa May 30, 2014 "Google Taps Wikipedia's Wales to Help Weigh "Right to Be Forgotten"" The Wall Street Journal Retrieved June 2, 2014 
  98. ^ Runciman, David May 28, 2009 "Like Boiling a Frog" London Review of Books Retrieved May 21, 2009 
  99. ^ Sirius, RU July 29, 2007 "Jimmy Wales Will Destroy Google" 10 Zen Monkeys Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  100. ^ "Open-Source Troubles in Wiki World" New York Times March 17, 2008 Retrieved June 8, 2015 
    Cohen, Noam March 24, 2008 "Speed bumps on the Wikipedia highway" The Star Toronto, Canada Retrieved June 8, 2015 
  101. ^ Dugan, Emily October 23, 2011 "Jimmy Wales: The internet's shy evangelist" The Independent London Retrieved February 18, 2014 
  102. ^ Hodges, Dan, "Why did Ed Miliband refuse the help of Jimmy Wales", The Telegraph London, May 15, 2015
  103. ^ Sharwood, Simon August 17, 2015 "Jimbo 'Wikipedia' Wales leads Lawrence Lessig's presidential push" The Register Retrieved September 7, 2015 
  104. ^ Barr, Greg October 7, 2016 "Why Joseph Kopser, 11 other national business leaders oppose Donald Trump" Austin Business Journal Retrieved October 17, 2016 
  105. ^ Maximum PC, 2006 holiday issue, p 9, Future US, Inc, ISSN 1522-4279
  106. ^ Reynolds, Lindor "Wikipedia co-founder slams Wikileaks" Agence France-Presse Archived from the original on October 1, 2010 Retrieved September 28, 2010 
  107. ^ "Jimmy Wales: 'It's not about how many pages It's about how good they are'" The Independent London December 20, 2010 Retrieved December 29, 2010 
  108. ^ Cole, Bruce March–April 2007 "Building a Community of Knowledge" Humanities 28 2: 6–14 Retrieved December 27, 2009 
  109. ^ "Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs" Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Archived from the original on December 26, 2007 Retrieved January 28, 2015 
  110. ^ "Committee Reports" locgov Retrieved January 28, 2015 
  113. ^ Introduction of Jimbo Wales by Senator Joseph Lieberman, Chairman, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, US Senate, S Hrg 110–894 ONE HUNDRED TENTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION DECEMBER 11, 2007
  114. ^ "Jimbo Wales testifies US Senate Committee – Video – C-SPANorg" C-SPANorg Retrieved January 28, 2015 
  115. ^ Lee, Dave May 14, 2014 "Google ruling 'astonishing', says Wikipedia founder Wales" BBC News Retrieved May 14, 2014 
  116. ^ a b c d Lomas, Natasha June 8, 2014 "Jimmy Wales Blasts Europe's "Right To Be Forgotten" Ruling As A "Terrible Danger"" TechCrunch AOL Inc Retrieved June 9, 2014 
  117. ^ Ball, James "Wikipedia's founder calls for Richard O'Dwyer extradition to be stopped" The Guardian London Retrieved August 14, 2015 
  118. ^ Davies, Lizzy; Ball, James; Bowcott, Owen November 28, 2012 "Wikipedia founder hails extradition deal with US and calls for law reform" The Guardian London Retrieved November 28, 2012 
  119. ^ Gray, Lila September 17, 2013 "Wikipedia Gives Porn a Break" XBIZcom Retrieved October 20, 2013 
  120. ^ Gabbatt, Adam November 25, 2013 "Edward Snowden a 'hero' for NSA disclosures, Wikipedia founder says" The Guardian London Retrieved December 7, 2013 
  121. ^ Meyer, Susan 2013 Jimmy Wales and Wikipedia Rosen Publishing p 27 
  122. ^ Lewine, Edward November 18, 2007 "The Encyclopedist's Lair" The New York Times Retrieved March 7, 2008 
    C "Greatest misconception about Wikipedia: We aren't democratic Our readers edit the entries, but we're actually quite snobby The core community appreciates when someone is knowledgeable, and thinks some people are idiots and shouldn't be writing"
  123. ^ "Canadian pundit, Wikipedia founder in messy breakup" Canadian Broadcasting Corporation The Canadian Press March 2, 2008 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  124. ^ Moses, Asher March 4, 2008 "Ex takes her revenge on Mr Wikipedia" The Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  125. ^ Bergstein, Brian March 5, 2008 "Wikipedia's Wales defends breakup, expenses" USA Today Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  126. ^ Agrell, Siri March 4, 2008 "Ms Marsden's cyberspace breakup: tit-for-tat-for-T-shirt" The Globe and Mail Archived from the original on March 6, 2008 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  127. ^ Donnelly, Laura October 6, 2012 "Wiki wedding: Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales marries Tony Blair's former aide" The Daily Telegraph London 
  128. ^ Edemariam, Aida February 19, 2011 "The Saturday interview: Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales" The Guardian London Retrieved February 19, 2011 
  129. ^ Smallman, Danny January 18, 2012 "Jimmy Wales: Mr Wikipedia on today's blackout" London Evening Standard Archived from the original on January 20, 2012 Retrieved January 19, 2012 
  130. ^ "Jimmy Wales" What do you believe Big Think Media August 10, 2007 Retrieved November 27, 2011 I'm a complete non-believer 
  131. ^ "World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008" World Economic Forum May 18–20, 2008 Archived from the original on April 30, 2009 Retrieved May 12, 2009 
  132. ^ "Jimmy Wales Joins Socialtext Board of Directors; Wikipedia Founder to Advise Leader in Enterprise Wiki Solutions" Press release SocialText October 3, 2005 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  133. ^ "People: Advisory board" MIT Center for Collective Intelligence Retrieved August 8, 2015 
  134. ^ Garlick, Mia March 30, 2006 "Creative Commons Adds Two New Board Members" Creative Commons Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  135. ^ Wales, Jimmy December 7, 2009 "What's new for me: Hunch" blogjimmywalescom Retrieved December 7, 2009 
  136. ^ Anderson, Chris April 30, 2006 "Jimmy Wales: The Proud Amateur Who Created Wikipedia" Time Retrieved February 17, 2008 
  137. ^ Ewalt, David M January 23, 2007 "The Web Celeb 25" Forbes Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  138. ^ "Stuart Regen Visionaries Series: Jimmy Wales" New Museum Archived from the original on December 22, 2010 Retrieved April 6, 2011 
    • "Wikipedia founder James Wales at New Museum as 2010 Stuart Regen Visionary" Flash Art Archived from the original on July 11, 2011 Retrieved April 6, 2011 
  139. ^ "Speakers: Jimmy Wales" iCommonsSummitorg 2008 Archived from the original on May 20, 2008 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  140. ^ "Corum announces Jimmy Wales as The Global Brand Icon of the Year Award" MattBailyca September 14, 2008 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  141. ^ Woodall, James "Peter Gabriel: Rocker, Human-Rights Advocate" Intelligent Life The Economist Group Retrieved October 20, 2009 
  142. ^ "Nokia Foundation awards the founder of Wikipedia" Nokiacom November 4, 2009 Retrieved November 5, 2009 
  143. ^ "The Economist Innovation Awards and Summit" The Economist October 30, 2008 Retrieved November 8, 2008 
  144. ^ Rutkoff, Aaron April 18, 2011 "Tribeca Film Festival Names Actors, Directors to Its Jury" The Wall Street Journal Retrieved August 18, 2011 
  145. ^ "EFF Honors Craigslist, Gigi Sohn, and Jimmy Wales with Pioneer Awards" Kansas City infoZine News April 28, 2006 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  146. ^ "Press release" in German Leonardo-awardeu September 21, 2011 Archived from the original on December 14, 2013 Retrieved July 3, 2014 
  147. ^ "GD Prize 2011" Gdich Retrieved July 3, 2014 
  148. ^ Isobel Leybold-Johnson "Knowledge is our most important resource" Swissinfo January 27, 2011
  149. ^ Barnett, Emma November 17, 2009 "Jimmy Wales interview: Wikipedia is focusing on accuracy" The Daily Telegraph London 
  150. ^ "Knox College Honorary Degrees" Knox College Archived from the original on September 2, 2006 Retrieved October 31, 2008 
  151. ^ a b "Wikipedia Founder Jimmy Wales, Poet Mary Jo Salter, Nobel Laureate Paul Nurse Among Eight to Be Honored at Amherst Commencement", amherstedu Retrieved May 23, 2010
  152. ^ "Stevenson University awards Honorary Degree" stevensonuniversityorg May 21, 2010 Retrieved May 25, 2010 
  153. ^ "Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia, distinguished by UES 21" Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21 December 16, 2009 Retrieved May 10, 2011 
  154. ^ MIREA June 16, 2011 "Moscow State Technical University Website" Retrieved June 22, 2011 Rector prof RAN AS Whitefish J Wales handed a diploma and the mantle of Honorary Doctor Bauman MIREA 
  155. ^ "An Open World" PDF University of Copenhagen Retrieved December 2, 2013 
  156. ^ "Niels Bohr Conference: Free exchange of information can avert technological threats" University of Copenhagen October 24, 2013 Retrieved December 2, 2013 
  157. ^ Ngak, Chenda June 26, 2013 "Aaron Swartz among inductees to Internet Hall of Fame" CBS News Retrieved December 10, 2014 
  158. ^ Curtis, Sophie February 28, 2014 "25 years of the World Wide Web: 25 Web superstars" The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved March 1, 2014 
  159. ^ "From the blog of Lorenzo Cantoni, dean of the Faculty" Retrieved May 17, 2014 
  160. ^ "Scotland Tonight: Wikipedia founder honoured in Glasgow" STV News June 25, 2014 Retrieved July 4, 2014 
  161. ^ Smolaks, Max July 11, 2014 "Tech4Good Awards Celebrate Digital Inclusion" Tech Week Europe Retrieved July 11, 2014 
  162. ^ "Tech4Good Awards 2014 Winners" Tech4Good Awards July 10, 2014 Retrieved July 11, 2014 
  163. ^ Shabandri, Muaz December 8, 2014 "Web inventor, Wiki co-founder share $1m Knowledge Award" khaleejtimescom Retrieved December 8, 2014
  164. ^ "Maastricht University awards honorary doctorates to Frans Timmermans and Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales" Maastricht University Archived from the original on December 24, 2014 Retrieved November 23, 2014 
  165. ^ "Photos from the 36th Annual Common Wealth Awards" bonjovicom March 20, 2015 Retrieved April 28, 2015 
  166. ^ "Dan David Foundation to award three prizes of $1 million to six world renowned laureates" Jerusalem Post February 11, 2015 Retrieved February 11, 2015 
  167. ^ Elis, Niv February 10, 2015 "Wikipedia co-founder, genome project leader among recipients of Dan David Prize" Jerusalem Post Retrieved May 17, 2015 
  168. ^ Ponsford, Dominic January 27, 2016 "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales and Gail Rebuck join Guardian Media Group board" Press Gazette Retrieved January 27, 2016 
  169. ^ Belga February 2, 2016 "Eduardo Suplicy, Paola Vigano et Jimmy Wales faits Docteurs honoris causa de l'UCL" L'Avenir Retrieved February 13, 2016 
  170. ^ Schmitz, Bruno February 2, 2016 "UCL: Trois penseurs utopistes pour régler les problèmes belges" RTBF Retrieved February 13, 2016 


  • Poe, Marshall September 2006 "The Hive" The Atlantic Monthly 298 2: 86–94 Retrieved February 29, 2008 

External links

  • Official website
    • Official blog
  • Jimmy Wales's English Wikipedia userpage
  • Jimmy Wales' Wikia userpage
  • Jimmy Wales at the Internet Movie Database
  • Jimmy Wales on Charlie Rose
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Roberts, Russ March 9, 2009 "Wales on Wikipedia" EconTalk Library of Economics and Liberty 
  • Wikipedia:Role of Jimmy Wales, Wales's role in the English Wikipedia as described by its editors


  • "Wikimania: Meet the Wikipedians Those "persnickety," techy types who keep your favorite Internet information website brimming with data" 60 Minutes: Morley Safer interviewing Jimmy Wales First aired on April 5, 2015 Rebroadcast on July 26, 2015
  • "The birth of Wikipedia – Jimmy Wales recalls how he assembled "a ragtag band of volunteers," gave them tools for collaborating and created Wikipedia, the self-organizing, self-correcting, never-finished online encyclopedia" TED talks July 2005 
  • On Being w/Krista Tippett; Jimmy Wales - The Sum of All Human Knowledge broadcast WAMU American University September 11, 2016

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