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JAXA, jaxa japan
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 国立研究開発法人宇宙航空研究開発機構, Kokuritsu-kenkyū-kaihatsu-hōjin Uchū Kōkū Kenkyū Kaihatsu Kikō, literally "National Research and Development Agency on Aerospace Research and Development", or JAXA, is Japan's national aero-space agency Through the merger of three previously independent organizations, JAXA was formed on 1 October 2003 JAXA is responsible for research, technology development and the launch of satellites into orbit, and is involved in many more advanced missions, such as asteroid exploration and possible manned exploration of the Moon2 Its motto is One JAXA3 and its corporate slogan is Explore to Realize formerly Reaching for the skies, exploring space4


  • 1 History
  • 2 Organization
  • 3 Rockets
  • 4 Successes
  • 5 Launch development and missions
    • 51 Rocket history
    • 52 Early H-IIA missions
    • 53 Orbital SS-520 mission
  • 6 Lunar and interplanetary missions
    • 61 Small body exploration: Hayabusa mission
    • 62 Lunar explorations
    • 63 Planetary exploration
    • 64 Solar sail research
  • 7 Astronomy program
    • 71 Infrared astronomy
    • 72 X-ray astronomy
    • 73 Solar observation
    • 74 Radio astronomy
  • 8 Communication, positioning and technology tests
    • 81 i-Space : ETS-VIII, WINDS and QZS-1
    • 82 OICETS and INDEX
  • 9 Earth observation programme
    • 91 ALOS
    • 92 Rainfall observation
    • 93 Monitoring of carbon dioxide
    • 94 GCOM series
  • 10 Satellites for other agencies
  • 11 Other JAXA satellites currently in use
  • 12 Completed missions
  • 13 Future missions
    • 131 2009 and beyond
    • 132 Launch schedule
      • 1321 FY 2016
      • 1322 FY 2017
      • 1323 FY 2018
      • 1324 FY 2019
    • 133 FY 2020
      • 1331 Other missions
    • 134 New orientation of JAXA
    • 135 Developing projects
    • 136 Plans
  • 14 Human space program
  • 15 Supersonic aircraft development
  • 16 Reusable launch vehicles
  • 17 Other space agencies in Japan
  • 18 See also
  • 19 Notes
  • 20 External links


See also: Japan's space development JAXA Kibo, the largest module of the ISS

On 1 October 2003, three organizations were merged to form the new JAXA: Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science or ISAS, the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan NAL, and National Space Development Agency of Japan NASDA JAXA was formed as an Independent Administrative Institution administered by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology MEXT and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications MIC5

Before the merger, ISAS was responsible for space and planetary research, while NAL was focused on aviation research NASDA, which was founded on 1 October 1969, had developed rockets, satellites, and also built the Japanese Experiment Module The old NASDA headquarters were located at the current site of the Tanegashima Space Center, on Tanegashima Island, 115 kilometers south of Kyūshū NASDA also trained Japanese astronauts, who flew with the US Space Shuttles6

In 2012, new legislation extended JAXA's remit from peaceful purposes only to include some military space development, such as missile early warning systems Political control of JAXA passed from MEXT to the Prime Minister's Cabinet Office through a new Space Strategy Office7


Head Office Tanegashima Space Center

JAXA is composed of the following organizations

  • Space Transportation Mission Directorate
  • Satellite Applications Mission Directorate I
  • Satellite Applications Mission Directorate II
  • Human Spaceflight Mission Directorate
  • Aerospace Research and Development Directorate
  • Institute of Space and Astronautical Science ISAS
  • Institute of Aeronautical Technology

JAXA has research centers in many locations in Japan, and some offices overseas Its headquarters are in Chōfu, Tokyo It also has

  • Earth Observation Research Center EORC, Tokyo
  • Earth Observation Center EOC in Hatoyama, Saitama
  • Noshiro Testing Center NTC in Noshiro, Akita – Established in 1962 It carries out development and testing of rocket engines
  • Sanriku Balloon Center SBC – Balloons have been launched from this site since 1971
  • Kakuda Space Center KSPC in Kakuda, Miyagi – Leads the development of rocket engines Works mainly with development of liquid fuel engines
  • Sagamihara Campus ISAS – Development of experimental equipment for rockets and satellites Also administrative buildings
  • Tanegashima Space Center - currently the launch site for the H-IIA and H-IIB rockets
  • Tsukuba Space Center TKSC in Tsukuba This is the center of Japan's space network It is involved in research and development of satellites and rockets, and tracking and controlling of satellites It develops experimental equipment for the Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" Training of astronauts also takes place here For International Space Station operations, the Japanese Flight Control Team is located at the Space Station Integration & Promotion Center SSIPC in Tsukuba SSIPC communicates regularly with ISS crewmembers via S-band audio8
  • Uchinoura Space Center - currently the launch site for the Epsilon rocket


JAXA uses the H-IIA H "two" A rocket from the former NASDA body and its variant H-IIB to launch engineering test satellites, weather satellites, etc For science missions like X-ray astronomy, JAXA uses the Epsilon rocket For experiments in the upper atmosphere JAXA uses the SS-520, S-520, and S-310 sounding rockets


Prior to the establishment of JAXA, ISAS had been most successful in its space program in the field of X-ray astronomy during the 1980s and 1990s Another successful area for Japan has been Very Long Baseline Interferometry VLBI with the HALCA mission Additional success was achieved with solar observation and research of the magnetosphere, among other areas

NASDA was mostly active in the field of communication satellite technology However, since the satellite market of Japan is completely open, the first time a Japanese company won a contract for a civilian communication satellite was in 2005 Another prime focus of the NASDA body is Earth climate observation

JAXA was awarded the Space Foundation's John L "Jack" Swigert, Jr, Award for Space Exploration in 20089

Launch development and missionsedit


Rocket historyedit

Japan launched its first satellite, Ōsumi, in 1970, using ISAS' L-4S rocket Prior to the merger, ISAS used small solid-fueled launch vehicles, while NASDA developed larger liquid-fueled launchers In the beginning, NASDA used licensed American models The first model of liquid-fuelled launch vehicle indigenously developed in Japan was the H-II, introduced in 1994 However, at the end of the 1990s, with two H-II launch failures, Japanese rocket technology began to face criticism10

Early H-IIA missionsedit

Japan's first space mission under JAXA, an H-IIA rocket launch on 29 November 2003, ended in failure due to stress problems After a 15-month hiatus, JAXA performed a successful launch of an H-IIA rocket from Tanegashima Space Center, placing a satellite into orbit on 26 February 2005

Orbital SS-520 missionedit

In January 2017, JAXA attempted and failed to put a mini satellite into orbit atop one of its SS520 series rockets Had the launch succeeded it would have been the smallest to ever place an object in orbit11

Lunar and interplanetary missionsedit

Japan's first missions beyond Earth orbit were the 1985 Halley's comet observation satellites Sakigake MS-T5 and Suisei PLANET-A To prepare for future missions, ISAS tested Earth swing by orbits with the Hiten mission in 1990 The first Japanese interplanetary mission was the Mars Orbiter Nozomi PLANET-B, which was launched in 1998 It reached its target in 2003, but orbit injection had to be given up Currently interplanetary missions remain at the ISAS group under the JAXA umbrella However, for FY 2008 JAXA is planning to set up an independent working group within the organization New head for this group will be Hayabusa project manager Kawaguchi12

Active Missions: PLANET-C, IKAROS, Hayabusa 2 Under Development: SLIM Retired: PLANET-B, SELENE, MUSES-C Cancelled: LUNAR-A

Small body exploration: Hayabusa missionedit


On 9 May 2003, Hayabusa meaning, Peregrine falcon, was launched from an M-V rocket The goal of the mission was to collect samples from a small near-Earth asteroid named 25143 Itokawa The craft rendezvoused with the asteroid in September 2005 It was confirmed that the spacecraft successfully landed on the asteroid in November 2005, after some initial confusion regarding the incoming data Hayabusa returned to Earth with samples from the asteroid on 13 June 2010

See also: Hayabusa 2

Lunar explorationsedit

After Hiten in 1990, ISAS planned a lunar penetrator mission called LUNAR-A but after delays due to technical problems, the project was terminated in January 2007 The seismometer penetrator design for LUNAR-A may be reused in a future mission

On 14 September 2007, JAXA succeeded in launching the lunar orbit explorer Kaguya, also known as SELENE costing 55 billion yen including launch vehicle, the largest such mission since the Apollo program, on an H-2A rocket Its mission is to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution It entered lunar orbit on 4 October 20071314 After 1 year and 8 months it impacted the lunar surface on 10 June 2009 at 18:25 UTC

JAXA plans to launch its first lunar surface mission, SLIM Smart Lander for Investigating Moon on an Epsilon rocket in fiscal year 201915

Planetary explorationedit

Japan's planetary missions have so far been limited to the inner Solar System, and emphasis has been put on magnetospheric and atmospheric research The Mars explorer Nozomi PLANET-B, which ISAS launched prior to the merger of the three aerospace institutes, became one of the earliest difficulties the newly formed JAXA faced Nozomi ultimately passed 1,000 km from the surface of Mars On 20 May 2010, the Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki PLANET-C and IKAROS solar sail demonstrator was launched by a H-2A launch vehicle On 7 December 2010, Akatsuki was unable to complete its Venus orbit insertion maneuver Akatsuki finally entered Venus orbit in 7 December 2015, making it the first Japanese spacecraft to orbit another planet, sixteen years after the originally planned orbital insertion of Nozomi One of Akatsuki's main goal is to uncover the mechanism behind Venus atmosphere's super-rotation, a phenomenon in which the cloud top winds in the toposphere circulates around the planet faster than the speed that Venus itself rotates A thorough explanation for this phenomenon has yet been found

JAXA/ISAS was part of the international Laplace Jupiter mission proposal from its foundation A Japanese contribution was sought in the form of an independent orbiter to research Jupiter's magnetosphere, JMO Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter Although JMO never left the conception phase, ISAS scientists will see their instruments reaching Jupiter on the ESA-led JUICE Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission JUICE is a reformulation of the ESA Ganymede orbiter from the Laplace project JAXA's contribution includes providing components of the RPWI Radio & Plasma Wave Investigation, PEP Particle Environment Package, GALA GAnymede Laser Altimeter instruments

JAXA is reviewing a new spacecraft mission to the Martian system; a sample return mission to Phobos called MMX Martian Moons Explorer1617 First revealed in 9 June 2015, MMX's primary goal is to determine the origin of the Martian moons18 Alongside collecting samples from Phobos, MMX will perform remote sensing of Deimos, and may also observe the atmosphere of Mars as well19 As of January 2016, MMX is to be launched in fiscal year 202220

See also: BepiColombo

Solar sail researchedit

On 9 August 2004, ISAS successfully deployed two prototype solar sails from a sounding rocket A clover type sail was deployed at 122 km altitude and a fan type sail was deployed at 169 km altitude Both sails used 75 micrometer thick film

ISAS tested a solar sail again as a sub payload to the Akari ASTRO-F mission on 22 February 2006 However the solar sail did not deploy fully ISAS tested a solar sail again as a sub payload of the SOLAR-B launch at 23 September 2006, but contact with the probe was lost The IKAROS solar sail was launched on 21 May 2010 The solar sail deployed successfully The goal is to have a solar sail mission to Jupiter after 2020

Astronomy programedit

See also: Scientific research on the ISS

The first Japanese astronomy mission was x-ray satellite Hakucho Corsa-B, which was launched in 1979 Later ISAS moved into solar observation, radio astronomy through Space VLBI and infrared astronomy

Active Missions: SOLAR-B, MAXI, SPRINT-A, CALET Under Development: XARM Retired: ASTRO-F, ASTRO-EII, ASTRO-H Cancelled: ASTRO-G

Infrared astronomyedit


Japan's first infrared astronomy mission was the 15 cm IRTS telescope which was part of the SFU multipurpose satellite in 1995 IRTS scanned during its one-month lifetime around 7% of the sky before SFU got brought back to Earth by the Space Shuttle During the 1990s JAXA also gave ground support for the ESA Infrared Space Observatory ISO infrared mission

The next step for JAXA was the Akari spacecraft, with the pre-launch designation ASTRO-F This satellite was launched on 21 February 2006 Its mission is infrared astronomy with a 68 cm telescope This is the first all sky survey since the first infrared mission IRAS in 1983 A 36 kg nanosatellite named CUTE-17 was also released from the same launch vehicle21

JAXA is also doing further R&D for increasing the performance of its mechanical coolers for its future infrared mission, SPICA This would enable a warm launch without liquid helium SPICA has the same size as the ESA Herschel Space Observatory mission, but is planned to have a temperature of just 45 K and will be much colder Unlike Akari, which had a geocentric orbit, SPICA will be located at Sun–Earth L2 The launch is expected in 2027 or 2028 on JAXA's new H3 Launch Vehicle, however the mission is not yet fully funded ESA and NASA may also each contribute an instrument22

X-ray astronomyedit

Starting from 1979 with Hakucho CORSA-b, for nearly two decades Japan had achieved continuous observation with its Hinotori, Tenma, Ginga and ASCA ASTRO-A through D x-ray observation satellites However, in the year 2000 the launch of Japan's fifth x-ray observation satellite, ASTRO-E failed as it failed at launch it never received a proper name

Then on 10 July 2005, JAXA was finally able to launch a new X-ray astronomy mission named Suzaku ASTRO-EII This launch was important for JAXA, because in the five years since the launch failure of the original ASTRO-E satellite, Japan was without an x-ray telescope Three instruments were included in this satellite: an X-ray spectrometer XRS, an X-ray imaging spectrometer XIS, and a hard X-ray detector HXD However, the XRS was rendered inoperable due to a malfunction which caused the satellite to lose its supply of liquid helium

The next JAXA x-ray mission is the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image MAXI MAXI continuously monitors astronomical X-ray objects over a broad energy band 05 to 30 keV MAXI is installed on the Japanese external module of the ISS23 On 17 February 2016, Hitomi ASTRO-H was launched as the successor to Suzaku, which completed its mission a year before

See also: ASTRO-H

Solar observationedit

Japan's solar astronomy started in the early 80s with the launch of the Hinotori ASTRO-A x-ray mission The Hinode SOLAR-B spacecraft, the follow-on to the joint Japan/US/UK Yohkoh SOLAR-A spacecraft, was launched on 23 September 20062425 A SOLAR-C can be expected sometime after 2020 However no details are worked out yet other than it will not be launched with the former ISAS's Mu rockets Instead a H-2A from Tanegashima could launch it As H-2A is more powerful, SOLAR-C could either be heavier or be stationed at L1 Lagrange point 1

Radio astronomyedit

In 1998 Japan launched the HALCA MUSES-B Mission, the world's first spacecraft dedicated to conduct SPACE VLBI observations of pulsars, among others To do so, ISAS set up a ground network around the world through international cooperation The observation part of the mission lasted until 2003 and the satellite was retired at the end of 2005 In FY 2006 Japan funded the ASTRO-G as the succeeding mission

For details see:


Communication, positioning and technology testsedit

One of the primary duties of the former NASDA body was the testing of new space technologies, mostly in the field of communication The first test satellite was ETS-I,launched in 1975 However, during the 1990s NASDA was hit by bad luck with the problems surrounding the ETS-VI and COMETS missions

Testing of communication technologies remains to be one of JAXA's key duties in cooperation with NICT

Active Missions: INDEX, WINDS, QZS-1 Under Development: SLATS, QZS-2, QZS-3, QZS-4, ETS-IX Retired: OICETS, ETS-VIII

i-Space : ETS-VIII, WINDS and QZS-1edit

To upgrade Japan's communication technology the Japanese state launched the i-Space initiative with the ETS-VIII and WINDS missions26

ETS-VIII was launched on 18 December 2006 The purpose of ETS-VIII is to test communication equipment with two very large antennas and an atomic clock test On 26 December both antennas were successfully deployed This didn't come unexpected, since JAXA tested the deployment mechanism before with the LDREX-2 Mission, which was launched on 14 October with the European Ariane 5 The test was successful The mission of WINDS Kizuna is to create the worlds fastest satellite internet connection WINDS was launched in February 2008


On 24 August 2005, JAXA launched the experimental satellites OICETS and INDEX on a Ukrainian Dnepr rocket OICETS Kirari is a mission tasked with tesing optical links with the European Space Agency ESA ARTEMIS satellite, which is around 40,000 km away from OICETS The experiment was successful on 9 December, when the link could be established In March 2006 JAXA could establish with OICETS the worldwide first optical links between a LEO satellite and a ground station first in Japan and in June 2006 with a mobile station in Germany

INDEX Reimei is a small 70 kg satellite for testing various equipment, and functions as an aurora observation mission as well The Reimei satellite is currently in its extended mission phase

Earth observation programmeedit

Japan's first Earth observation satellites were MOS-1a and MOS-1b launched in 1987 and 1990 During the 1990s and the new millennium this programme came under heavy fire, because both Adeos Midori and Adeos 2 Midori 2 satellites failed after just 10 months in orbit

Active Missions: GOSAT, GCOM-W, ALOS-2 Under Development: GCOM-C, GOSAT-2, ALOS-3 Retired: ALOS



In January 2006, JAXA successfully launched the Advanced Land Observation Satellite ALOS/Daichi Communication between ALOS and the ground station in Japan will be done through the Kodama Data Relay Satellite, which was launched during 2002 This project is under intense pressure due to the shorter than expected lifetime of the ADEOS II Midori Earth Observation Mission For missions following Daichi, JAXA opted to separate it into a radar satellite ALOS-2 and an optical satellite ALOS-3 ALOS 2 SAR was launched in May 2014

Rainfall observationedit

Since Japan is an island nation and gets struck by typhoons every year, research about the dynamics of the atmosphere is a very important issue For this reason Japan launched in 1997 the TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite in cooperation with NASA, to observe the tropical rainfall seasons For further research NASDA had launched the ADEOS and ADEOS II missions in 1996 and 2003 However, due to various reasons both satellites had a much shorter than expected life term

On 28 February 2014, a H-2A rocket launched the GPM Core Observatory, a satellite jointly developed by JAXA and NASA The GPM mission is the successor to the TRMM mission, which by the time of the GPM launch had been noted as highly successful JAXA provided the Global Precipitation Measurement/Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar GPM/DPR Instrument for this mission Global Precipitation Measurement itself is a satellite constellation, whilst the GPM Core Observatory provides a new calibration standard for other satellites in the constellation Other countries/agencies like France, India, ESA etc provides the subsatellites The aim of GPM is to measure global rainfall with unprecedented detail

Monitoring of carbon dioxideedit

At the end of the 2008 fiscal year, JAXA launched the satellite GOSAT Greenhouse Gas Observing SATellite to help scientists determine and monitor the density distribution of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere The satellite is being jointly developed by JAXA and Japan's Ministry of the Environment JAXA is building the satellite while the Ministry is in charge of the data that will be collected Since the number of ground-based carbon dioxide observatories cannot monitor enough of the world's atmosphere and are distributed unevenly throughout the globe, the GOSAT may be able to gather more accurate data and fill in the gaps on the globe where there are no observatories on the ground Sensors for methane and other greenhouse gasses are also being considered for the satellite, although the plans are not yet finalized The satellite weighs approximately 1650 kg and is expected to have a life span of 5 years

GCOM seriesedit

Next funded earth observation mission after GOSAT is the GCOM Global Change Observation Mission earth observation programme as a successor to ADEOS II Midori and the Aqua mission To reduce the risk and for a longer observation time the mission will be split into smaller satellites Altogether GCOM will be a series of six satellites The first satellite, GCOM-W Shizuku was launched on 17 May 2012 with the H-IIA The launch of the second satellite, GCOM-C is currently planned for 2017

Satellites for other agenciesedit

For weather observation Japan launched in February 2005 the Multi-Functional Transport Satellite 1R MTSAT-1R The success of this launch was critical for Japan, since the original MTSAT-1 couldn't be put into orbit because of a launch failure with the H-2 rocket in 1999 Since then Japan relied for weather forecasting on an old satellite which was already beyond its useful life term and on American systems

On 18 February 2006, JAXA, as head of the H-IIA at this time, successfully launched the MTSAT-2 aboard a H-2A rocket MTSAT-2 is the backup to the MTSAT-1R The MTSAT-2 uses the DS-2000 satellite bus developed by Mitsubishi Electric27 The DS-2000 is also used for the DRTS Kodama, ETS-VIII and the Superbird 7 communication satellite, making it the first commercial success for Japan

As a secondary mission both the MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 help to direct air traffic

Other JAXA satellites currently in useedit

  • GEOTAIL magnetosphere observation satellite since 1992
  • DRTS Kodama Data Relay Satellite, since 2002 Projected Life Span is 7 years

Ongoing joint missions with NASA are the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM, the Aqua Earth Observation Satellite, and the Global Precipitation Measurement GPM Core satellite

Completed missionsedit

  • Akebono Aurora Observation 1989–2015 retired
  • Akari, Infrared astronomy mission 2006–2011 retired
  • OICETS, Technology Demonstration 2005–2009 retired
  • SELENE, Moon probe 2007–2009 retired
  • Micro Lab Sat 1, Small engineering mission, launch 2002 retired 27 September 2006
  • HALCA, Space VLBI 1997–2005 retired
  • Nozomi, Mars Mission 1998–2003 failed
  • MDS-1, Technology Demonstration 2002–2003 retired
  • ADEOS 2, Midori 2 Earth Observation 2002–2003 lost

Future missionsedit


As JAXA shifted away from international efforts beginning in 2005, plans are developing for independent space missions, such as a proposed manned mission to the moon

2009 and beyondedit

On 23 February 2008 JAXA launched the Wideband InterNetworking engineering test and Demonstration Satellite WINDS, also called "KIZUNA" WINDS will facilitate experiments with faster internet connections The launch, using H-IIA launch vehicle 14, took place from the Tanegashima Space Center28

On 10 September 2009 the first H-IIB rocket was successfully launched, delivering the HTV-1 freighter to resupply the International Space Station29

In the year 2009 JAXA plans to launch the first satellite of the Quasi Zenith Satellite System QZSS, a subsystem of the global positioning system GPS Two others are expected to follow later If successful, one satellite will be in a zenith position over Japan full-time The QZSS mission is the last scheduled major independent mission for JAXA, as no major civilian projects were funded after that for now The only exception is the IGS programme which will be continued beyond 2008 However it seems Japan is pressing forward now with the GCOM earth observation satellites as successors to the ADEOS missions First launch is planned for 2010 In 2009 Japan also plans to launch a new version of the IGS with an improved resolution of 60 cm

Launch scheduleedit

The maiden flight of the H-IIB and the HTV occurred in 1 September 2009 After the first flight, one HTV launch is scheduled during each FY until 2019 If not mentioned otherwise launch vehicle for the following missions is the H-IIA

FY 2016edit

  • GCOM-C, Climate Observation satellite30
  • SLATS, a technology test mission to demonstrate satellite operation in the upper thermosphere30
  • ERG, Van Allen belt observation LV: Epsilon30
  • BepiColombo, joint ESA mission to Mercury, launch: Jan, 2017 LV: Ariane 5

FY 2017edit

  • GOSAT-2, carbon dioxide monitor mission30
  • QZS-230
  • QZS-330
  • QZS-430

FY 2018edit

FY 2019edit

  • Optical Data Relay satellite30
  • Advanced Optical satellite30
  • SLIM, pinpoint lunar lander LV: Epsilon

FY 2020edit

  • Advanced Radar Satellite30

Other missionsedit

For the 2018 ESA EarthCARE mission, JAXA will provide the radar system on the satellite JAXA is also providing the Light Particle TelescopeLPT for the 2008 Jason 2 satellite by the French CNES JAXA will provide the Auroral Electron Sensor AES for the Taiwanese FORMOSAT-52

  • SmartSat-1, small communication test and sun corona observation, Mission status unclear
  • XEUS joint X-Ray telescope with ESA, launch after 2015
  • Sohla-2 Small PETSAT Demonstration Satellite

New orientation of JAXAedit

Planning interplanetary research missions can take up to seven years, such as the ASTRO-E Due to the lag time between these interplanetary events and mission planning time, opportunities to gain new knowledge about the cosmos might be lost To prevent this, JAXA plans on using smaller, faster missions from 2010 onwards JAXA is developing a new solid-fueled rocket, the Epsilon, to replace the retired M-V

Developing projectsedit

  • IKAROS Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun, a small size powered-solar sail experimental spacecraft Future mission will use solar sail for Jupiter and Trojan asteroids exploration


  • Hayabusa 2, for launch in 2014–2015 for target 162173 Ryugu
  • Human Lunar Systems, conceptual system study on the future human lunar outpost
  • Nano-JASMINE - Small-JASMINE - JASMINE, a series of astrometric telescopes similar to the Gaia mission but operating in the infra-red 22 µm and specifically targeting the Galactic plane and centre, where Gaia's results are impaired by dust absorption
  • MMX, remote sensing of Deimos, sample return from Phobos
  • LiteBIRD, a mission to study CMB B-mode polarization and cosmic inflation based at L2
  • Solar Power Sail, a mission to Jupiter and Trojan asteroids utilizing "hybrid propulsion" of solar sail and ion engines
  • SPICA, a 25 meter infrared telescope to be placed at L2
  • DESTINY+, small scale technology demonstrator which will also conduct scientific observation of asteroid 3200 Phaethon
  • FORCE,31 small scale hard x-ray observation with high sensitivity
  • DIOS, small scale x-ray observation mission to survey warm–hot intergalactic medium
  • APPROACH, small scale lunar penetrator mission
  • HiZ-GUNDAM, small scale gamma ray burst observation mission
  • Solar-C, solar observation
  • Pre-DECIGO, gravity wave observation test mission
  • SELENE-2, a moon landing mission
  • Hayabusa Mk2/Marco Polo
  • Space Solar Power System SSPS, space-based solar power prototype launch in 2020, aiming for a full power system in 203032

Human space programedit

The Spacelab-J shuttle flight, funded by Japan, included several tons of Japanese science research equipment

Japan has ten astronauts but has not yet developed its own manned spacecraft and is not currently developing one officially A potentially manned space shuttle-spaceplane HOPE-X project launched by the conventional space launcher H-II was developed for several years including test flights of Hyflex/OREX prototypes but was postponed The simpler manned capsule Fuji was proposed but not adopted Projects for single-stage to orbit, horizontal takeoff reusable launch vehicle and landing ASSTS and the vertical takeoff and landing Kankoh-maru also exist but have not been adopted

The first Japanese citizen to fly in space was Toyohiro Akiyama, a journalist sponsored by TBS, who flew on the Soviet Soyuz TM-11 in December 1990 He spent more than seven days in space on the Mir space station, in what the Soviets called their first commercial spaceflight which allowed them to earn $14 million

Japan participates in US and international manned space programs including flights of Japanese astronauts on Russian Soyuz spacecraft to the ISS One Space Shuttle mission STS-47 in September 1992 was partially funded by Japan This flight included JAXA's first astronaut in space, Mamoru Mohri, as the Payload Specialist for the Spacelab-J, one of the European built Spacelab modules This mission was also designated Japan

A view of the completed Kibo module

Three other NASA Space Shuttle missions STS-123, STS-124, STS-127 in 2008–2009 delivered parts of the Japanese built spacelab-module Kibo to ISS

Japanese plans for a manned lunar landing were in development but were shelved in early 2010 due to budget constraints33

In June 2014 Japan's science and technology ministry said it was considering a space mission to Mars In a ministry paper it indicated unmanned exploration, manned missions to Mars and long-term settlement on the Moon were objectives, for which international cooperation and support was going to be sought34

Supersonic aircraft developmentedit

Besides the H-IIA/B and Epsilon rockets, JAXA is also developing technology for a next-generation supersonic transport that could become the commercial replacement for the Concorde The design goal of the project working name Next Generation Supersonic Transport is to develop a jet that can carry 300 passengers at Mach 2 A subscale model of the jet underwent aerodynamic testing in September and October 2005 in Australia35 In 2015 JAXA performed tests aimed at reducing the effects of super sonic flight under the D-SEND program36 The economic success of such a project is still unclear, and as a consequence the project has been met with limited interest from Japanese aerospace companies like Mitsubishi Heavy Industries so far

Reusable launch vehiclesedit

Until 2003citation needed JAXA ISAS conducted research on a reusable launch vehicle under the Reusable Vehicle Testing RVT project

Other space agencies in Japanedit

Not included into the JAXA organization is the Institute for unmanned space experiment free flyer USEF, Japan's other space agency

See alsoedit

  • Spaceflight portal
  • Independent Administrative Institution IAI, 2001
  • List of Independent Administrative Institutions Japan
  • Space Brothers manga


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  2. ^ McCurry, Justin 15 September 2007 "Japan launches biggest moon mission since Apollo landings" guardiancouk/science London Retrieved 16 September 2007 
  3. ^ "JAXA - Keiji Tachikawa - JAXA in 2006 -" Retrieved 12 June 2015 
  4. ^ "JAXA - New JAXA Philosophy and Corporate Slogan" Retrieved 12 June 2015 
  5. ^ "Law Concerning Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency" PDF JAXA Retrieved 20 April 2010 
  6. ^ Kamiya, Setsuko, "Japan a low-key player in space race", Japan Times, 30 June 2009, p 3
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  9. ^ "Archived copy" Archived from the original on 3 February 2009 Retrieved 2012-01-31 
  10. ^ Shim, Elizabeth November 25, 2015 "Japan launches first commercial satellite" 
  11. ^ Kyodo 15 January 2017 "JAXA fails in bid to launch world’s smallest satellite-carrying rocket" The Japan Times Retrieved 16 January 2017 
  12. ^ Agency’s Report from ISAS/JAXA to ILWS WG meeting, Living With a Star, July 23, 2006
  13. ^ "JCN Newswire - Asia Press Release Distribution" 
  14. ^ "Japan launches first lunar probe" BBC NEWS 14 September 2007 
  15. ^ "Japan delays launch of unmanned lunar lander to second half of fiscal 2019" The Japan Times June 4, 2015 Retrieved 2015-06-22 
  16. ^ JAXA plans probe to bring back samples from moons of Mars
  17. ^ "ISASニュース 20161 No418" PDF in Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science 22 January 2016 Retrieved 2016-02-04 
  18. ^ Torishima, Shinya June 19, 2015 "JAXAの「火星の衛星からのサンプル・リターン」計画とは" Mynavi News in Japanese Retrieved 2015-10-06 
  19. ^ "高時間分解能観測がひらく火星ダスト・水循環の科学" PDF in Japanese Center for Planetary Science 28 August 2015 Retrieved 2016-02-04 
  20. ^ "JAXA、火星衛星「フォボス」探査…22年に" The Yomiuri Shimbun in Japanese January 4, 2016 Archived from the original on January 4, 2016 Retrieved 2016-02-04 
  21. ^ Akari, NSSDC
  22. ^ "JAXA - Takao Nakagawa - Dramatic Birth and Death of Stars -" Retrieved 12 June 2015 
  23. ^ JAXA "MAXI:Experiment - International Space Station - JAXA" Archived from the original on 21 May 2013 Retrieved 12 June 2015 
  24. ^ "National Astronomical Observatory of Japan NAOJ" Archived from the original on 22 March 2012 Retrieved 2015-07-12 
  25. ^ "SSL Redirect please wait" Retrieved 12 June 2015 
  26. ^ 1
  27. ^ "製品のご紹介製品・衛星プラットフォーム/DS2000" in Japanese Mitsubishi Electric Archived from the original on 22 August 2008 Retrieved 3 August 2008 
  28. ^ "Launch Result of the KIZUNA WINDS by the H-IIA Launch Vehicle No 14 H-IIA F14" JAXA 
  29. ^ "Japan's space freighter in orbit" Jonathan Amos BBC 10 August 2009 Retrieved 10 September 2009 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "宇宙開発戦略本部決定 宇宙基本計画工程表平成27年度改訂" PDF in Japanese 宇宙開発戦略本部 12 December 2015 Retrieved 2016-02-02 
  31. ^ "軟X線から硬X線の広帯域を高感度で撮像分光する小型衛星計画" PDF in Japanese JAXA 1 January 2016 Retrieved 2016-04-04 
  32. ^ "Japan eyes solar station in space as new energy source" Physorgcom 8 November 2009 Retrieved 24 March 2010 
  33. ^ McPherson, S 23 March 2010 Japan Decides Manned Mission to Moon Too Expensive, Nikkei Says Retrieved from http://wwwbloombergcom/apps/newspid=newsarchive&sid=a3mPhCZElfw8
  34. ^ "Japanese hope to build on Mars" The Tokyo NewsNet Retrieved 2 June 2014 
  35. ^ Supersonic Jet 10 October 2005, yahoodead link
  36. ^ "D-SEND#2試験サイト - JAXA航空技術部門" 

External linksedit

  • JAXA
  • Twitter
  • "JAXA Channel" Official YouTube channel
  • Beyond the Sky and into Space JAXA 2015-2016 on YouTube by JAXA
  • International Space Station ISS and "Kibo" Information center
  • JAXA – Space Environment Utilization and Space Experiment
  • "JAXA 2025" Presentation
  • JAXA 2025 JAXA Long-term Vision on YouTube by JAXA
  • RAND Report on Japan's Space Program, 2005
  • CSIS Report on US-Japan Space Policy Cooperation, 2003
  • GOSAT satellite
  • Japan's Evolving Space Program

Archived sites of the JAXA predecessor agencies:

  • ISAS
  • NAL

jaxa japan,,,,,,,, jaxavenue,

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