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Japonism

japonisme, japonism eyewear
First described by French art critic and collector, Philippe Burty in 1872, Japonism, from the French Japonisme, is the study of Japanese art and artistic talent1 Japonism affected fine arts, sculpture, architecture, performing arts and decorative arts throughout Western culture1 The term is used particularly to refer to Japanese influence on European art, especially in impressionism2

Contents

  • 1 Ukiyo-e
  • 2 History
    • 21 Seclusion 1639-1858
      • 211 Seclusion Era Porcelain
    • 22 Nineteenth Century Re-Opening
  • 3 Artists and movements
    • 31 Vincent van Gogh and Woodblock Color Palettes
    • 32 Edgar Degas and Japanese Prints
    • 33 James McNeill Whistler and British Japonism
    • 34 Artists Influenced by Japanese Art and Culture
  • 4 Japanese gardens
  • 5 Gallery
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References and sources
  • 8 External links

Ukiyo-eedit

From the 1860s, ukiyo-e, Japanese woodblock prints, became a source of inspiration for many Western artists3 Ukiyo-e began as a Japanese painting school developed in the 17th century4 Ukiyo-e woodblock prints were created to fit a demand for inexpensive, souvenir images3 Although the prints were inexpensive, they were innovative and technical which gave each one value5 These prints were rarely created with a single patron in mind, rather they were created for the commercial market in Japan3 Although a percentage of prints were brought to the West through Dutch trade merchants, it was not until the 1860s when ukiyo-e prints gained popularity in Europe3 Western artists were intrigued by the original use of color and composition Ukiyo-e prints featured dramatic foreshortening and asymmetrical compositions6

Historyedit

Seclusion 1639-1858edit

Chantilly soft-paste porcelain bottle in Kakiemon style, 1730–35 Further information: Orientalism in early modern France

During the Edo period 1639-1858, Japan was in a period of seclusion and only one International port remained active7 Tokugawa Iemitsu, ordered that an island, Dejima, be built off the shores of Nagasaki from which Japan could receive imports7 The Dutch were the only country able to engage in trade with the Japanese, however, this small amount of contact still allowed for Japanese art to influence the West8 Every year the Dutch arrived in Japan with fleets of ships filled with Western goods for trade9 In the cargoes arrived many Dutch treatises on painting and a number of Dutch prints9 Shiba Kōkan 1747-1818 was one of the notable Japanese artists that studied the Dutch imports9 Kōkan created one of the first etchings in Japan which was a technique he had learned from one of the imported treatises9 Kōkan would combine the technique of linear perspective, which he learned from a treatise, with his own ukiyo-e styled paintings

Seclusion Era Porcelainedit

Through the seclusion era, Japanese goods remained a sought after luxury by European monarchs10 Japanese porcelain manufacturing began in the seventeenth century after the unearthing of kaolin clay near Nagasaki10 Japanese manufacturers were aware of the popularity of porcelain in Europe, therefore, some products were specifically produced for the Dutch trade10 Porcelain and lacquerware became the main exports from Japan to Europe11 Porcelain was used to decorate the homes of monarchs in the Baroque and Rococo style11 A popular way to display porcelain in a home was to create a porcelain room Shelves would be placed throughout the room to display the exotic decorations11

Nineteenth Century Re-Openingedit

Carp Vase designed by Eugène Rousseau and made by Appert Frères, 1878–84

During the Kaei era 1848–1854, after more than 200 years of seclusion, foreign merchant ships of various nationalities began to visit Japan Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, Japan ended a long period of national isolation and became open to imports from the West, including photography and printing techniques With this new opening in trade, Japanese art and artifacts began to appear in small curiosity shops in Paris and London12

Hokusai Manga

Japonism began as a craze for collecting Japanese art, particularly ukiyo-e Some of the first samples of ukiyo-e were to be seen in Paris13 In about 1856 the French artist Félix Bracquemond first came across a copy of the sketch book Hokusai Manga at the workshop of his printer, Auguste Delâtre14 The sketchbook had arrived in Delâtre's workshop shortly after Japanese ports had opened to the global economy in 1854; therefore, Japanese artwork had not yet gained popularity in the West15 In the years following this discovery, there was an increase of interest in Japanese prints They were sold in curiosity shops, tea warehouses, and larger shops14 Shops such as La Porte Chinoise specialized in the sale of Japanese and Chinese imports14 La Porte Chinoise, in particular, attracted artists James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas who drew inspiration from the prints16

Edward William Godwin designed a number of Japanese-inspired pieces, including this sideboard, 1867–70

European artists at this time were seeking an alternative style to the strict academic methodologies17 Gatherings organized by shops like La Porte Chinoise facilitated the spread of information regarding Japanese art and techniques17

Artists and movementsedit

Advertising poster for the comic opera The Mikado, which was set in Japan 1885

Ukiyo-e was one of the main Japanese influences on Western art Western artists were attracted to the colorful backgrounds, realistic interior and exterior scenes, and idealized figures18 Emphasis was placed on diagonals, perspective, and asymmetry in ukiyo-e, all of which can be seen in the Western artists who adapted this style19 It is necessary to study each artist as an individual who made unique innovations20

Portrait of Père Tanguy by Vincent van Gogh, an example of Ukiyo-e influence in Western art 1887

Vincent van Gogh and Woodblock Color Palettesedit

Vincent van Gogh began his deep interest in Japanese prints when he discovered illustrations by Félix Régamey featured in The Illustrated London News and Le Monde Illustré21 Régamey created woodblock prints, followed Japanese techniques, and often depicted scenes of Japanese life21 Van Gogh used Régamey as a reliable source for the artistic practices and everyday life scenes of the Japanese Beginning in 1885, van Gogh switched from collecting magazine illustrations, such as Régamey, to collection ukiyo-e prints that could be bought in small Parisian shops21 Van Gogh shared these prints with his contemporaries and organized a Japanese print exhibition in Paris in 188721 Van Gogh's Portrait of Pere Tanguy 1887 is a portrait of his color merchant, Julien Tanguy Van Gogh created two versions of this portrait, which both feature a backdrop of Japanese prints22 Many of the prints behind Tanguy can be identified, with artists such as Hiroshige and Kunisada featured Van Gogh filled the portrait with vibrant colors He believed that buyers were no longer interested in grey-toned Dutch paintings, rather paintings with many colors were seen as modern and were sought after23 He was inspired by Japanese woodblock prints and their colorful palettes Van Gogh included into his own works the vibrancy of color in the foreground and the background of paintings that he observed in Japanese woodblock prints and made use of light to clarify23

Edgar Degas and Japanese Printsedit

Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt at the Louvre: The Etruscan Gallery, 1879-1880 Aquatint, drypoint, soft-ground etching, and etching with burnishing, 268 x 236 cm

In the 1860s, Edgar Degas began to collect Japanese prints from La Porte Chinoise and other small print shops in Paris24 Degas’ contemporaries had begun to collect prints as well which gave him a large collection for inspiration24 Among the prints shown to Degas was a copy of Hokusai's Random Sketches which had been purchased by Bracquemond after seeing it in Delâtre's workshop17 The estimated date of Degas’ adoption of Japonism into his prints is 187524 The Japanese print style can be seen in Degas’ choice to divide individual scenes by placing barriers vertically, diagonally and horizontally24 Similar to many Japanese artists, Degas’ prints focus on women and their daily routines25 The atypical positioning of his female figures and the dedication to reality in Degas’ prints aligned him with Japanese printmakers such as Hokusai, Utamaro, and Sukenobu25 In Degas' print Mary Cassatt at the Louvre: The Etruscan Gallery 1879-1880, the commonalities between Japanese prints and Degas' work can be found in the two figures: one that stands and one that sits26 The composition of the figures was familiar in Japanese prints Degas also continues the use of lines to create depth and separate space within the scene26 Degas' most clear appropriation is of the woman leaning on a closed umbrella which is borrowed directly from Hokusai's Random Sketches27

James McNeill Whistler and British Japonismedit

Japanese art was exhibited in Britain beginning in the early 1950s28 These exhibitions featured a variation of Japanese objects, including maps, letters, textiles and objects from everyday life29 These exhibitions served as a source of national pride for Britain and served to create a separate Japanese identity apart from the generalized "orient" cultural identity30 James Abbott McNeill Whistler was an American artist who worked primarily in Britain During the late 19th Century, Whistler began to reject the Realism style of painting that his contemporaries favored Instead, Whistler found simplicity and technicality in the Japanese aesthetic31 Rather than copying specific Japanese artists and artworks, Whistler was influence by general Japanese methods of articulation and composition which he integrated into his works31 Therefore, Whistler refrained from depicting Japanese objects in his paintings, instead he used compositional aspects to infuse a sense of exoticism32 Whistler's The Punt 1861 displayed his interest in asymmetrical compositions and dramatic uses of foreshortening This composition style would not be popular among his contemporaries for another ten years, however it was a characteristic of earlier Ukiyo-e art6

Artists Influenced by Japanese Art and Cultureedit

Artist Date of Birth Date of Death Nationality Style
James Tissot 1836 1902 French Genre Art, Realism
James McNeill Whistler 1834 1903 American Tonalism, Realism, Impressionism
Édouard Manet 1832 1883 French Realism, Impressionism
Claude Monet 1840 1926 French Impressionism
Vincent van Gogh 1853 1890 Dutch Post-Impressionism
Edgar Degas 1834 1917 French Impressionism
Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1841 1919 French Impressionism
Camille Pissarro 1830 1903 Danish-French Impressionism, Post-Impressionism
Paul Gauguin 1848 1903 French Post-Impressionism, Primitivism
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1864 1901 French Post-Impressionism, Art Nouveau
Mary Cassatt 1844 1926 American Impressionism
Bertha Lum 1869 1954 American Japanese Styled Prints
William Bradley 1801 1857 British Portrait
Aubrey Beardsley 1872 1898 British Art Nouveau, Aestheticism
Arthur Wesley Dow 1857 1922 American Arts and Crafts Revival, Japanese Styled Prints
Alphonse Mucha 1860 1939 Czech Art Nouveau
Gustav Klimt 1862 1918 Austrian Art Nouveau, Symbolism
Pierre Bonnard 1867 1947 French Post-Impressionism
Frank Lloyd Wright 1867 1959 American Prairie School
Charles Rennie Mackintosh 1868 1928 Scottish Symbolism, Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau, Glasgow Style
Louis Comfort Tiffany 1848 1933 American Jewelry and glass designer
Helen Hyde 1868 1919 American Japanese Styled Prints
Georges Ferdinand Bigot 1860 1927 French Cartoon

Japanese gardensedit

Claude Monet's garden in Giverny with the Japanese footbridge and the water lily pool 1899

The aesthetic of Japanese gardens was introduced to the English-speaking world by Josiah Conder's Landscape Gardening in Japan Kelly & Walsh, 1893 It sparked the first Japanese gardens in the West A second edition was required in 191233 Conder's principles have sometimes proved hard to follow:

Robbed of its local garb and mannerisms, the Japanese method reveals aesthetic principles applicable to the gardens of any country, teaching, as it does, how to convert into a poem or picture a composition, which, with all its variety of detail, otherwise lacks unity and intent34

Samuel Newsom's Japanese Garden Construction 1939 offered Japanese aesthetic as a corrective in the construction of rock gardens, which owed their quite separate origins in the West to the mid-19th century desire to grow alpines in an approximation of Alpine scree According to the Garden History Society, the Japanese landscape gardener Seyemon Kusumoto was involved in the development of around 200 gardens in the UK In 1937 he exhibited a rock garden at the Chelsea Flower Show, and worked on the Burngreave Estate at Bognor Regis, a Japanese garden at Cottered in Hertfordshire, and courtyards at Du Cane Court in London

The impressionist painter Claude Monet modeled parts of his garden in Giverny after Japanese elements, such as the bridge over the lily pond, which he painted numerous times By detailing just on a few select points such as the bridge or the lilies, he was influenced by traditional Japanese visual methods found in ukiyo-e prints, of which he had a large collection353637 He also planted a large number of native Japanese species to give it a more exotic feeling

Galleryedit

See alsoedit

  • Anglo-Japanese style
  • Arabist – "Arab" style
  • Chinoiserie – the collecting of art objects from China
  • Occidentalism – for Eastern Views of the West
  • Orientalism – Western pictures depicting Near Eastern scenes
  • Woodblock printing in Japan
  • Woodcut

References and sourcesedit

References
  1. ^ a b Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 1 
  2. ^ "Japonism" The Free Dictionary Retrieved 7 June 2013 
  3. ^ a b c d Bickford, Lawrence 1993 "Ukiyo-e Print History" Impressions: 1 – via JSTOR 
  4. ^ "Defining Ukiyo-e" Impressions Japanese Art Society of America 1: 6 1976 – via Jstor 
  5. ^ Breuer, Karin 2010 Japanesque: The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 23 
  6. ^ a b Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 45 
  7. ^ a b Phaidon 2005 Japonisme: Cultural Crossings Between Japan and the West New York: Phaidon Press p 13 
  8. ^ Gianfreda, Sandra “Introduction” In Monet, Gauguin, Van Gogh… Japanese Inspirations, edited by Museum Folkwang, Essen, 14 Gottingen: Folkwang/Steidl, 2014
  9. ^ a b c d Phaidon 2005 Japonisme: Cultural Crossings Between Japan and the West New York: Phaidon Press p 14 
  10. ^ a b c Phaidon 2005 Japonisme: Cultural Crossings Between Japan and the West New York: Phaidon Press p 16 
  11. ^ a b c Chisaburo, Yamada "Exchange of Influences in the Fine Arts between Japan and Europe" Japonisme in Art: An International Symposium 1980: 14
  12. ^ Cate, Phillip Dennis; Eidelberg, Martin; Johnston, William R; Needham, Gerald; Weisberg, Gabriel P 1975 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910 Kent: Kent State University Press p 1 
  13. ^ Yvonne Thirion, "Le japonisme en France dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle à la faveur de la diffusion de l'estampe japonaise", 1961, Cahiers de l'Association internationale des études francaises, Volume 13, Numéro 13, pp 117–130, wwwperseefr
  14. ^ a b c Cate, Phillip Dennis; Eidelberg, Martin; Johnston, William R; Needham, Gerald; Weisberg, Gabriel P 1975 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910 Kent: Kent State University Press p 3 
  15. ^ Breuer, Karin 2010 The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 67 
  16. ^ Cate, Phillip Dennis; Eidelberg, Martin; Johnston, William R; Needham, Gerald; Weisberg, Gabriel P 1975 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910 Kent: Kent State University Press p 4 
  17. ^ a b c Breuer, Karin 2010 Japanesque: The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 68 
  18. ^ Breuer, Karin 2010 Japanesque: The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 5 
  19. ^ Breuer, Karin 2010 Japanesque: The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 41 
  20. ^ Cate, Phillip Dennis; Eidelberg, Martin; Johnston, William R; Needham, Gerald; Weisberg, Gabriel P 1975 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910 Kent: Kent State University Press p 14 
  21. ^ a b c d Thomson, Belinda “Japonisme in the Works of Van Gogh, Gaugin, Bernard and Anquetin” In Monet, Gauguin, Van Gogh… Japanese Inspirations, edited by Museum Folkwang, Essen, 70 Gottingen: Folkwang/Steidl, 2014
  22. ^ Thomson, Belinda “Japonisme in the Works of Van Gogh, Gaugin, Bernard and Anquetin” In Monet, Gauguin, Van Gogh… Japanese Inspirations, edited by Museum Folkwang, Essen, 71 Gottingen: Folkwang/Steidl, 2014 
  23. ^ a b Thomson, Belinda “Japonisme in the Works of Van Gogh, Gaugin, Bernard and Anquetin” In Monet, Gauguin, Van Gogh… Japanese Inspirations, edited by Museum Folkwang, Essen, 72 Gottingen: Folkwang/Steidl, 2014
  24. ^ a b c d Cate, Phillip Dennis; Eidelberg, Martin; Johnston, William R; Needham, Gerald; Weisberg, Gabriel P 1975 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910 Kent: Kent State University Press p 12 
  25. ^ a b Cate, Phillip Dennis; Eidelberg, Martin; Johnston, William R; Needham, Gerald; Weisberg, Gabriel P 1975 Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910 Kent: Kent State University Press p 13 
  26. ^ a b Breuer, Karin 2010 Japanesque: The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 75 
  27. ^ Breuer, Karin 2010 Japanesque: The Japanese Print in the Era of Impressionism New York: Prestel Publishing p 78 
  28. ^ Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 5 
  29. ^ Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 8 
  30. ^ Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 6 
  31. ^ a b Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 42 
  32. ^ Ono, Ayako 2003 Japonisme in Britain: Whistler, Menpes, Henry, Hornel and nineteenth-century Japan New York: Routledge Curzon p 44 
  33. ^ Slawson 1987:15 and note2
  34. ^ Conder quoted in Slawson 1987:15
  35. ^ http://wwwgivernyfr/en/information/cultural-information/giverny-collection-of-japanese-prints-of-claude-monet/
  36. ^ http://fondation-monetcom/en/giverny-2/the-japanese-prints/
  37. ^ Genevieve Aitken, Marianne Delafond La collection d'estampes Japonaises de Claude Monet La Bibliotheque des Arts 2003 ISBN 978-2884531092
  38. ^ "George Hendrik Breitner - Girl in White Kimono" Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Retrieved 12 May 2012 
Sources
  • Slawson, David A Secret Teachings in the Art of Japanese Gardens New York/Tokyo: Kodansha 1987
  • Halen Widar 1990 Christopher Dresser Phaidon
  • thesis: Edo print art and its Western interpretations PDF

External linksedit

  • "Japonisme" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline of Art History
  • Influence on Vincent van Gogh under header "An overview"
  • "Orientalism, Absence, and Quick~Firing Guns:The Emergence of Japan as a Western Text"
  • "Japonisme: Exploration and Celebration"
  • "Japonism" from the Museu Picasso Barcelona
  • "Exhibition: Secret Images Picasso and japanese erotic prints" from the Museu Picasso Barcelona's blog
  • Marc Maison's Gallery specialized in Japonism
  • The Private Collection of Edgar Degas, fully digitized text from The Metropolitan Museum of Art libraries; contains essay Degas, Japanese Prints, and Japonisme pgs 247-260

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