Japanese macaque


Macaca fuscata fuscata
Macaca fuscata yakui

In Japan, the species is known as Nihonzaru Nihon 日本 "Japan" + saru 猿 "monkey" to distinguish it from other primates, but the Japanese macaque is very familiar in Japan, so when Japanese people simply say saru, they usually have in mind the Japanese macaque

Contents

  • 1 Physical characteristics
  • 2 Behavior
    • 21 Group structure
    • 22 Mating and parenting
    • 23 Communication
    • 24 Intelligence and culture
  • 3 Ecology
    • 31 Diet
  • 4 Distribution and habitat
  • 5 Relationship with humans
    • 51 Cultural depictions
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Physical characteristicsedit

Skull of a Japanese macaque

The Japanese macaque is sexually dimorphic Males weigh on average 113 kg 25 lb, while females average 84 kg 19 lb6 Macaques from colder areas tend to weigh more than ones from warmer areas7 Male average height is 5701 mm 2244 in and female average height is 5228 mm 2058 in6 Their brain size is about 95 g 34 oz Japanese macaques have short stumps for tails that average 9251 mm 3642 in in males and 7908 mm 3113 in in females7 The macaque has a pinkish face and posterior8 The rest of its body is covered in brown or greyish hair6 The coat of the macaque is well-adapted to the cold and its thickness increases as temperatures decrease The macaque can cope with temperatures as low as -20 °C -4 °F9

Macaques mostly move on all fours They are semiterrestrial, with females spending more time in the trees and males spending more time on the ground Macaques are known to leap They are also great swimmers and have been reported to swim over half a kilometer6 The longevity for the macaque averages 63 years at least for females10 However, they have been known to live much longer; males have lived up to 28 years and females up to 32 years11

Behavioredit

Group structureedit

Japanese macaques grooming

Japanese macaques live in matrilineal societies,6 and females stay in their natal groups for life, while males move out before they are sexually mature12 Macaque groups tend to contain a number of adults of both sexes In addition, a macaque troop contains several matrilines These matrilines may exist in a dominance hierarchy with all members of a specific group ranking over members of a lower-ranking group13 Temporary all-male groups also exist, composed of those that have recently left their natal groups and are about to transfer to another group6 However, many males spend ample time away from any group14 and may leave and join several groups6

Japanese macaques at Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano have become notable for their winter visits to the spa Play media Jigokudani

Males within a group have a dominance hierarchy, with one male having alpha status The dominance status of male macaques usually changes when a former alpha male leaves or dies15 Other ways in which status changes is when an alpha male loses his rank or when a troop splits, leaving a new alpha position open15 The longer a male is in a troop, the higher his status is likely to be16 Females also exist in a stable dominance hierarchy, and a female's rank depends on her mother Younger females tend to rank higher than their older siblings1317 Higher-ranking matrilines have greater social cohesion18 Strong relationships with dominant females can allow dominant males to retain their rank when they otherwise would not19

Females maintain both social relationships and hygiene through grooming Grooming occurs regardless of climate or season20 Females which are matrilineally related groom each other more often than unrelated individuals21 Females will also groom unrelated females to maintain group cohesion and social relationships between different kinships in a troop22 Nevertheless, a female will only groom a limited number of other females, even if the group expands22 Females will also groom males, usually for hygienic purposes, but it can serve to attract dominant males to the group23 Mothers pass their grooming techniques to their offspring most probably through social rather than genetic means24

Mating and parentingedit

Macaques mating

A male and female macaque form a pair bond and mate, feed, rest, and travel together, and this typically lasts 16 days on average during the mating season25 Females enter into consortships with an average of four males a season26 Higher-ranking males have longer consortships than their subordinates25 In addition, higher-ranking males try to disrupt consortships of lower-ranking males27 Females attempt to mate with males of any rank However, dominant males mate more as they are more successful in mate guarding28 The female decides whether mating takes place In addition, dominance does not mean a male will successfully mate with a female6 Males may also temporarily join another troop during the mating season and mate with the females29 Females also engage in same-sex mounting Such behavior is likely because of hormones and females are mounted more often by other females than males30

During the mating season, the face and genitalia of males redden and the tail stands erect31 In addition, females' faces and anogenital regions turn scarlet31 Macaques copulate both on the ground and in the trees,32 and roughly one in three copulations leads to ejaculation33 Macaques signal when they are ready to mate by looking backward over a shoulder, staying still, or walking backwards towards their potential partner34 A female emits a "smooth-late-high coo", or "squawk", "squeak", or produce an atonal "cackle" during copulation Males have no copulatory vocalizations

Mother macaque with infant

A macaque mother moves to the periphery of her troop to give birth in a secluded spot,35 unless the group is moving, when the female must stay with it36 Macaques usually give birth on the ground6 Infants are born with dark-brown hair37 They consume their first solid food at five to six weeks old, and can forage independently from their mothers by seven weeks37 A mother carries her infant on her belly for its first four weeks After this time, the mother carries her infant on her back, as well Infants continue to be carried past a year37 A mother and her infant tend to avoid other troop members, and the mother may socialize again very slowly38 However, alloparenting has been observed, usually by females which have not had infants of their own37 Male care of infants occurs in some groups, but not in others; usually, older males protect, groom, and carry an infant as a female would39

Infants have fully developed their locomotive abilities within three to four months40 When an infant is seven months old, its mother discourages suckling; full weaning happens by its 18th month In some populations, male infants tend to play in larger groups more often than females41 However, female infants have more social interaction than their male counterparts41 Males prefer to associate with other males around the same age, when they are two years old42 Female infants will associate with individuals of all ages and sexes

Communicationedit

During feeding or moving, Japanese macaques often emit "coos" These most likely serve to keep the troop together and strengthen social relations between females43 Macaques usually respond to coos with coos of their own44 Coos are also uttered before grooming along with "girney" calls Variants of the "girney" call are made in different contexts45 This call also serves as appeasement between individuals in aggressive encounters46 Macaques have alarm calls for alerting to danger, and other calls to signal estrus that sound similar to danger alerts Threat calls are heard during aggressive encounters and are often uttered by supporters of those involved in antagonistic interactions The individual being supported support the caller in the future47

Intelligence and cultureedit

Macaques at a hot spring

The Japanese macaque is a very intelligent species Researchers studying this species at Koshima Island in Japan left sweet potatoes out on the beach for them to eat, then witnessed one female, named Imo Japanese for yam or potato, washing the food off with river water rather than brushing it off as the others were doing, and later even dipping her clean food into salty sea water484950 After a while, others started to copy her behavior This trait was then passed on from generation to generation, until eventually all except the oldest members of the troop were washing their food and even seasoning it in the sea4849 She was similarly the first observed balling up wheat with air pockets, throwing it into the water, and waiting for it to float back up before picking it up and eating it free from soil4950 An altered misaccount of this incident is the basis for the "hundredth monkey" effect51

The macaque has other unusual behaviours, including bathing together in hot springs and rolling snowballs for fun49 Also, in recent studies, the Japanese macaque has been found to develop different accents, like humans52 Macaques in areas separated by only a few hundred miles can have very different pitches in their calls, their form of communication The Japanese macaque has been involved in many studies concerning neuroscience and also is used in drug testingcitation needed

Ecologyedit

The Japanese macaque is diurnal In colder areas, from autumn to early winter, macaques feed in between different activities In the winter, macaques have two to four feeding bouts each day with fewer daily activities In the spring and summer, they have two or three bouts of feeding daily32 In warmer areas such as Yakushima, daily activities are more varied The typical day for a macaque is 209% inactive, 228% traveling, 235% feeding, 279% social grooming, 12% self-grooming, and 37% other activities53 Macaques usually sleep in trees, but also sleep on the ground, as well as on or near rocks and fallen trees6 During the winter, macaques huddle together for warmth in sleeping grounds54 Macaques at Jigokudani Monkey Park are notable for visiting the hot springs in the winter to warm up

Dietedit

Macaque juvenile yawning

The Japanese macaque is omnivorous and eats a variety of foods Over 213 species of plants are included on the macaque's diet55 It also eats insects, bark, and soil55 On Yakushima Island, fruit, mature leaves, and fallen seeds are primarily eaten56 The macaque also eats fungi, ferns, invertebrates, and other parts of plants56 In addition, on Yakushima, their diets vary seasonally with fruits being eaten in the summer and herbs being eaten in the winter57 Further north, macaques mostly eat foods such as fruit and nuts to store fat for the winter, when food is scarce58 On the northern island of Kinkazan, macaques mostly eat fallen seeds, herbs, young leaves, and fruits59 When preferred food items are not available, macaques dig up underground plant parts roots or rhizomes or eat soil and fish55

Distribution and habitatedit

The Japanese macaque is the northernmost-living nonhuman primate It is found on three of the four main Japanese islands: Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu6 The northernmost populations live on the Shimokita Peninsula, the northernmost point of Honshu60 Several of Japan’s smaller islands are also inhabited by macaques6 The southernmost population living on Yakushima Island is a subspecies of the mainland macaques60 The total population of Japanese macaques has been estimated to be 114,431 monkeys661

The Japanese macaque lives in a variety of habitats It inhabits subtropical forests in the southern part of its range and subarctic forests in mountainous areas in the northern part of its range It can be found in both warm and cool forests, such as the deciduous forests of central and northern Japan and the broadleaf evergreen forests in the southwest of the islands60 Warm temperate evergreen and broadleaf forests and the cool temperate deciduous broadleaf forests are the most important habitats for macaques6

In 1972, a troop of about 150 Japanese macaques was relocated from Kyoto to a primate observatory in southwest Texas, USA The observatory is an enclosed ranch-style environment and the macaques have been allowed to roam with minimal human interference At first, many perished in the unfamiliar habitat, which consists of arid brushland The macaques eventually adapted to the environment, and learned to forage for mesquite beans, cactus fruits, and other foods The macaques flourished, and by 1995, the troop consisted of 500 to 600 individuals In 1996, hunters maimed or killed four escaped macaques; as a result, legal restrictions were publicly clarified and funds were raised to establish a new 186-acre 75-ha sanctuary near Dilley, Texas6263

Relationship with humansedit

Macaques being fed

Traditional manmade threats to macaques have been slash-and-burn agriculture, use of forest woods for construction and fuel, and hunting These threats have declined due to social and economic changes in Japan since World War II,64 but other threats have emerged The replacement of natural forest with lumber plantations is the most serious threat64 As human prosperity has grown, macaques have lost their fear of humans and have increased their presence in both rural and urban areas, with one macaque recorded living in central Tokyo for several months12

Cultural depictionsedit

Main article: Monkeys in Japanese culture Painting by Watanabe Kazan, 19th century

The Japanese macaque snow monkey has featured prominently in the religion, folklore, and art of Japan, as well as in proverbs and idiomatic expressions in the Japanese language In Shinto belief, mythical beasts known as raijū sometimes appeared as monkeys and kept Raijin, the god of lightning, company The "three wise monkeys", which warn people to "see no evil, hear no evil, and speak no evil", are carved in relief over the door of the famous Tōshō-gū shrine in Nikkō The Japanese macaque is a feature of several fairy tales, such as the tale of Momotaro and the fable about The Crab and the Monkey6566 As the monkey is part of the Chinese zodiac, which has been used for centuries in Japan, the creature was sometimes portrayed in paintings of the Edo Period as a tangible metaphor for a particular year The 19th-century artist and samurai Watanabe Kazan created a painting of a macaque67 During the Edo Period, numerous clasps for kimono or tobacco pouches collectively called netsuke were carved in the shape of macaques68

Spoken references to macaques abound in the history of Japan Before his rise to power, the famed samurai Toyotomi Hideyoshi was compared to a monkey in appearance and nicknamed Kozaru "Little Monkey" by his lord and master, Oda Nobunaga69not in citation given This was a humorous jibe at first, but was later used pejoratively by Hideyoshi's rivals In modern Japanese culture, because monkeys are considered to indulge their libido openly and frequently much the same way as rabbits are thought to in some Western cultures, a man who is preoccupied with sex might be compared to or metaphorically referred to as a monkey, as might a romantically involved couple who are exceptionally amorous

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Watanabe, K & tokita, K 2008 "Macaca fuscata" IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2008 International Union for Conservation of Nature Retrieved 4 January 2009 
  2. ^ "Macaque" oxforddictionariescom 
  3. ^ Jigokudani Monkey Park, Nagano: Explore the Heart of Japan
  4. ^ Profile of Japanese macaques by Masahiro Minami, Simon Fraser University; Masui, K 1988, Nihonzaru no fudo, Climatology of Japanese Macaque, Tokyo: Yuzankaku; Nakagawa, N, Iwamoto, T, Yokota, N, & Soumah, AG 1996 Inter-regional and inter-seasonal variations of food quality in Japanese macaques: constraints of digestive volume and feeding time In JE FA, & DG Lindburg Eds, Evolution and ecology of macaque societies pp 207-234 New York, NY: Cambridge University Press
  5. ^ Groves, CP 2005 Wilson, DE; Reeder, DM, eds Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press p 162 ISBN 0-801-88221-4 OCLC 62265494 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fooden J, Aimi M 2005 "Systematic review of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Gray, 1870 " Fieldiana: Zoology 104:1-200
  7. ^ a b Hamada Y, Watanabe T, Iwamoto M 1996 "Morphological variations among local populations of Japanese macaque Macaca fuscata " In: Shotake T, Wada K, editors Variations in the Asian macaques Tokyo: Tokai Univ Pr p97-115
  8. ^ Rowe N 1996 The pictorial guide to the living primates East Hampton NY: Pogonias Pr p124-5
  9. ^ Hori T, Nakayama T, Tokura H, Hara F, Suzuki M 1977 "Thermoregulation of the Japanese macaque living in a snowy mountain area" Jap J Physiol 27:305-19
  10. ^ Takahata Y, Suzuki S, Agetsuma N, Okayasu N, Sugiura H, Takahashi H, Yamagiwa J, Izawa K, Furuichi T, Hill DA, Maruhashi T, Saito C, Sato S, Sprague DS 1998 "Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushima and Kinkazan islands: a preliminary report" Primates 393:339-349
  11. ^ Nakamichi M, Kojima Y, Itoigawa N, Imakawa S, Machida S 1995 "Interactions among adult males and females before and after the death of the alpha male in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques" Primates 363:385-96
  12. ^ a b Fukuda F 2004 "Dispersal and environmental disturbance in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata " Prim Rep 68:53-69
  13. ^ a b Koyama N I 1967 "On dominance rank and kinship of a wild Japanese monkey troop in Arashiyama" Primates 8:189-216
  14. ^ Sugiyama Y 1976 "Life history of male Japanese monkeys" Adv Stud Behav 7:255-84
  15. ^ a b Sprague DS, Suzuki S, Tsukahara T 1996 "Variation in social mechanisms by which males attained the alpha rank among Japanese macaques" In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG, editors Evolution and ecology of macaque societies Cambridge UK: Cambridge U Pr p 444-58
  16. ^ Takahashi H 2002 "Changes of dominance rank, age, and tenure of wild Japanese macaque males in the Kinkazan A troop during seven years" Primates 432:133-8
  17. ^ Takahata Y "Diachronic changes in the dominance relations of adult female Japanese monkeys of the Arashiyama B group" In: Fedigan LM & Asquith PJ, editors The monkeys of Arashiyama: Thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west AlbanyNY: SUNY Pr p123-39
  18. ^ Koyama NF 2003 "Matrilineal cohesion and social networks in Macaca fuscata" Intl J Primatol 244:797-811
  19. ^ Nakamichi M, Kojima Y, Itoigawa N, Imakawa S, Machida S 1995 "Interactions among adult males and females before and after the death of the alpha male in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques" Primates 363:385-96
  20. ^ Ventura R, Majolo B, Schino G, Hardie S 2005 "Differential effects of ambient temperature and humidity on allogrooming, self-grooming, and scratching in wild Japanese macaques" Am J Phys Anth 1264:453-7
  21. ^ Koyama N 1991 "Grooming relationships in the Arashiyama group of Japanese monkeys" In: Fedigan LM, Asquith PJ, editors The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west Albany NY: SUNY Pr p211-26
  22. ^ a b Nakamichi M, Shizawa Y 2003 "Distribution of grooming among adult females in a large, free-ranging group of Japanese macaques" Intl J Primatol 243:607-25
  23. ^ Tsukahara T 1990 "Initiation and solicitation in male-female grooming in a wild Japanese macaque troop on Yakushima island" Primates 312:147-56
  24. ^ Tanaka I 1995 "Matrilineal distribution of louse egg-handling techniques during grooming in free-ranging Japanese macaques" Am J Phys Anth 982:197-201
  25. ^ a b Huffman MA 1992 "Influences of female partner preference on potential reproductive outcome in Japanese macaques" Folia Primatol 592:77-88
  26. ^ Gouzoules H, Goy RW 1983 "Physiological and social influences on mounting behaviour of troop-living female monkeys Macaca fuscata " Am J Primatol 51:39-49
  27. ^ Perloe SI 1992 "Male mating competition, female choice and dominance in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques" Primates 333:289-304
  28. ^ Soltis J 1999 "Measuring male-female relationships during the mating season in wild Japanese macaques" Primates 403:453-67
  29. ^ Sprague DS 1991 "Mating by non-troop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima island" Folia Primatol 573:156-8
  30. ^ Vasey PL, Foroud A, Duckworth N, Kovacovsky SD 2006 "Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement" Arch Sex Behav 352:117-29
  31. ^ a b Wolfe L 1979 "Sexual maturation among members of a transported troop of Japanese macaques" Primates 203:411-8
  32. ^ a b Yotsumoto N 1976 "The daily activity rhythm in a troop of wild Japanese monkey" Primates 172:183-204
  33. ^ MobileReference 15 December 2009 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of North American Mammals: A Comprehensive Guide to Mammals of North America MobileReference ISBN 978-1-60501-279-7 Retrieved 23 April 2013 
  34. ^ Hanby JP, Brown CE 1974 "The development of sociosexual behaviours in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata" Behaviour 49:152-96
  35. ^ Fedigan LM, Zohar S 1997 "Sex differences in mortality of Japanese macaques: twenty-one years of data from the Arashiyama west population" Am J Phys Anth 1022:161-75
  36. ^ Thomsen R 1997 "Observation of periparturitional behaviour in wild Yakushima macaques Macaca fuscata yakui " Folia Primatol 686:338-41
  37. ^ a b c d Hiraiwa M 1981 "Maternal and alloparental care in a troop of free-ranging Japanese monkeys" Primates 223:309-29
  38. ^ Bardi M, Shimizu K, Fujita S, Borgognini-Tarli S, Huffman MA 2001 "Social behavior and hormonal correlates during the perinatal period in Japanese macaques" Horm Behav 393:239-46
  39. ^ Gouzoules H 1984 "Social relations of males and infants in a troop of Japanese monkeys: a consideration of causal mechanisms" In: Taub DM, editor Primate paternalism New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co p 127–45
  40. ^ Minami T 1974 "Early mother-infant relations in Japanese monkeys" In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors Contemporary primatology, proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Primatology BaselCH:S Karger p 334–340
  41. ^ a b Glick BB, Eaton GG, Johnson DF, Worlein J 1986 "Social behavior of infant and mother Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata : effects of kinship, partner sex, and infant sex" Intl J Primatol 72:139-55
  42. ^ Nakamichi M 1989 "Sex differences in social development during the first 4 years in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata" Anim Behav 385:737-48
  43. ^ Mitani M 1986 "Voiceprint identification and its application to sociological studies of wild Japanese monkeys" Macaca fuscata yakui Primates 274:397-412
  44. ^ Sugiura H 2001 "Vocal exchange of coo calls in Japanese macaques" In: Matsuzawa T, editor Primate origins of human cognition and behavior Tokyo: Springer p135-54
  45. ^ Masataka N 1989 "Motivational referents of contact calls in Japanese monkeys" Ethology 801-4:265-73
  46. ^ Blount B 1985 "Girney" vocalizations among Japanese macaque females: context and function Primates 264:424-35
  47. ^ Machida S 1990 "Threat calls in alliance formation by members of a captive group of Japanese monkeys" Primates 312:205-11
  48. ^ a b Animal Diversity Web, § "Other Comments", ¶ 1, sent 5, downloaded 2009-02-15T16:00+09:00
  49. ^ a b c d Blue Planet Biomes, ¶ 12, sent 1, downloaded 2009-02-15T16:00+09:00
  50. ^ a b Kargercom "Carrying and Washing of Grass Roots by Free-Ranging Japanese Macaques at Katsuyama" by Nakamichi, Masayuki; Kato, Eiko; Kojima, Yasuo; and Itoigawa, Naosuke in "Folia Primatologica:International Journal of Primatology"; Vol 69, No 1, 1998, § "Abstract", ¶ 1, sent 1, downloaded 2009-02-15T16:00+09:00
  51. ^ Amundson, Ron Summer 1985 Kendrick Frazier ed "The Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon" Skeptical Inquirer: 348-356
  52. ^ National Geographic "Monkeys Have Accent, Japanese Study Finds"
  53. ^ Maruhashi T 1981 "Activity patterns of a troop of Japanese monkeys Macaca fuscata yakui on Yakushima island, Japan" Primates 221:1-14
  54. ^ Takahashi H 1997 "Huddling relationships in night-sleeping groups among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan island during winter" Primates 381:57-68
  55. ^ a b c Koganezawa M 1974 "Food habits of Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata in the Boso mountains" In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors Contemporary primatology, proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Primatology BaselCH:S Karger p380-3
  56. ^ a b Maruhashi T 1980 "Feeding behavior and diet of the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata yakui on Yakushima island, Japan" Primates 212:141-60
  57. ^ Hanya G 2004 "Diet of a Japanese macaque troop in the coniferous forest of Yakushima" Intl J Primatol 251:55-69
  58. ^ Hanya G, Kiyono M, Yamada A, Suzuki K, Furukawa M, Yoshida Y, Chijiiwa A 2006 "Not only annual food abundance but also fallback food quality determines the Japanese macaque density: evidence from seasonal variations in home range size" Primates 473:275-8
  59. ^ Aetsuma N, Nakagawa N 1998 "Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan" Primates 393:275-89
  60. ^ a b c Uehara S 1975 "The importance of the temperate forest elements among woody food plants utilized by Japanese monkeys and its possible historical meaning for the establishment of the monkeys & apes; range: a preliminary report" In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors Contemporary primatology, proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Primatology BaselCH:S Karger p392-400
  61. ^ http://pinprimatewiscedu/factsheets/entry/japanese_macaque/behav
  62. ^ Baker, Ed 5 August 2005 "The Legendary Snow Monkeys of Texas: A brief open season on monkeys resulted in protections for them in the Lone Star State" The Austin Chronicle Retrieved 3 May 2011 
  63. ^ Born Free USA: Primate Sanctuary: About the Sanctuary, 2003–2011, retrieved 3 May 2011 
  64. ^ a b Sprague DS 2002 "Monkeys in the backyard: encroaching wildlife and rural communities in Japan" In: Fuentes A, Wolfe LD, editors Primates face to face: conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections Cambridge UK: Cambridge U Pr p254-72
  65. ^ Ozaki, Yei Theodora 1903 "The Quarrel of Tee Monkey and the Crab" The Japanese Fairy Book Archibald Constable & Co Archived from the original on November 29, 2010 
  66. ^ Ozaki, Yei Theodora 1903 "Momotaro, or the story of the Son of a Peach" The Japanese Fairy Book Archibald Constable & Co 
  67. ^ Keene, Donald 2006 Frog In The Well: Portraits of Japan by Watanabe Kazan 1793-1841 Asia Perspectives Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-13826-1 
  68. ^ Okada, Yuzuru 1951 Netsuke: A Miniature Art of Japan Tokyo: Japan Travel Bureau 
  69. ^ Berry, Mary Elizabeth 1982 Hideyoshi Harvard Univ Asia Center ISBN 0-674-39026-1 

External linksedit

  • SNOW MONKEY RESORTS OFFICIAL SITE
  • "Macaca fuscata" Integrated Taxonomic Information System 
  • Jigokudani Yaen-Koen Info Page
  • AcaPixus images of Japanese macaque
  • Primate Info Net Macaca fuscata Factsheet
  • Human Factors & activities around Jigokudani-Shigakogen Forest Park
  • Mammals portal
  • Animals portal
  • Primates portal
  • Japan portal


Japanese macaque Information about


Japanese macaque
Japanese macaque

Japanese macaque Information Video


Japanese macaque viewing the topic.
Japanese macaque what, Japanese macaque who, Japanese macaque explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video



Random Posts

Social Accounts

Facebook Twitter VK
Copyright © 2014. Search Engine