Tue . 18 Oct 2018

Jan Zamoyski

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Jan Zamoyski or Zamojski Latin: Ioannes de Zamość; 1542–1605 was a Polish nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość Royal Secretary from 1566, Deputy Kanclerz Chancellor of the Crown from 1576, Lord Grand-Chancellor of the Crown from 1578, and Grand Hetman of the Crown from 1581 General Starost of Kraków from 1580 to 1585, Starost of Bełz, Międzyrzecz, Krzeszów, Knyszyn and Tartu Important advisor to Kings Sigismund II Augustus and Stephen Báthory, he was one of the major supporters of Bathory's successor, Sigismund III Vasa, and one of the most skilled diplomats, politicians and statesmen of his time, standing as a major figure in the politics of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout his life

Contents

  • 1 Biography
    • 11 Childhood and education
    • 12 Early career
    • 13 Chancellor and hetman
    • 14 Later years
    • 15 In opposition to the throne
  • 2 Assessment and legacy
    • 21 Remembrance
    • 22 Political and military leader
    • 23 Wealth and cultural patronage
    • 24 Personality
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Biography

Childhood and education

Jan Zamoyski was born on 19 March 1542 to Stanisław Zamoyski and Anna Herburt in Skokówka He started his education in a school in Krasnystaw but when he was thirteen years old he was sent to study abroad; from 1555 to 1559 he was a page at the royal court in Paris Already at this young age he attended lectures at the Sorbonne University and Collège de France In 1559 he briefly visited Poland, then attended the University of Strasbourg; after a few months there he moved to University of Padua, where from 1561 he studied law and received a doctorate in 1564 During his years abroad he converted from Calvinism to Roman Catholicism

During his education, he became active in university politics, and in 1563 he was elected the rector of the law department Around that time he also wrote De senatu Romano, a brochure about Ancient Rome government He returned to the Commonwealth in 1565, and was the first person to receive a commendation letter from the senate of the Republic of Venice

Early career

Jan Zamoyski

After returning to Poland, he was appointed to the Royal Chancellery, and soon became a favorite secretary to King Sigismund II In 1567 he commanded a royal task force, sent to remove the noble family of Starzechowscy from the royal lands they were decreed to hold illegally Another major task he completed at that time was the reorganization of the Chancellery archive

In 1571 he married Anna Ossolińska; his wife and their young son died shortly afterwards, in 1572 After the extinction of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1572 during the election sejm special session of the Commonwealth parliament he used his influence to enforce the viritim election meaning all nobles had the right to vote for the new king during the upcoming Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1573 However, his proposal for majority voting did not pass, which opened the process for abuses of liberum veto in the future He was a colleague of Mikołaj Sienicki and Hieronim Ossolinski, and with them he was one of the leaders of a faction of the lesser and middle nobility szlachta in the Commonwealth, whose goal was the reform the country - the execution movement - preserving the unique constitutional and parliamentary government of the Commonwealth with the dominant role of poorer nobility Golden Freedom He was so influential and popular among the lesser nobility that he was known as the "first tribune of nobility" or "Polish Gracchus"

Chancellor and hetman

In that first election he was in favour of Henryk II Walezy later, Henry III of France Subsequently, he was part of the diplomatic mission that traveled to France to finish formalities with the newly elected king He also published a pamphlet praising the new king, and thus suffered a loss of face when Henryk secretly abandoned Poland and returned to France During the following 1575 election he was a vocal enemy of the Habsburg dynasty and its candidate, and this anti-Habsburg stance, resounding among the lesser nobility, helped him regain his popularity For the king, Zamoyski championed the case of a Polish candidate, which ended up in the marriage of Anna Jagiellon with the anti-Habsburg Stephen Bathory of Transylvania

Zamoyski in red to the left of King Stefan Batory at Pskov Zamoyski on his way to declare Zborowski's death sentence Sketch by Jan Matejko

Bathory thanked Zamoyski by granting him the office of Deputy Chancellor on 16 May 1576 He participated on Batory's side in the quelling of the Danzig rebellion in 1576–1577, sponsoring a chorągiew of pancerni cavalry unit and participating in close combat on several occasions In 1577 he married again, this time marrying Krystyna Radziwiłł, daughter of magnate Mikołaj Radziwiłł Czarny; this made him a close ally of the Radziwiłł family, the most powerful family in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania In 1578 he received the post of the Grand Crown Chancellor That year poet Jan Kochanowski dedicated his Odprawa Posłów Greckich, the first Polish tragedy, to him

He took part in the preparation for a war against Muscovy in 1579–1581, where he contributed a group of 400 or 600 mercenaries Through he had little prior military background nor experience, he was interested in mastering the military art, and proved to be an adept learner With Batory's support, he began filling in for some of the roles of Grand Crown Hetman Mikołaj Mielecki, particularly when Mielecki was not present While not campaigning, he was also instrumental in ensuring that the ongoing political support for the war In 1580 he was hit by another personal tragedy, as his wife died in labor, together with their child; entering a short period of depression

Later that year, in August, he captured Velizh in September he participated in the siege of Velikiye Luki, and then took Zavoloc On 11 August 1581 he received the nomination for the post of Grand Crown Hetman; this nomination, although uncontroversial at that time, was technically illegal Following that he participated in the long and inconclusive Siege of Pskov, which ended with the Peace of Yam-Zapolsky in 1582 Though Zamoyski failed to capture Pskov, he drained the Russian resources, and the ongoing siege was a major reason for the final treaty, which was highly favorable to Poland

In June 1583 Zamoyski took his third wife, Gryzelda Bathory, a relative of king Bathory himself In May 1584 Zamoyski's men captured Samuel Zborowski, a noble whose death sentence for treason and murder had been pending for roughly a decade, shortly afterwards with Bathory's consent Zborowski was executed This political conflict between Báthory, Zamoyski and the Zborowski family, framed as the clash between the monarch and the nobility, would be a major recurring controversy in internal Polish politics for many years, beginning with a major dispute at the Sejm of 1585

Later years

Zamoyski at Byczyna Sketch by Jan Matejko

After the death of Batory in 1586, Zamoyski helped Sigismund III Vasa gain the Polish throne, fighting in the brief civil war against the forces supporting Habsburg archduke Maximilian III of Austria The camp supporting Sigismund was rallied around Zamoyski, whereas Maximilian was supported by the Zborowski family Zamoyski defended Kraków and defeated Maximilian's forces in the Battle of Byczyna in 1588 In that battle, which Sławomir Leśniewski describes as "one of the most important in Polish history, and the most important in Zamoyski's military career", Maximilian was taken prisoner and in the resulting Treaty of Bytom and Będzin of 1589 had to give up all pretenses to the Polish crown Later that year Zamoyski proposed a reform of the royal elections, which failed to pass the Sejm Zamoyski presented to this Sejm a project that in case the present King should die without issue none but a candidate of some Slav stock should henceforth be eligible to th Polish throne This was a project which could even imagine the possibility of some kind of union between Catholic Poland, Orthodox Moscovy and semi-Protestant Bohemia In fact, it was a circuitous and clumsy counter-proposal against pro-Hapsburg policy

From 1589 Zamoyski, in his role as the hetman, tried to prevent the intensifying Tatar incursions along the Commonwealth south-eastern border, but with little success In order to deal with the recurring disturbances in that region Zamoyski developed a plan to turn Moldavia into a buffer zone between the Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire; this would lead to a lengthy campaign

In opposition to the throne

Zamoyski by Bacciarelli

Meanwhile, in internal Commonwealth politics, early on in Sigismund III's reign, Zamoyski, who was once a staunch supporter of the Commonwealth kings, begun to distance himself from the King Sigismund had quickly allied himself with the Habsburgs, much to chancellors dissatisfaction Zamoyski was dissatisfied with Sigismund's early plans to use Poland as a stepping stone to gaining the Swedish crown, as Sigismund was plotting to cede the Polish crown to the Habsburgs in exchange for their support of his right to the Swedish throne The new King feared the chancellor's power, but due to Commonwealth laws he was unable to dismiss him from his posts He offered him a prestigious voivode of Kraków office, but Zamoyski declined, as if he was to accept, the law would require him to resign from his slightly less prestigious but more influential chancellorship By 1590–1591 Zamoyski was seen as one of the king's staunchest opponents Open quarrel between king and chancellor broke out during the Sejm of 1591, culminating in a heated exchange of words and the king storming out of the chamber Despite their tensed relations, neither the king nor the chancellor wanted a civil war; soon after their quarrel Zamoyski would issue a public apology to the king and their uneasy relationship would continue until Zamoyski's death

Portrait of Zamoyski, Wilanów Palace collection, 19th century

In 1594 Zamoyski once again failed to stop a Tatar incursion in the southern borders The next year was much more successful, as in Moldavia in 1595 he was victorious in the Battle of Cecora, and helped hospodar Ieremia Movilă Jeremi Mohyła gain the throne In 1600 he fought against Michael the Brave Michał Waleczny, Mihai Viteazul, hospodar of Wallachia and the new Prince of Transylvania, who had conquered Moldavia a few months earlier He defeated him on the Bukova Bucovu and restored Ieremia to the throne He also helped his brother, Simion Movilă to become brief ruler of Wallachia, thus spreading the influence of the Commonwealth to the Central Danube

In 1600 and 1601 Zamoyski took part in the war against Sweden commanding the Commonwealth forces in Livonia Inflanty At the same time he was a vocal opponent of that war on the political scene In 1600 he recaptured several strongholds from the Swedes and a year later captured Wolmar on 19 December 1601 Fellin on 16 May 1602, and Bialy Kamien on 30 September 1602 The rigours of the campaign, however, placed a strain on his health, and he resigned the command

At the Sejm of 1603 Zamoyski led opposition to the governance reforms proposed by Sigismund; seeing in them intentions of transforming the Commonwealth into an absolute monarchy Later, he also opposed Sigismund's plans to intervene in the civil war plaguing Muscovy the Time of Troubles and the Dymitriads He clashed with Sigismund for the final time during the Sejm of January 1605

Zamoyski died suddenly on 3 June 1605, due to a stroke His fortune was inherited by his single son, Tomasz Zamoyski

Assessment and legacy

Remembrance

Fame of Zamoyski, significance in life, endured after his death He was praised by artists such as Szymon Starowolski and Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, and historians, including Stanisław Staszic, Stanisław Tarnowski and Artur Śliwiński There were also those critical of him: Hugo Kołłątaj, Józef Szujski, Michał Bobrzyński Nonetheless, Polish historiography and culture treatment of Zamoyski is mostly positive, and historian Janusz Tazbir remarked that Zamoyski posthumous career was even more magnificent than his real one Leśniewski, ending his recent biography of Zamoyski, concludes that he is a significant, if controversial, figure of Polish Renaissance

Zamoyski was the subject of several paintings and drawings Most notably, he is one of the characters in two large paintings by Jan Matejko, featured on the Skarga's Sermon and Batory at Pskov

Political and military leader

Bust of Hetman Jan Zamoyski in the Royal Castle in Warsaw

Having control of both the Chancellorship and the Grand Hetman office, Zamoyski was one of the most powerful people in the country, having obtained both the power of Grand Hetman commander in chief of the armed forces and that of chancellor, combined for the first time in the hands of one person He was responsible for much of the Polish internal and foreign policies He is considered to be one of the most prominent statesmen in Polish history

Even though his military career begun almost as an afterthought, or by accident, Zamoyski is also remembered as one of the most accomplished Polish military commanders In his tactics, he favored sieges, flanking maneuvers, conserving his forces, and the new Western art of fortification and artillery The war with Muscovy shown him to be a skilled commander in sieges, and latter events would prove him to be an equally able leader in the open field

Wealth and cultural patronage

Zamoyski gathered a significant fortune; his estates generated a revenue of over 200,000 zloties in the early 17th century His personal lands covered 6,445 square kilometres 2,488 sq mi, and included eleven towns and over 200 villages He was a royal caretaker of another dozen or so cities and over 600 villages Totaled, his personal and leased lands covered over 17,000 square kilometres 6,600 sq mi, with 23 towns and cities and 816 villages In 1589 he succeeded in establishing the Zamoyski Family Fee Tail ordynacja zamojska, a de facto duchy Zamoyski supported economical development of his lands, investing in colonization of frontiers, and the development of industry, both small sawmills, breweries, mills and such and large his lands had four iron mills and four glass factories

His most prized creation was the capital of his Fee Tail, the city of Zamość, founded in 1580, built and designed as a Renaissance citta ideale or "ideal city" by the Italian architect Bernardo Morando In the city, in 1595 he founded the Akademia Zamojska, the third university in the history of education in Poland In addition to Zamość, he also funded four other towns: Szarogród, Skinderpol, Busza and Jasnogród

Zamoyski collected a significant library, and was a patron of numerous artists in his Fee Tail Artists under his patronage included the poets Jan Kochanowski and Szymon Szymonowic, and the writer and historian Joachim Bielski

Personality

Zamoyski was not a deeply religious person, and his conversion from Protestantism to Catholicism was primarily pragmatic Leśniewski notes that Zamoyski was often motivated by greed, for example during the Danzig Rebellion, when he supported lenient treatment of the rebels, and during the 1577–1578 negotiations with, when he favored the solution of George Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach; in both cases his decision was likely influenced by bribes or favors In another example, Leśniewski describes how Zamoyski openly demanded rewards following his victory at Byczyna, and tried to include an article favoring him in the Bytom and Będzin treaty He further notes, critically, that with raising power and political success Zamoyski begun displaying negative qualities, such as egoism and arrogance Zamoyski was ruthless to those weaker than him At the same time, he was respected by his opponents, widely recognized as highly intelligent, a cunning strategist and tactician in matters political and military, and a popular political leader He valued the good of the country at least as high as his own, and although he could have become the king after a victorious civil war against Sigismund, he preferred to act within the limits of law instead, avoiding a war that could devastate the country, and thus curbing his own ambitions

See also

  • Army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Notes

  1. ^ Some of Zamoyski's political allies were less restrained, and shortly after his death attempted to dehtrone Sigismund in the short-sighted civil war known as the Zebrzydowski's Rokosz 1606–1608

References

  1. ^ a b Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 114 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  2. ^ a b Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 9–10 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  3. ^ a b c d e Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 11–15 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 115 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  5. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 18 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  6. ^ a b Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 20–21 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  7. ^ a b c d Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 24–26 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Halina Lerski 30 January 1996 Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945 ABC-CLIO p 678 ISBN 978-0-313-03456-5 Retrieved 2 July 2012 
  9. ^ Adam Żurek 2003 Polska--dzieje cywilizacji i narodu: Monarchia Jagiellonów : 1399–1586 Grupa Wydawnicza Bertelsmann Media p 146 ISBN 978-83-7311-565-1 Retrieved 2 July 2012 
  10. ^ Jan Dzięgielewski 1995 Encyklopedia Historii Polski: Dzieje Polityczne in Polish Morex p 610 ISBN 978-83-904121-2-2 
  11. ^ a b Janusz P Waluszko 25 May 2000 "Rzecz o Sarmacyi - Taraka" in Polish Tarakapl Retrieved 2 July 2012 
  12. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 22–23 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  13. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 30 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  14. ^ a b c Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 32–35 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  15. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 37–38 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  16. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 41 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  17. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 44 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  18. ^ a b c d Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 50–51 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  19. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 54 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  20. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 554 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  21. ^ a b Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 116 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  22. ^ a b Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 60–61 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  23. ^ Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 118 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  24. ^ a b c Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 119 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  25. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 63–66 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  26. ^ a b Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 70–78 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  27. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 80–81 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  28. ^ a b Daniel Stone 2001 The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386–1795 University of Washington Press p 125 ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5 Retrieved 5 September 2013 
  29. ^ a b Jerzy Besala; Agnieszka Biedrzycka 2004–2005 "Stefan Batory" Polski Słownik Biograficzny in Polish XLIII p 123 
  30. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 84–89 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  31. ^ a b Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 121 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  32. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 96 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  33. ^ Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 122 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  34. ^ a b c Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 111–118 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  35. ^ Bain, R Nisbet, Slavonic Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1908, p137
  36. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 121–122 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  37. ^ a b c Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 123 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  38. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 122–123 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  39. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 119 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  40. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 120 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  41. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 124 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  42. ^ a b c Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 124–126 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  43. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 168–169 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  44. ^ a b Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 124 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  45. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 137 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  46. ^ a b Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 125 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  47. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 139 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  48. ^ a b c d e Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 126 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  49. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 161–162 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  50. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 163–164 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  51. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 165–166 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  52. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 152 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  53. ^ a b c d Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 169–171 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  54. ^ "Skargi księdza Skargi" Wizpl 2012-08-23 Retrieved 1 February 2014 
  55. ^ Norman Davies 24 February 2005 God's Playground A History of Poland: Volume 1: The Origins to 1795 Oxford University Press p 24 ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5 
  56. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 143 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  57. ^ Marek Plewczyński 1995 "JAN ZAMOYSKI herbu Jelita 1542–1605 hetman wielki" Hetmani Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów Wydawn Bellona p 120 ISBN 978-83-11-08275-5 Retrieved 16 June 2012 
  58. ^ a b Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 145 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  59. ^ a b Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 146 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  60. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 147 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  61. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 158 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  62. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 147–150 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  63. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 150–152 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  64. ^ a b c Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 153–157 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  65. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona p 12 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  66. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 45–47 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 
  67. ^ Sławomir Leśniewski January 2008 Jan Zamoyski - hetman i polityk in Polish Bellona pp 114–117 GGKEY:RRA1L0T4Y81 

External links

  •  Polish Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jan Zamoyski
  • Media related to Jan Zamoyski at Wikimedia Commons

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Later Silla

Later Silla

Later Silla 668–935, Hangul: 후신라; Hanja: 後新羅; RR: Hushila, Korean pronunciation: ...