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J. C. Daniel

j&c daniels, j&c daniel movie
J C Daniel Malayalam:ജെസിഡാനിയേൽ was an Indian filmmaker who is considered as the father of Malayalam cinema He was the first film-maker from Kerala He produced, directed, wrote, photographed, edited and acted in the first film made in Kerala, Vigathakumaran The Lost Child He also established the first film studio in Kerala, The Travancore National Pictures The Government of Kerala instituted the Kerala State Film Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1992 in his name, as a part of the Kerala State Film Awards, to honor lifetime achievements in Malayalam Cinema


  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Learning film making
  • 3 Production of Vigathakumaran
  • 4 Post Release of Vigathakumaran
  • 5 J C Daniel Award
  • 6 JC Foundation Award
  • 7 Biographical film
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Early life

Daniel was born on 26 February 1900 to a Nadar Christian family in Agasteeswaram taluk, Travancore present-day Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu He finished his formal education from Maharaja's College, Trivandrum He was interested in martial arts and was an expert in Kalarippayattu, the traditional martial art of Kerala He published an English book titled Indian Art of Fencing and Sword Play in 1915, when he was 15 years old

Learning film making

Daniel was well aware of the scope of cinema as a public medium He wished to popularise Kalarippayattu by harnessing the popular influence of cinema At that time the common man of Kerala was not even aware of the medium of cinema, hence the idea was quite a challenge He took up the challenge and left for Madras now Chennai to learn techniques of film-making and to acquire necessary equipment for the purpose Madras was the budding centre of film production in South India and had the only permanent talkies in South India, named Gaiety which was established in 1917 However, he was unable to realise his plans in Madras and was even denied entry to various studios in the city That didn't stop the determined Daniel from pursuing his dream He travelled to Bombay now Mumbai, the centre of Hindi cinema production He was able to obtain entry into film studios in the city, claiming that he is a teacher from Kerala and wanted to teach his students about cinema He gathered enough knowledge and equipment for film production from Bombay and came back to Kerala to fulfill his dream

Production of Vigathakumaran

In 1926, Daniel established the first film studio in Kerala named The Travancore National Pictures It was near the present Public Service Commission office, Pattom, Trivandrum He obtained funds for this purpose by selling a piece of land in his name for an amount of Rs400,000 With everything set, Daniel finally started the production work of the film of his dreams He wrote the script and titled it Vigathakumaran The film did not have sound or dialogue He directed and wielded the camera for the film and also played the role of the protagonist in the film P K Rosie acted as the heroine He also did most of the post-production work including editing The theme of the film was of social significance and was one of the earliest films of the genre At the time, when most of the Indian films were based on stories from the Puranas and films with social themes were rare, Daniel showed creativity and originality with his selection of the theme of the movie

Post Release of Vigathakumaran

DrJCDaniel with his wife Janet

Vigathakumaran was exhibited in Trivandrum at the Capitol Theatre on 7 November 1928 Despite being the very first film made in Kerala and having a socially-significant message, it faced the wrath of certain orthodox sections in the society due to the presence of a woman in the film Rosie, who played the role of the female protagonist, was disbarred from entering the theatre, as caste Hindus, outraged that a converted dalit played the role of a Nair woman in the film, created a ruckus At that time, due to the social orthodoxy and lack of public awareness of the cinema medium, acting in films were considered an act at par with prostitution During the screening, stones were pelt on the screen, damaging it The film did moderate business at the box office but the collections were way below the production cost

The movie was also screened in Alleppey at the Star Theatre Since it was a silent movie, there was an announcer at the theatre who would explain the story and the situation Alleppey being one of the most important port towns in Kerala during that time, the audience were more liberal They received the movie with excitement There was a minor glitch once, when the screen faded and the audience booed After the announcer explained that since this was the first Malayalam movie, some minor problems might happen The audience welcomed his statement with applause

Vigathakumaran was also screened at Quilon, Trichur, Tellichery and Nagercoil

Daniel became indebted as the movie was not a commercial success To pay his debtors, he had to sell his equipments and close down the studio He spent the rest of his life as a dentist at Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu He spent his last years in his ancestral home called NEW HOUSE at Agastheeswaram Though he applied for pension under the scheme for ailing artists, the Government rejected it since he was born in Tamil Nadu In his books and articles, noted film journalist Chelangatt Gopalakrishnan originally established that Vigathakumaran was the first Malayalam film and that Daniel was its architect as director, producer, cinematographer and leading man He described the story of Vigathakumaran in articles published since 1960, but Kerala Government initially rejected his crusade citing Daniel was not a Malayalee The Government version was that if Daniel wanted a pension or financial assistance, he has to approach the Tamil Nadu Government However,Gopalakrishnan's campaign was finally successful and Daniel obtained government recognition as a Keralite, being honoured as the Father of Malayalam Cinema

DrJCDaniel's tomb in Agasteeswaram, Kanyakumari

JC Daniel's death bed was well nursed by his wife and he died on 27 April 1975

J C Daniel Award

Main article: J C Daniel Award

The Department of Cultural Affairs, Government of Kerala instituted the J C Daniel Award in honour of him in 1992 The award, a part of the Kerala State Film Awards is to honour lifetime achievements in outstanding contributions to Malayalam cinema From 1998, the Kerala State Chalachitra Academy, an autonomous body under the Department of Cultural Affairs, Government of Kerala hosts the award

JC Foundation Award

The awards are instituted by the JC Foundation, which was founded in memory of JC Daniel by his family and friends The awards are given away annually for achievements in Malayalam film-making and literature The film awards are given away in a variety of categories while the literature award is given for the best Malayalam novel

Biographical film

Main article: Celluloid film

In 2013, Kamal wrote and directed a biopic on Daniel titled Celluloid The film details the struggles of Daniel to produce and exhibit Vigathakumaran, while plunging into financial crisis The movie also generated criticism over its subtle reference to an IAS Officer and the then Chief Minister, which purportedly points to the bureaucrat & writer Malayattoor Ramakrishna Iyer and K Karunakaran, who worked together to deny J C Daniel credit for his contribution to Malayalam Cinema since he was a Christian ref: audio recording of Chelangat Gopalakrishnan produced by Akashawani and published by a TV channel Author and civil servant N S Madhavan and D Babu Paul, former Chief Secretary of Kerala have pointed out factual inaccuracies in the film's depiction of Malayattoor and Karunakaran The film, based partially on the novel Nashta Naayika by Vinu Abraham and the Life of J C Daniel, a biography by film journalist Chelangat Gopalakrishnan, also deals with the life of Rosie, the lead actress in Vigathakumaran Prithviraj plays the role of Daniel, while Mamta Mohandas plays his wife Janet and newcomer Chandni plays Rosie The film won 7 Kerala State Film Awards in different categories including that for Best Film

The Lost Life is a documentary on Daniel by R Gopalakrishnan


  1. ^ http://wwwmanoramaonlinecom/cgi-bin/MMOnlinedll/portal/ep/malayalamContentViewdocontentId=13561095&programId=1073752204&channelId=-1073750705&[email protected]@@&tabId=3
  2. ^ http://wwwmanoramaonlinecom/cgi-bin/MMOnlinedll/portal/ep/malayalamContentViewdocontentId=13561096&programId=1073752204&channelId=-1073750705&[email protected]@@&tabId=3
  3. ^ Cinema of Malayalam, Dr J C Daniel, archived from the original on 6 June 2009, retrieved 1 January 2009 
  4. ^ a b c d e cinemaofmalayalamnet – Biography Archived 6 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c d Weblokam – Profile: Page 2 Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "New media misrepresents role of women: Kumar Shahani" The Hindu 2010-08-14
  7. ^ http://wwwmanoramaonlinecom/cgi-bin/MMOnlinedll/portal/ep/malayalamContentViewdocontentId=13561098&programId=1073752204&channelId=-1073750705&[email protected]@@&tabId=3
  8. ^ The Hindu – JC Foundation awards announced
  9. ^ "Barbs in 'Celluloid' lead to bloodletting" The Hindu 24 February 2013 Retrieved 25 February 2013 
  10. ^ "'Celluloid': A belated tribute to father of Malayalam cinema" Business Standard 23 February 2013 Retrieved 25 February 2013 
  11. ^ "Tracing the path of a pioneer filmmaker" The Hindu 24 February 2006 Retrieved 28 February 2013 

External links

  • - Facebook Page
  • J C Daniel – Father of Malayalam Cinema – A Short Film on YouTube

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