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Islamic state

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An Islamic state Arabic: دولة إسلامية‎‎ dawlah islāmiyah is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a Islamic law, dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order1 From the early years of Islam, numerous governments have been founded as "Islamic"2

However, the term "Islamic state" has taken on a more specific connotation since the 20th century The concept of the modern Islamic state has been articulated and promoted by ideologues such as Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Israr Ahmed, and Sayyid Qutb Like the earlier notion of the caliphate, the modern Islamic state is rooted in Islamic law It is modeled after the rule of Muhammad However, unlike caliph-led governments which were imperial despotisms or monarchies Arabic: malik, a modern Islamic state can incorporate modern political institutions such as elections, parliamentary rule, judicial review, and popular sovereignty

Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic law, wholly or in part, into their legal systems Certain Muslim states have declared Islam to be their state religion in their constitutions, but do not apply Islamic law in their courts Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred to as Islamic republics

Contents

  • 1 The historical Islamic state
    • 11 Early Islamic governments
    • 12 The Essence of Islamic governments
    • 13 Revival and abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate
  • 2 The modern Islamic state
    • 21 Origins in 20th-century nationalist and anti-imperialist movements
    • 22 Islamic states today
      • 221 Iran
      • 222 Pakistan
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading
  • 6 External links

The historical Islamic stateedit

Early Islamic governmentsedit

Main articles: Islamic State of Medina and Caliphate

The first Islamic State was the political entity established by Muhammad in Medina in 622 CE, under the Constitution of Medina It represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah nation It was subsequently transformed into the caliphate by Muhammad's disciples, who were known as the Rightly Guided Rashidun Caliphs 632–661 CE The Islamic State significantly expanded under the Umayyad Caliphate 661–750 and consequently the Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258

The Essence of Islamic governmentsedit

The essence or guiding principles of an Islamic government or Islamic state, is the concept of Al-Shura Different scholars have different understandings or thoughts, with regard to the concept al-Shura However, most Muslim scholars are of the opinion that Islamic al-Shura should consist of:3

  • Meeting or consultation, that follows the teachings of Islam
  • Consultation following the guidelines of the Quran and Sunnah
  • There is a leader elected among them to head the meeting
  • The discussion should be based on mushawarah and mudhakarah
  • All members are given fair opportunity to voice out their opinions
  • The issue should be of maslahah ammah or public interest
  • The voices of the majority are accepted, provided it does not violate the teachings of the Quran or Sunnah

Muhammad himself respected the decision of the shura members He is the champion of the notion of al-Shura, and this was illustrated in one of the many historical events, such as in the Battle of Khandaq Battle of the Trench, where Muhammad was faced with two decisions, ie to fight the invading non-Muslim Arab armies outside of Medina or wait until they enter the city After consultation with the sahabah companions, it was suggested by Salman al-Farsi that it would be better if the Muslims fought the unbelievers within Medina by building a big ditch on the northern periphery of Medina to prevent the enemies from entering Medina This idea was later supported by the majority of the sahabah, and thereafter Muhammad also approved it

The reason why Muhammad placed great emphasis on the agreement of the decision of the shura was because the majority of opinion by the sahabah is better than the decision made by one individual

Revival and abolition of the Ottoman Caliphateedit

Main article: Ottoman Caliphate

The Ottoman Sultan, Selim I 1512–1520 reclaimed the title of caliph, which had been in dispute and asserted by a diversity of rulers and "shadow caliphs" in the centuries of the Abbasid-Mamluk Caliphate since the Mongols' sacking of Baghdad and the killing of the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad, Iraq 1258

The Ottoman Caliphate as an office of the Ottoman Empire was abolished under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1924 as part of Atatürk's Reforms This move was most vigorously protested in India, as Gandhi and Indian Muslims united behind the symbolism of the Ottoman Caliph in the Khilafat or "Caliphate" Movement, which sought to reinstate the Caliph deposed by Atatürk The Khilafat Movement leveraged the Ottoman political resistance to the British Empire, and this international anti-imperial connection proved to be a galvanizing force during India's nascent nationalism movement of the early 1900s, for Hindus and Muslims alike, even though India was far from the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate in Istanbul However, the Khilaphat found little support from the Muslims of the middle east themselves who preferred to be independent nation states, instead of being under the Ottoman Turkish rule In the Indian sub-continent, although Mahatma Gandhi tried to co-opt Khilafat as a national movement, it soon degenerated into a jihad against non-Muslims with thousands being killed in malabar region of Kerala also known as Moplah riots

The modern Islamic stateedit

Origins in 20th-century nationalist and anti-imperialist movementsedit

See also: Abul A'la Maududi and Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist

"The very term, 'Islamic State', was never used in the theory or practice of Muslim political science, before the twentieth century," according to Pakistani scholar of Islamic history Qamaruddin Khan45

The modern conceptualization of the "Islamic state" is attributed to Abul A'la Maududi 1903–1979, a Pakistani Muslim theologian who founded the political party Jamaat-e-Islami and inspired other Islamic revolutionaries such as Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini6 Abul A'la Maududi's early political career was influenced greatly by anti-colonial agitation in India, especially after the tumultuous abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924 stoked anti-British sentiment7

The Islamic state was perceived as a "third way" between the rival political systems of democracy and socialism see also Islamic Modernism8 Maududi's seminal writings on Islamic economics argued as early as 1941 against free-market capitalism and socialist state intervention in the economy, similar to Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr's later Our Economics written in 1961 Maududi envisioned the ideal Islamic state as combining the democratic principles of electoral politics with the socialist principles of concern for the poor9

Islamic states todayedit

Islamic states dark green, states where Islam is the official religion light green, secular states blue and other orange, among countries with a Muslim majority

Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic law in part, into their legal systems Certain Muslim states have declared Islam to be their state religion in their constitutions, but do not apply Islamic law in their courts Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred to as Islamic republics,10 such as the Islamic Republics of Pakistan, Mauritania, Iran11 and Afghanistan12 Pakistan adopted the title under the constitution of 1956 Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958 Iran adopted it after the 1979 Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty In Iran, the form of government is known as "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists" Afghanistan was run as an Islamic state "Islamic State of Afghanistan" in the post-communist era since 1992 but then de facto by the Taliban "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" in areas controlled by them since 1996, and after the 2001 overthrow of the Taliban the country is still known as the "Islamic Republic of Afghanistan" Despite the similar name, the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws

Pan-Islamism is a form of religious nationalism within political Islam which advocates the unification of the Muslim world under a single Islamic state, often described as a caliphate The most famous, powerful and aggressive modern pan-Islamic group that pursues objective to unify Muslim world and establish worldwide caliphate is the wahhabi/salafi jihadist movement Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration as of 3 August 2011 declared Islam to be the official religion of Libya

Iranedit

Leading up to the Iranian Revolution of 1979, many of the highest-ranking clergy in Shia Islam held to the standard doctrine of the Imamate, which allows political rule only by Muhammad or one of his true successors They were opposed to creating an Islamic state see Ayatollah Ha'eri Yazdi Khomeini's own teacher, Ayatollah Borujerdi, Grand Ayatollah Shariatmadari, and Grand Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei13 Contemporary theologians who were once part of the Iranian Revolution also became disenchanted and critical of the unity of religion and state in the Islamic Republic of Iran, are advocating secularization of the state to preserve the purity of the Islamic faith see Abdolkarim Soroush and Mohsen Kadivar14

Pakistanedit

Pakistan was created as a separate state for Indian Muslims in British India in 1947, and followed the parliamentary form of democracy In 1949, the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed the Objectives Resolution which envisaged an official role for Islam as the state religion to make sure any future law should not violate its basic teachings On the whole, the state retained most of the laws that were inherited from the British legal code that had been enforced by the British Raj since the 19th century In 1956, the elected parliament formally adopted the name "Islamic Republic of Pakistan", declaring Islam as the official religion

See alsoedit

  • Criticism of Islamism
  • Theocracy
    • Christian republic
    • Jewish state
  • Syed Farid al-Attas
  • Hizb ut-Tahrir
  • Islamic Revolutionary State of Afghanistan
  • Former Salafist states in Afghanistan
  • Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
  • Islamic State of Azawad – a former short-lived unrecognised state declared unilaterally in 2012 by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
  • Islamic State of Qadian – a state in the Indian subcontinent involving Qadian and surroundings areas established in 1530
  • Islamic State of Waziristan – also known as Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, declared in Waziristan, Pakistan
  • Islamic State of Indonesia – Negara Islam Indonesia or Darul Islam, Islamist group in Indonesia that aims for the establishment of an Islamic state of Indonesia an unrecognised state

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Ashgar, Ali 2006 The State in Islam: Nature and the Scope Pinnacle Technology p 91 ISBN 9781618200822 
  2. ^ See article by Imam Mohamad Jebara "The delusion of an Islamic State" http://wwwottawasuncom/2015/10/18/the-delusion-of-an-isalmic-state
  3. ^ Jeong Chun Hai & Nor Fadzlina Nawi 2007 Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications ISBN 978-983-195-253-5
  4. ^ Khan, Qamaruddin 1982 Political Concepts in the Quran Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation p 74 The claim that Islam is a harmonious blend of religion and politics is a modern slogan, of which no trace can be found in the past history of Islam The very term, “Islamic State” was never used in the theory or practice of Muslim political science, before the twentieth century Also if the first thirty years of Islam were excepted, the historical conduct of Muslim states could hardly be distinguished from that of other states in world history 
  5. ^ Eickelman, D F, & Piscatori, J 1996 Muslim politics Princeton: Princeton University Press p 53 The Pakistani writer Qamaruddin Khan, for example, has proposed that the political theory of Islam does not arise from the Qur'an but from circumstances and that the state is neither divinely sanctioned nor strictly necessary as a social institution  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  6. ^ Nasr, SVR 1996 Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, Ch 4 New York: Oxford University Press
  7. ^ Minault, G The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India New York: Columbia University Press, 1982
  8. ^ Kurzman, Charles “Introduction,” in Modernist Islam 1840-1940: A Sourcebook Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002
  9. ^ Khir, BM “The Islamic Quest for Sociopolitical Justice” In Blackwell Companion to Political Theology, edited by WT Cavanaugh & P Scott, 503-518 Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004
  10. ^ Elliesie, Hatem Rule of Law in Islamic Modeled States In: Matthias Koetter / Gunnar Folke Schuppert Eds, Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr 13 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010
  11. ^ Moschtaghi, Ramin Rule of Law in Iran In: Matthias Koetter / Gunnar Folke Schuppert Eds, Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr 11 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010
  12. ^ Elliesie, Hatem Rule of Law in Afghanistan In: Matthias Koetter / Gunnar Folke Schuppert Eds, Understanding of the Rule of Law in various Legal Orders of the World: Working Paper Series Nr 4 of SFB 700: Governance in Limited Areas of Statehood, Berlin 2010
  13. ^ Chehabi, H E 1991 Religion and Politics In Iran: How Theocratic is the Islamic Republic Daedalus, Vol 120, No 3, Summer 1991, pp 69-91
  14. ^ Kurzman, Charles 2001 Critics Within: Islamic Scholars' Protest Against the Islamic State in Iran International Journal of Politics,Culture and Society, Vol 15, No 2, Winter 2001

Further readingedit

  • Ankerl, Guy Contemporary Coexisting Civilizations Arabo-Mulsim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western

INUPress, Geneva, 2000, 5001 p ISBN 2-88155-004-5

External linksedit

  • Why Islamic States Would Be Bad for Muslims
  • The Islamic State by Amin Ahsan Islahi


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