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Islam in France

islam in france mosque, islam in france - bbc documentary
Islam is the second-most widely professed religion in France behind Catholic Christianity by number of worshippers With an estimated total of 7 to 9 percent of the national population, France has the largest number of Muslims in Western Europe123

The majority of Muslims in France belong to the Sunni denomination4 The vast majority of French Muslims are of immigrant origin, while an estimated 100,000 are converts to Islam of indigenous ethnic French background56 The French overseas region of Mayotte has a majority Muslim population7

Contents

  • 1 Statistics
    • 11 Estimations based on declaration
    • 12 Estimations based on people's geographic origin
  • 2 History
    • 21 Early history
    • 22 1960-1970s labour immigration
    • 23 French Council of the Muslim Faith
    • 24 Second generation immigrants
    • 25 Maghrebis
    • 26 Religious practices
    • 27 Education
    • 28 Radicalisation
  • 3 Integration
    • 31 Accepted French citizens
    • 32 Discrimination
    • 33 Recuperations
    • 34 Hijab
    • 35 Politics
  • 4 Notable French Muslims
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

Statisticsedit

Due to a law dating from 1872, the French Republic prohibits performing census by making distinction between its citizens regarding their race or their beliefs However, that law does not concern surveys and polls, which are free to ask those questions if they wish The law also allows for an exception for public institutions such as the INED or the INSEE whose job it is to collect data on demographics, social trends and other related subjects, on condition that the collection of such data has been authorized by the CNIL and the National Council of Statistical Information CNISfr

Estimations based on declarationedit

A study from INED and the INSEE in October 2010 concluded that France has 21 million "declared Muslims" aged 18–50 including between 70,000 and 110,000 converts to Islam8

Estimations based on people's geographic originedit

According to the French Government, which does not have the right to ask direct questions about religion and uses a criterion of people's geographic origin as a basis for calculation, there were between 5 and 6 million Muslims in metropolitan France in 2010 The government counted all those people in France who migrated from countries with a dominant Muslim population, or whose parents did Only 33% of those 5 to 6 million people 2 million said they were practicing believers That figure is the same as that obtained by the INED/INSEE study in October 20108

The United States Department of State placed it at roughly 10%,9 while two 2007 polls estimated it at about 3% of the total population10 The CIA World Factbook places it at 5–10%11

A Pew Forum study, published in January 2011, estimated 47 million Muslims in France in 2010 and forecasted 69 million in 203012

According to Jean-Paul Gourévitch fr, there were 77 million Muslims about 11 percent of the population in metropolitan France in 20111314

The French polling company IFOP estimated in 2016 that French Muslims number between 3 and 4 millions, and criticised suggestions of a fr:grand remplacement IFOP claims that they make up 56% of those older than 15, and 10% of those younger than 2515

An Interior ministry source in l'Islam dans la République published the following estimated distribution of Muslims by Alain Boyer by affiliated countries in 1999:16

Algeria 1,550,000
Morocco 1,000,000
Tunisia 350,000
Turkey 315,000
Sub-Saharan Africa 250,000
Middle East 100,000
remaining Asia mostly Pakistan and Bangladesh 100,000
Converts 40,000
Illegal immigrants or awaiting regularisation 350,000
Other 100,000
Total 4,155,000

These numbers include people of Muslim affiliation who are not actually observant Muslims Among Muslims, 36% described themselves as "observant believers", and 20% claimed to go regularly to the mosque for the Friday service17 70% said they "observe Ramadan" This would amount to a number of roughly 15 million French Muslims who are "observant believers", another 15 million who identify with Islam enough to observe Ramadan, and 1 million citizens of "Islam observing lineage Muslim extraction" but with no strong religious or cultural ties to Islam The number of people of Islam observing lineage who are practicing Roman Catholics is negligible

According to Michèle Tribalat fr, a researcher at INED, an acceptance of 5 to 6 million Muslims in France in 1999 was overestimated Her work has shown that there were 37 million people of "possible Muslim faith" in France in 1999 63% of the total population of Metropolitan France1818 These 37 million people whose ancestry is from countries where Islam is the dominant faith may or may not be observant Muslims themselves In 2009, she estimated that the number of people of "possible Muslim faith" in France was about 45 million19

Historyedit

Early historyedit

Main articles: Septimania and Franco-Ottoman alliance

After their conquest of Spain, Muslim forces pushed into southern France They were defeated at the Battle of Tours in 732 but held Septimania until 759

In the 9th century, Muslim forces conquered several bases in southern France, including Fraxinet They were expelled only in 97520

Barbarossa's fleet in Toulon

During the winter of 1543–1544, after the siege of Nice, Toulon was used as an Ottoman naval base under the admiral known as Hayreddin Barbarossa The Christian population was evacuated, and Toulon Cathedral was briefly converted into a mosque before the city was regained by France

After the expulsion of the Moriscos from Spain in 1609–1614, about fifty thousand Moriscos entered France, according to the research of Henri Lapeyre21

1960-1970s labour immigrationedit

Muslim immigration, mostly male, was high in the late 1960s and 1970s The immigrants came primarily from Algeria and other North African colonies; however, Islam has an older history in France, since the Great Mosque of Paris was built in 1922, as a sign of recognition from the French Republic to the fallen Muslim tirailleurs mainly coming from Algeria, in particular at the battle of Verdun and the take-over of the Douaumont fort

French Council of the Muslim Faithedit

Though the French State is secular, in recent years the government has tried to organize a representation of the French Muslims In 2002, the then Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy initiated the creation of a "French Council of the Muslim Faith" Conseil Français du Culte Musulman – CFCM, though wide criticism claimed this would only encourage communitarianism Though the CFCM is informally recognized by the national government, it is a private nonprofit association with no special legal status As of 2004update, it is headed by the rector of the Paris Mosque, Dalil Boubakeur – who harshly criticized the controversial Union of Islamic Organisations of France UOIF for involving itself in political matters during the 2005 riots Nicolas Sarkozy's views on laïcité have been widely criticized by left- and right-wing members of parliament; more specifically, he was accused, during the creation of the CFCM, of favoring the more extreme sectors of Muslim representation in the Council, in particular the UOIF

Second generation immigrantsedit

The first generation of Muslim immigrants, who are today mostly retired from the workforce, keep strong ties with their countries, where their families lived In 1976,22 the government passed a law allowing families of these immigrants to settle; thus, many children and wives moved to France Most immigrants, realizing that they couldn't or didn't want to return to their homeland, asked for French nationality before quietly retiring However, many live alone in housing projects, having now lost their ties with their countries of origin

The situation was different with the "second generation", born in France, and as such French citizens by jus soli influenced law As such, they cannot be designated "immigrants", since they were born on national territory A 1992 reform of the nationality laws delayed obtainment of French nationality until a request at adulthood where previously it was automatically given A large number of them are located in housing projects in the suburbs Unlike in the United States and elsewhere, the French working classes often reside outside large cities, sometimes in villes nouvelles such as Sarcelles, from which the term sarcellite was derived, for which limited infrastructure other than sleeping dormitories has been planned, partially explaining a general boredom which some have noted contributed to the 2005 Paris suburb riotscitation needed

Olivier Roy indicates that for first generation immigrants, the fact that they are Muslims is only one element among others Their identification with their country of origin is much stronger: they see themselves first through their descent Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians, etc

Some far-right activists claim that about a third of newborns in France have Muslim parents23

Maghrebisedit

According to Michel Tribalat, a researcher at INED, people of Maghrebi origin in France represent 82% of the Muslim population 432% from Algeria, 275% from Morocco and 114% from Tunisia Others are from Sub-saharan Africa 93% and Turkey 86%24 She estimated that there were 35 million people of Maghrebi origin with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco or Tunisia living in France in 2005 corresponding to 58% of the total French metropolitan population 607 millions in 200525 Maghrebis have settled mainly in the industrial regions in France, especially in the Paris region Many famous French people like Edith Piaf,26 Isabelle Adjani, Arnaud Montebourg, Alain Bashung, Dany Boon and many others have varying degrees of Maghrebi ancestry

Below is a table of population of Maghrebi origin in France, numbers are in thousands:

Country 1999 2005 % 1999/2005 % French population 607 million in 2005
Algeria 1,577 1,865 +183% 31%
Immigrants 574 679
Born in France 1,003 1,186
Morocco 1,005 1,201 +195% 20%
Immigrants 523 625
Born in France 482 576
Tunisia 417 458 +98% 08%
Immigrants 202 222
Born in France 215 236
Total Maghreb 2,999 3,524 +175% 58%
Immigrants 1 299 1 526 25%
Born in France 1 700 1 998 33%

In 2005, the percentage of young people under 18 of Maghrebi origin at least one immigrant parent was about 7% in Metropolitan France, 12% in Greater Paris and above 20% in French département of Seine-Saint-Denis2728

2005% Seine-Saint-Denis Val-de-Marne Val-d'Oise Lyon Paris France
Total Maghreb 220% 132% 130% 130% 121% 69%

In 2008, the French national institute of statistics, INSEE, estimated that 118 million foreign-born immigrants and their direct descendants born in France lived in France representing 19% of the country's population About 4 million of them are of Maghrebi origin2930

According to some non-scientific sources between 5 and 6 million people of Maghrebin origin live in France corresponding to about 7–9% of the total French metropolitan population31

Religious practicesedit

The bulk of Muslims practice their religion in the French framework of laïcité as religious code of conduct must not infringe the public area They practice prayer salat, and most observe the fast of Ramadan and most do not eat pork while many do not drink wine

Some Muslims the UOIF for example request the recognition of an Islamic community in France which remains to be built with an official status

Two main organisations are recognized by the French Council of Muslim Faith CFCM: the "Federation of the French Muslims" Fédération des musulmans de France with a majority of Moroccan leaders, and the controversial "Union of Islamic Organisations of France" Union des organisations islamiques de France UOIF In 2008, there were about 2,125 Muslim places of worship in France32

Educationedit

Since publicly funded State schools in France must be secular, owing to the 1905 separation of Church and State, Muslim parents who wish their children to be educated at a religious school often choose private and therefore fee-paying, though heavily subsidised Catholic schools, of which there are many Few specifically Muslim schools have been created There is a Muslim school in La Réunion a French island to the east of Madagascar, and the first Muslim collège a school for students aged eleven to fifteen opened its doors in 2001 in Aubervilliers a suburb northeast of Paris, with eleven students Unlike most private schools in the United States and the UK, these religious schools are affordable for most parents since they may be heavily subsidised by the government teachers' wages in particular are covered by the State

Radicalisationedit

In November 2015 in the aftermath of the Paris attacks, French authorities for the first time closed three mosques with extremist activities and radicalisation being given as the reason The mosques were located in Lagny-sur-Marne, Lyon and Gennevilliers33 Muslim community leaders widely condemned the Paris attacks in public statements and expressed their support for the French government's attempts to oppose islamist extremism34 In 2016 French authorities reported that 120 of the 2500 Islamic prayer halls were disseminating salafist ideas and 20 mosques were closed due to findings of hate speech35

Integrationedit

See also: Social situation in the French suburbs

Accepted French citizensedit

Several studies reveal that France seems to be, among the Western countries, the one where Muslims integrate the best and feel the most for their country French Muslims also have the most positive opinions about their fellow citizens of different faiths The study from the Pew Research Center on Integration is an example of works revealing this typically French phenomenon36 In Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France region where French Muslims tend to be more educated and religious, the vast majority rejects violence and say they are loyal to France according to studies by Euro-Islam, a comparative research network on Islam and Muslims in the West sponsored by GSRL Paris/CNRS France and Harvard University3738 On the other hand, a 2013 IPSOS survey published by the French daily Le Monde indicated that only 26% of French respondents believed that Islam was compatible with French society compared to 89% identifying Catholicism as compatible and 75% identifying Judaism as compatible3940 A thorough survey by the Pew Research Center in Spring 2014 revealed that out of all Europeans, the French view Muslim minorities most favorably with 72% having a favourable opinion34142

Discriminationedit

In 2010, a study entitled Are French Muslims Discriminated Against in Their Own Country found that "Muslims sending out resumes in hopes of a job interview had 25 times less chance than Christians" with similar credentials "of a positive response to their applications"43

Other examples of discrimination against Muslims include the desecration of 148 French Muslim graves near Arras A pig's head was hung from a headstone and profanities insulting Islam and Muslims were daubed on some graves44 Destruction and vandalism of Muslim graves in France were seen as Islamophobic by a report of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia45 A number of mosques have also been vandalized in France over the years4647 On 14 January 2015 it was reported that 26 mosques in France had been subject to attack since the Charlie Hebdo shooting in Paris48

On 29 June, 2017, a man attempted to ram his vehicle into a crowd of worshipers exiting a mosque in Créteil, a suburb of Paris, though no one was injured Le Parisien claims the suspect, Darren Osborne is of Armenian origin, and that he wanted to "avenge the Bataclan and Champs-Elysées" attacks49 Osborne's sister said he had attempted to commit suicide a few weeks prior to the attack, and that he had asked after the attempt to be committed in a psychiatric hospital, but was declined by authorities She further said he was taking anti-depressant medication50

Recuperationsedit

The 2005 French riots have been controversially51 interpreted, mostly by the foreign press,citation needed as an illustration of the difficulty of integrating Muslims in France, and smaller scale riots have been occurring throughout the 1980s and 1990s, first in Vaulx-en-Velin in 1979, and in Vénissieux in 1981, 1983, 1990 and 1999

Furthermore, although Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy claimed that most rioters were immigrants and already known to the police, the majority were, in fact, previously unknown to the police5253

French residents of the banlieues constantly complain about the stigmatisation of their revolt, which they believe is falsely over-simplified as a so-called "Muslim riot", especially by the foreign press French actor Roschdy Zem said in an interview with the French magazine Première given during the promotion of the movie Indigènes about those riots:

"Making of those riots an ethnico-religious affair seemed to me particularly disgusting When railwaymen are blocking France, nobody goes search further as their demands Take any Norwegian or Swede, inflict the same life conditions as those of some French banlieusards on them and I can assure you that they will end up burning cars too"54

Additionally, Zagreb-born Rada Ivekovic, PhD, philosopher and university professor in Paris stated in her paper "French Suburbia 2005 : The Return of the Political Unrecognized":55

"The riots were neither communal nor ethnic, nor organised by leaders; no political project came from the rioters who have no representatives"

Hijabedit

Further information: French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools and Islamic scarf controversy in France

The wearing of hijab in France has been a very controversial issue since 1989 The debate essentially concerns whether Muslim girls who choose to wear hijab may do so in state schools A secondary issue is how to protect the free choice and other rights of young Muslim women who do not want the veil, but who may face strong pressure from families or traditionalists Similar issues exist for civil servants and for acceptance of male Muslim medics in medical services

Many Muslims believe that the Qu'ran instructs women to keep their heads covered outside of the immediate family even though some others, including Leila Babes in her book "The Veil Demystified", believe that wearing the veil does not derive from a Muslim religious imperative56 Some Muslims argue that it is a form of religious discrimination not to allow head-coverings in school They believe that the law is an attempt to impose secular values on them The specific parts of the Qu'ran are interpreted differently by groups of more liberal Muslims; another source for the requirement to keep women's heads covered is in the Hadith

The French government, and a large majority of public opinion are opposed to the wearing of a "conspicuous" sign of religious expression dress or symbol, whatever the religion, as this is incompatible with the French system of laïcité In December 2003, President Jacques Chirac said that it breaches the separation of church and state and would increase tensions in France's multicultural society, whose Muslim and Jewish populations are both the biggest of their kind in Western Europe

The issue of Muslim hijabs has sparked controversy after several girls refused to uncover their heads in class, as early as 1989 In October 1989, three Muslim schoolgirls wearing the Islamic headscarf were expelled from the collège Gabriel-Havez in Creil north of Paris In November, the First Conseil d'État ruling affirmed that the wearing of the Islamic headscarf, as a symbol of freedom of religious expression, in public schools was not incompatible with the French school system and the system of laïcité In December, a first ministerial circular circulaire Jospin was published, stating teachers had to decide on a case-by-case basis whether to ban the wearing of Islamic headscarf

In January 1990, three schoolgirls were expelled from the collège Pasteur in Noyon, north of Paris The parents of one expelled schoolgirl filed a defamation action against the principal of the collège Gabriel-Havez in Creil As a result, the teachers of a collège in Nantua eastern part of France, just to the west of Geneva, Switzerland went on strike to protest the wearing of the Islamic headscarf in school A second ministerial circular was published in October, to restate the need to respect the principle of laïcité in public schools

In September 1994, a third ministerial circular circulaire Bayrou was published, making a distinction between "discreet" symbols to be tolerated in public schools, and "ostentatious" symbols, including the Islamic headscarf, to be banned from public schools In October, some students demonstrated at the lycée Saint Exupéry in Mantes-la-Jolie northwest of Paris to support the freedom to wear Islamic headscarves in school In November, approximately twenty-four veiled schoolgirls were expelled from the lycée Saint Exupéry in Mantes-la-Jolie and the lycée Faidherbe in Lille

Since 1994, around 100 girls have been excluded from French state schools for wearing such veils In half the cases, courts have subsequently overturned the decisioncitation needed

In December 2003, President Chirac decided that the law should prohibit the wearing of visible religious signs in schools, according to laïcité requirements The law was approved by parliament in March 2004 Items prohibited by this law include Muslim hijabs, Jewish yarmulkes or large Christian crosses57 It is still permissible to wear discreet symbols of faith such as small crosses, Stars of David or Fatima's hands

Some religious leaderswho have showed their opposition Two French journalists working in Iraq, Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot were taken hostage by the "Islamic Army in Iraq" an Iraqi resistance militant movement under accusations of spying Threats to kill the two journalists if the law on headscarves was not revoked were published on the Internet by groups claiming to be the "Islamic Army in Iraq" The two journalists were later released unharmed58

The arguments have resurfaced when, on 22 June 2009, at the Congrès de Versailles, President Nicolas Sarkozy declared that the Islamic burqa is not welcome in France, claiming that the full-length, body-covering gown was a symbol of subservience that suppresses women's identities and turns them into "prisoners behind a screen" A parliamentary commission of thirty-two deputies and led by André Gerin PCF, was also formed to study the possibility of banning the public wearing of the burqa or niqab59 There is suspicion, however, that Sarkozy is "playing politics in a time of economic unhappiness and social anxiety"60

A Muslim group spokesman expressed serious concern over the proposed legislation, noting that "even if they ban the burqa, it will not stop there," adding that "there is a permanent demand for legislating against Muslims This could go really bad, and I’m scared of it I feel like they’re turning the screws on us"60

On 25 January 2010 it was announced that the parliamentary committee, having concluded its study, would recommend that a ban on veils covering the face in public locations such as hospitals and schools be enacted, but not in private buildings or on the street61

Politicsedit

A Mosque in Fréjus with West African architecture

Formal as well as informal Muslim organisations help the new French citizens to integrate There are no Islam-based political parties, but a number of cultural organisations Their most frequent activities are homework help and language classes in Arabic, ping pong, Muslim discussion groups etc are also common However, most important associations active in assisting with the immigration process are either secular GISTI, for example or ecumenist such as the protestant-founded Cimade

The most important national institution is the CFCM Conseil Français du Culte Musulman this institution was designed on the model of the "Consistoire Juif de France" and of the "consistoire Protestant de France" both Napoleonic creation The aim of the CFCM like its Jewish and protestant counterparts is to discuss religious problem with the state, participate in certain public institutions, and organise the religious life of French Muslims The CFCM is elected by the French Muslims through local election It is the only official instance of the French Muslims

There were for organisations represented in the CFCM elected in 2003 GMP UOIF FNMF CCMTF In 2008 a new council was elected The winner was RMF with a large majority of the votes, followed by the UOIF and the CCMTF It is a very broad and young organisation and there is a beginning of consensus on major issues

Two more organizations are PCM Muslim Participation and Spirituality, which combine political mobilization against racism, sexism etc and spiritual retreats and parties The other is CMF well known as "the organization close to Tariq Ramadan", though he is not their leader Both of these organizations put a lot of emphasis on the need to get involved in French society – by joining organizations, registering to vote, working with your children's schools etc They do not have clear-cut political positions as such, but push for active citizenship They are vaguely on the Left in practice

The government has yet to formulate an official policy towards making integration easier As mentioned above, it is difficult to determine in France who may be called a Muslim Some Muslims in France describe themselves as "non-practicing" Most simply observe Ramadan and other basic rules, but are otherwise secular

Notable French Muslimsedit

Main category: French Muslims
  • Mouloud Achour, journalist, TV presenter
  • Fadela Amara, social worker, former government minister
  • Nicholas Anelka, football player
  • Rachid Arhab, journalist, member of Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel
  • Kader Arif, politician, former government minister and current member of the European Parliament
  • Ali Baddou, journalist, political sciences professor, tv and radio presenter
  • Azouz Begag, researcher in economics and sociology, former government minister
  • Hatem Ben Arfa, football player
  • Si Kaddour Benghabrit, founder of the Great Mosque of Paris, WW2 resistant
  • Leïla Bekhti, Awards-winning film & television actress, L'Oréal ambassador
  • Ghaleb Bencheikh, scientist
  • Karim Benzema, football player
  • Dalil Boubakeur, physician
  • Mourad Boudjellal, businessman, president of RC Toulon rugby club
  • Rachida Brakni, Awards-winning actress, Comédie française member, wife of Éric Cantona
  • Maurice Bucaille, physician and Egyptologist
  • Louis du Couret, explorer, military officer, and writer
  • Rachida Dati, lawyer, former Minister of Justice
  • Jamel Debbouze, Awards-winning actor and stand-up comedian, producer, philanthropist, husband of tv journalist and producer Mélissa Theuriau
  • Harlem Désir, politician, former Secretary of State for European Affairs
  • Nasreddine Dinet, painter
  • Frantz Fanon, philosopher, psychiatrist, writer
  • Nabil Fekir, football player
  • René Guénon, author and intellectual
  • Mounir Mahjoubi, technologist, businessman, current Secretary of State for Digital Affairs
  • Hamlaoui Mekachera, Légion d'Honneur recipient war hero, former government minister
  • Nagui, long-standing tv and radio presenter and producer, Number 1 French tv host in 2010
  • Samir Nasri, football player
  • Paul Pogba, football player
  • Adil Rami, football player
  • Tahar Rahim, Awards-winning actor
  • Franck Ribéry, football player
  • Mamadou Sakho, football player
  • Moussa Sissoko, football player
  • Rabah Slimani, rugby player both loose head and tight head prop for Stade français and in the French national rugby union team, highest paid French player 62
  • Omar Sy, Award-winning actor
  • Zinedine Zidane, Real Madrid coach, former football player

See alsoedit

  • Islam portal
  • Frances portal
  • Demographics of France
  • Religion in France
  • Islam in Marseille
  • Islam in Besançon
  • Franco-Ottomasn alliance

Referencesedit

  1. ^ The Islamic veil across Europe BBC
  2. ^ The World Factbook Archived 2010-02-14 at WebCite CIA
  3. ^ a b "France, Islam, terrorism and the challenges of integration: Research roundup"  JournalistsResourceorg, retrieved Jan 12, 2015
  4. ^ http://wwwpewforumorg/files/2009/10/Muslimpopulationpdf
  5. ^ https://wwwnytimescom/2013/02/04/world/europe/rise-of-islamic-converts-challenges-francehtml_r=0 More in France Are Turning to Islam, Challenging a Nation's Idea of Itself
  6. ^ http://wwwindependentcouk/news/uk/home-news/the-islamification-of-britain-record-numbers-embrace-muslim-faith-2175178html The Islamification of Britain: record numbers embrace Muslim faith
  7. ^ http://newsbbccouk/2/hi/europe/7970450stm
  8. ^ a b Michael Cosgrove, How does France count its Muslim population, Le Figaro, April 2011
  9. ^ Background Note: France, US Department of State, December 10, 2009 See also "There are an estimated 5 million to 6 million Muslims 8 to 10 percent of the population, although estimates of how many of these are practicing vary widely" in 2008 Report on International Religious Freedom, US Department of State, September 2008; Noble, Thomas F X; Strauss, Barry; Osheim, Duane J; Neuschel, Kristen B; Accampo, Elinor A; Roberts, David D; Cohen, William B 2009 Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries 6th ed Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning p  ISBN 978-0-495-90072-6 
  10. ^ in French Ifop, Sofres Archived 2008-11-26 at the Wayback Machine, Croyants et athées, où habitent-ils en France
  11. ^ CIA – The World Factbook – France Archived 2010-02-14 at WebCite
  12. ^ The Future of the Global Muslim Population
  13. ^ Jean-Paul Gourévitch, La croisade islamiste, Pascal Galodé, 2011, p136
  14. ^ Jean-Paul Gourévitch,Les migrations en Europe p362, Acropole, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7357-0267-1; see also Front National's estimate of 6 to 8 millions Muslims quoted in Jonathan Laurence and Justin Vaïsse, Intégrer l'Islam, p35, Odile Jacob, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7381-1900-1
  15. ^ http://wwwlejddfr/Societe/Religion/Religion-famille-societe-qui-sont-vraiment-les-musulmans-de-France-810217
  16. ^ L'Islam dans la République - La Documentation française, Haut conseil à l'intégration, 2000, p26
  17. ^ L'Islam en France et les réactions aux attentats du 11 septembre 2001, Résultats détaillés, Ifop, HV/LDV No1-33-1, 28 September 2001
  18. ^ a b in French Les vrais chiffres by Gilbert Charles and Besma Lahouri, L'Express, 2003-04-12; see also in English Michèle Tribalat, Counting France's Numbers—Deflating the Numbers Inflation, The Social Contract Journal, vol 142, Winter 2003–2004
  19. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Michèle Tribalat : "L'islam reste une menace", Le Monde, 13 octobre 2011
  20. ^ Manfred, W: "International Journal of Middle East Studies", pages 59–79, Vol 12, No 1 Middle East Studies Association of North America, 1980
  21. ^ Henri Lapeyre Geographie de l'Espagne morisque EHESS, 1959
  22. ^ http://clesdusocialcom/france/fr17-histoire/fr-hist-avril76-regroupement-familialhtm
  23. ^ "in France, approximately one birth in three is to a Muslim family" in Jennifer Morse, Acton Institute, 2006-01-25; "a third of the young people in France have been born to Muslim parents" in John Reilly, 2006; "1 out of every 3 babies born in France today is a Muslim baby" in Hugh Fitzgerald, Douce France1, jihadwatch, 2004-06-23; "a third of all births in France are already Muslim" in Mark Steyn, America Alone: The End of the World as We Know It, Regnery ed, 2006-09-16, ISBN 0-89526-078-6, p 47;
  24. ^ Michèle Tribalat, L’islam en France, p 28
  25. ^ Michèle Tribalat, « Mariages « mixtes » et immigration en France », Espace populations sociétés En ligne, 2009/2 | 2009, mis en ligne le 01 avril 2011
  26. ^ Carolyn Burke No Regrets: The Life of Edith Piaf, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, p5
  27. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Revue Commentaire, juin 2009, n°127
  28. ^ Michèle Tribalat, Les yeux grands fermés, Denoël, 2010
  29. ^ Être né en France d’un parent immigré, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
  30. ^ Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
  31. ^ Robert Castel, La discrimination négative, Paris, La République des idées/Seuil, 2007
  32. ^ L'Annuaire musulman, édition 2008 Orientica
  33. ^ "Paris terror attacks: France shuts down three mosques in security crackdown" The Independent 2 Dec 2015 Retrieved 7 January 2016 
  34. ^ "French Muslim Leaders Want Extremist Mosques Closed, Islamic Preachers To Be Licensed, Following Paris Terror Attacks" International Business Times 25 Nov 2015 Retrieved 7 January 2016 
  35. ^ "France's Disappearing Mosques" The Atlantic 1 August 2016 Retrieved 3 September 2016 
  36. ^ The French-Muslim Connection by Jodie T Allen, 2006-08-17
  37. ^ http://wwweuro-islaminfo/country-profiles/city-profiles/paris/
  38. ^ http://wwwjuancolecom/2015/01/sharpening-contradictions-satiristshtml
  39. ^ Le Monde in French: "La religion musulmane fait l'objet d'un profond rejet de la part des Français" 24 Jan 2013
  40. ^ European Jewish Press: "Majority of French consider Islam incompatible with French values" 27 Jan 2013
  41. ^ http://wwwpewglobalorg/2014/05/12/chapter-4-views-of-roma-muslims-jews/#mixed-views-of-muslim-minorities
  42. ^ Niall McCarthy, Out of All Europeans, The French View Muslim Minorities Most Favorably Infographic Forbes Jan 8, 2015
  43. ^ "Study shows French Muslims hit by religious bias" Otago Daily Times 26 March 2010 Retrieved 2010-04-09 
  44. ^ French Muslim war graves defaced, BBC, 6 April 2008
  45. ^ EU reports post-Sept 11 racism CNN – 24 May 2002
  46. ^ Vandals target Paris mosque The Guardian – Tuesday 22 February 2005
  47. ^ O, M; Ennaharonline 13 December 2009 "Desecration of a mosque in France" Ennahar Online English Hydra – Alger: El Athir For the Press Retrieved 16 December 2009 
  48. ^ Stone, Jon 14 January 2015 "Firebombs and pigs heads thrown into mosques as anti-Muslim attacks increase after Paris shootings" independentcouk Retrieved 22 January 2015 
  49. ^ Tom Batchelor Paris mosque incident: Man tries to ram car into crowd of Muslim worshippers, police say Independent 29 June 2017
  50. ^ "Finsbury Park terror suspect 'tried to kill himself and asked to be sectioned'", The Daily Telegraph, 21 June 2017
  51. ^ "The Nature of the French Riots" Olivier Roy, Social Science Research Council November 2005 Retrieved 19 June 2011 The bulk of the rioters are second generation migrants, but, if we consider the names of the arrested people, it is more ethnically mixed than one could have expected beyond the second generation with a Muslim background—mainly North Africans, plus some Turks and Africans—there are also many non-Muslim Africans as well as people with French, Spanish or Portuguese names The rioters are French citizens only around 7% of the arrested people are foreigners, usually residents the religious dimension is conspicuously absent from the riots This is not a revolt of the Muslims 
  52. ^ Les magistrats constatent après trois semaines de violences que les auteurs interpellés sont très majoritairement des primo-délinquants, nouvelobscom, 2005-11-19
  53. ^ Sarkozy démenti par les faits un an après, liberationfr, 2006-10-24
  54. ^ in French Première of September 2006, N° 355, cover story entitled "Their day of glory has come at last", page 72
  55. ^ "French Suburbia 2005 : The Return of the Political Unrecognized" Rada Ivekovic, Women's World December 2005 Retrieved 19 June 2011 
  56. ^ http://wwwhaaretzcom/hasen/spages/801791html
  57. ^ "France" Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs Archived from the original on 2011-02-06 Retrieved 2011-12-14  See drop-down essay on "Contemporary Affairs"
  58. ^ UNESCO Welcomes Release of French Journalists Christian Chesnot and Georges Malbrunot
  59. ^ Du voile à l'école au port de la burqa dans l'espace public, le débat a changé
  60. ^ a b Burqa Furor Scrambles French Politics
  61. ^ 2
  62. ^ https://wwwruckcouk/magazine-unveils-highest-earners-top-14/

Further readingedit

  • Davidson, Naomi Only Muslim: Embodying Islam in Twentieth-Century France Cornell University Press, 2012
  • Katz, Ethan B The Burdens of Brotherhood: Jews and Muslims from North Africa to France Harvard University Press, 2015
  • Mandel, Maud S Muslims and Jews in France: History of a Conflict Princeton University Press; 2014 253 pages; scholarly history of conflicts since 1948; special attention to Marseilles and to the impact of French decolonization in North Africa
  • Motadel, David "The Making of Muslim Communities in Western Europe, 1914–1939" in by Götz Nordbruch and Umar Ryad, eds, Transnational Islam in Interwar Europe: Muslim Activists and Thinkers 2014 ch 1
  • Murray-Miller, Gavin "A Conflicted Sense of Nationality: Napoleon III's Arab Kingdom and the Paradoxes of French Multiculturalism" French Colonial History 15#1 2014 pp: 1-37
  • Rootham, Esther "Embodying Islam and laïcité: young French Muslim women at work" Gender, Place & Culture 2014: 1-16
  • Scheck, Raffael French Colonial Soldiers in German Captivity During World War II Cambridge University Press, 2014
  • Zwilling, Anne-Laure "A century of mosques in France: building religious pluralism" International Review of Sociology 25#2 2015: 333-340

External linksedit

  • French Muslims, Government Grapple With Integration Pains
  • Fighting Terrorism: Lessons From France
  • The numbers of French Muslims and Muslims in France are exaggerated euro-islaminfo 12 January 2013
  • 3
  • France's burka bill – background, Radio France Internationale in English

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