Fri . 20 May 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Internet

internet speed test, internet explorer
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite TCP/IP to link devices worldwide It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web WWW, electronic mail, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing

The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marks the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life

Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world In the 20 years since 1995, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, to over one third of the world population Most traditional communications media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "bricks and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries

The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System DNS, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force IETF, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise

Contents

  • 1 Terminology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Governance
  • 4 Infrastructure
    • 41 Routing and service tiers
    • 42 Access
    • 43 Structure
  • 5 Protocols
  • 6 Services
    • 61 World Wide Web
    • 62 Communication
    • 63 Data transfer
  • 7 Social impact
    • 71 Users
    • 72 Usage
    • 73 Social networking and entertainment
    • 74 Electronic business
    • 75 Telecommuting
    • 76 Crowdsourcing
    • 77 Collaborative publishing
    • 78 Politics and political revolutions
    • 79 Philanthropy
  • 8 Security
    • 81 Surveillance
    • 82 Censorship
  • 9 Performance
    • 91 Outages
    • 92 Energy use
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 Further reading
  • 13 External links

Terminology

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz in Holon, Israel See also: Capitalization of "Internet"

The term Internet, when used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol IP networks, is a proper noun and may be written with an initial capital letter In common use and the media, it is often not capitalized, viz the internet Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective The Internet is also often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven The designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks

The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech; it is common to speak of "going on the Internet" when invoking a web browser to view web pages However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services The Web is a collection of interconnected documents web pages and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user

History

Main articles: History of the Internet and History of the World Wide Web

Research into packet switching started in the early 1960s, and packet switched networks such as the ARPANET, CYCLADES, the Merit Network, NPL network, Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and 1970s using a variety of protocols The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a single network of networks ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, and the NLS system at SRI International SRI by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969 The third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department In an early sign of future growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971 These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing

Early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare European developers were concerned with developing the X25 networks Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array NORSAR in June 1973, followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter T Kirstein's research group in the United Kingdom, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, University of London and later at University College London In December 1974, RFC 675 Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and later RFCs repeated this use Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation NSF funded the Computer Science Network CSNET In 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite TCP/IP was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks

T3 NSFNET Backbone, c 1992

TCP/IP network access expanded again in 1986 when the National Science Foundation Network NSFNet provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States for researchers, first at speeds of 56 kbit/s and later at 15 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s Commercial Internet service providers ISPs emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990 By 1995, the Internet was fully commercialized in the US when the NSFNet was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic The Internet rapidly expanded in Europe and Australia in the mid to late 1980s and to Asia in the late 1980s and early 1990s The beginning of dedicated transatlantic communication between the NSFNET and networks in Europe was established with a low-speed satellite relay between Princeton University and Stockholm, Sweden in December 1988 Although other network protocols such as UUCP had global reach well before this time, this marked the beginning of the Internet as an intercontinental network

Slightly over a year later in March 1990, the first high-speed T1 15 Mbit/s link between the NSFNET and Europe was installed between Cornell University and CERN, allowing much more robust communications than were capable with satellites Six months later Tim Berners-Lee would begin writing WorldWideWeb, the first web browser after two years of lobbying CERN management By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the HyperText Transfer Protocol HTTP 09, the HyperText Markup Language HTML, the first Web browser which was also a HTML editor and could access Usenet newsgroups and FTP files, the first HTTP server software later known as CERN httpd, the first web server http://infocernch, and the first Web pages that described the project itself Public commercial use of the Internet began in mid-1989 with the connection of MCI Mail and Compuserve's email capabilities to the 500,000 users of the Internet Just months later on January 1, 1990, PSInet launched an alternate Internet backbone for commercial use; one of the networks that would grow into the commercial Internet we know today In 1991 the Commercial Internet eXchange was founded, allowing PSInet to communicate with the other commercial networks CERFnet and Alternet Since 1995 the Internet has tremendously impacted culture and commerce, including the rise of near instant communication by email, instant messaging, telephony Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more

 
2005 2010 2014a
World population 65 billion 69 billion 72 billion
Not using the Internet 84% 70% 60%
Using the Internet 16% 30% 40%
Users in the developing world 8% 21% 32%
Users in the developed world 51% 67% 78%
a Estimate
Source: International Telecommunications Union

The Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge, commerce, entertainment and social networking During the late 1990s, it was estimated that traffic on the public Internet grew by 100 percent per year, while the mean annual growth in the number of Internet users was thought to be between 20% and 50% This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network As of 31 March 2011, the estimated total number of Internet users was 2095 billion 302% of world population It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunication, by 2000 this figure had grown to 51%, and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet

Governance

Main article: Internet governance ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States

The Internet is a global network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks It operates without a central governing body The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols IPv4 and IPv6 is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force IETF, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise To maintain interoperability, the principal name spaces of the Internet are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities ICANN coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol IP addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters Globally unified name spaces are essential for maintaining the global reach of the Internet This role of ICANN distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body for the global Internet

Regional Internet Registries RIRs allocate IP addresses:

  • African Network Information Center AfriNIC for Africa
  • American Registry for Internet Numbers ARIN for North America
  • Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre APNIC for Asia and the Pacific region
  • Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry LACNIC for Latin America and the Caribbean region
  • Réseaux IP Européens – Network Coordination Centre RIPE NCC for Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Commerce, continues to have final approval over changes to the DNS root zone The Internet Society ISOC was founded in 1992 with a mission to "assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world" Its members include individuals anyone may join as well as corporations, organizations, governments, and universities Among other activities ISOC provides an administrative home for a number of less formally organized groups that are involved in developing and managing the Internet, including: the Internet Engineering Task Force IETF, Internet Architecture Board IAB, Internet Engineering Steering Group IESG, Internet Research Task Force IRTF, and Internet Research Steering Group IRSG On 16 November 2005, the United Nations-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society in Tunis established the Internet Governance Forum IGF to discuss Internet-related issues

Infrastructure

See also: List of countries by number of Internet users and List of countries by Internet connection speeds 2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world

The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture

Routing and service tiers

Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers

Internet service providers establish the worldwide connectivity between individual networks at various levels of scope End-users who only access the Internet when needed to perform a function or obtain information, represent the bottom of the routing hierarchy At the top of the routing hierarchy are the tier 1 networks, large telecommunication companies that exchange traffic directly with each other via peering agreements Tier 2 and lower level networks buy Internet transit from other providers to reach at least some parties on the global Internet, though they may also engage in peering An ISP may use a single upstream provider for connectivity, or implement multihoming to achieve redundancy and load balancing Internet exchange points are major traffic exchanges with physical connections to multiple ISPs Large organizations, such as academic institutions, large enterprises, and governments, may perform the same function as ISPs, engaging in peering and purchasing transit on behalf of their internal networks Research networks tend to interconnect with large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2, and the UK's national research and education network, JANET Both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks Computers and routers use routing tables in their operating system to direct IP packets to the next-hop router or destination Routing tables are maintained by manual configuration or automatically by routing protocols End-nodes typically use a default route that points toward an ISP providing transit, while ISP routers use the Border Gateway Protocol to establish the most efficient routing across the complex connections of the global Internet

Access

Common methods of Internet access by users include dial-up with a computer modem via telephone circuits, broadband over coaxial cable, fiber optics or copper wires, Wi-Fi, satellite and cellular telephone technology 3G, 4G The Internet may often be accessed from computers in libraries and Internet cafes Internet access points exist in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops Various terms are used, such as public Internet kiosk, public access terminal, and Web payphone Many hotels also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based These terminals are widely accessed for various usages, such as ticket booking, bank deposit, or online payment Wi-Fi provides wireless access to the Internet via local computer networks Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where users need to bring their own wireless devices such as a laptop or PDA These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based

Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in New York, London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services High-end mobile phones such as smartphones in general come with Internet access through the phone network Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online

Structure

Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system" The structure was found to be highly robust to random failures, yet, very vulnerable to intentional attacks The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively and the possibility of developing alternative structures has been investigated

Protocols

Internet protocol suite