Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluationinstitute for health metrics and evaluation, institute for health metrics and evaluation university of washington
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation IHME is a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle The Institute is headed by Dr Christopher JL Murray, a physician and health economist, and professor at the University of Washington Department of Global Health, which is part of the School of Medicine IHME's goal, as stated on the Institute's website, is "to identify the best strategies to build a healthier world By measuring health, tracking program performance, finding ways to maximize health system impact, and developing innovative measurement systems, IHME provides a foundation for informed decision-making that ultimately will lead to better health globally" IHME 20111 IHME conducts research and trains scientists, policymakers, and the public in health metrics concepts, methods, and tools Its mission includes judging the effectiveness and efficacy of health initiatives and national health systems IHME's work seeks to be complementary to the United Nations' work in the World Health Organization in that it shares many tasks but is independent from member countries23
IHME gathers health-related data from all available sources It develops innovative analytical tools to track trends in mortality, diseases, and risk factors, and capsulizes many of its research findings in data visualizations4 It evaluates interventions such as vaccines, malaria control policies, cancer screenings, and birth care To enable researchers to replicate IHME's work and to foster new research, IHME created the Global Health Data Exchange GHDx where methods and results are cataloged and freely accessible IHME is also committed to expanding the field of health metrics by training students at the post-baccalaureate and post-graduate levels
- 1 History
- 2 Research
- 21 Global Burden of Disease
- 22 Disease Control Priorities Network
- 23 Population Health Metrics Research Consortium project
- 24 Malaria Control Policy Assessment project
- 25 United States public health research
- 26 Global Health Data Exchange GHDx
- 3 Degree Programs
- 4 Funders
- 5 Reception
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
IHME was launched in June 2007 based on a core grant of $105 million primarily funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation5 Among its earliest projects was to produce new estimates of mortality rates, which were published in The Lancet in September 20076 The Institute updated these in 20107 and again in 20148 Maternal,9 child, and adult mortality10 estimates have been published, as well1112 Founding board members included Chair Julio Frenk, Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health; Harvey Fineberg, President of the Institute of Medicine; Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Prime Minister of Norway; Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the Minister of Health for Ethiopia; K Srinath Reddy, President of the Public Health Foundation of India; Tomris Turmen, President of the International Children's Center and Head of the Department of Pediatrics/Newborn Medicine at the University of Ankara Medical School in Ankara, Turkey; Lincoln Chen, President of the China Medical Board; Jane Halton, who has served as Secretary of the Department of Health and Ageing in Australia, as well as the Department of Finance; and David Roux, Co-Chief Executive of Silver Lake Partners13
Current board members14 are Frenk; Fineberg; Chen; Halton; and Roux, in addition to Stephen J Cucchiaro, Chief Investment Officer of Windhaven Investment Management; Sally Davies, Chief Medical Officer CMO for England; and John W Stanton, managing director of Trilogy Partnership
In 2011, IHME co-sponsored the first Global Health Metrics & Evaluation conference in Seattle with The Lancet, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Harvard School of Public Health, and University of Queensland School of Population Health15
In 2017, the Gates Foundation provided IHME with another $279 million grant16
IHME also has launched policy reports on a wide range of topics, including a June 2010 report on child and maternal mortality The findings were updated in 2014 In 2009, IHME launched its series of Financing Global Health policy reports1718 The initial report led to meetings with staff from the US House Foreign Affairs Committee and with a task force appointed by US President Barack Obama to guide the funding of his new Global Health Initiative Annual updates have been published since then
Recent publications have included estimations of causes of death worldwide,19 the incidence of HIV, TB, and malaria,20 as well as obesity,2122 cigarette smoking,23 heart disease,24 and small area estimation of diabetes rates in the United States25 IHME has also worked with other organizations on projects For example, IHME researchers helped create the 2010 WHO World Malaria Report,26 generating all the estimates for insecticide-treated nets27 IHME has also collaborated on country-level research projects, including a partnership with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to help create a health surveillance system to track disease trends and inform policy There is a list of publications at IHME's website
Global Burden of DiseaseeditFurther information: Global Burden of Disease Study
In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors GBD Study 2010, a worldwide consortium of 500 researchers, coordinated by IHME measured the impact of more than 290 health conditions and 67 health risk factors worldwide28 The GBD enterprise produced estimates in 21 regions around the world for disability-adjusted life years by age and sex for the past two decades Part of this research has involved conducting in-person surveys in several countries and gathering health information through a website survey The team created a cause of death database that includes 60 years of data, or almost 800 million deaths To illustrate the findings, IHME released a suite of interactive data visualizations, which are available to the public
The aim is to allow policymakers and other decision-makers to "compare the effects of different diseases – such as cancer versus depression – that kill people prematurely and cause ill health," to show disease trends over time, and to inform policy, IHME states on its website
It has been labeled "the most comprehensive review of the state of humanity's health ever undertaken"29
The UK and China are among the countries working with IHME to generate subnational burden of disease estimates at the county and province levels
In January 2014, IHME began releasing updates to the work, called the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors GBD Study 2013 The work generated over 1 billion estimates of health outcomes30 GBD estimates are now being updated annually
Some of the findings have been controversial In 2012, IHME researchers estimated 12 million people died from malaria in 2010, double the WHO's estimate3132
Disease Control Priorities NetworkeditFurther information: Disease Control Priorities Project
The Disease Control Priorities Network project generates cost-effectiveness estimates for a range of health interventions A team of demographers, statisticians, economists, and other experts are studying how to improve the allocation of resources among interventions, technologies, hospitals, and other service delivery platforms They are working in multiple countries, including the US, India, and South Africa Their cost-effectiveness work has revealed some hidden connections For example, a 2010 report showed improving girls' education in poor countries is the most effective way to reduce child mortality,33 which was a surprise for some people34
An effort launched in 2011 called Access, Bottlenecks, Costs, and Equity ABCE involves collecting evidence and analyzing data to improve the cost-effectiveness and equity of health systems in Colombia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Lebanon, Uganda, and Zambia The project examines four components that affect health care delivery: access to health facilities, bottlenecks limitations on the supply side, costs, and equity across populations The work includes in-depth facility surveys and inventories across a range of service delivery platforms; additional data is collected in countries with high HIV/AIDS burdens through exit interviews and chart extraction
A 2013 report concluded that neonatal and maternal mortality in Ghana could be best improved not with sophisticated maternity care but with better transportation infrastructure35
Population Health Metrics Research Consortium projectedit
The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium created new methods for tracking health intervention coverage in low-resource settings The methods have been used to measure mortality, causes of death, and incidence of major illnesses where data are incomplete36 Researchers collected data in India, Mexico, the Philippines, and Tanzania
IHME's work on estimating mortality has been at times controversial In 2009, IHME published a study on maternal mortality37 which some advocacy groups tried to suppress – worried that results showing a decline in mortality would make it harder to fund-raise The WHO also initially disagreed with the new results, but later revised their estimates in agreement with those of IHME38
Malaria Control Policy Assessment projectedit
The Malaria Control Policy Assessment project evaluates the effectiveness of malaria-control interventions in Uganda and Zambia by analyzing their effect on child mortality and producing estimates at the national and local levels
United States public health researchedit
IHME conducts US research, including estimates of mortality, life expectancy, risk factors, health disparities, and disease prevalence IHME has compiled national and local health trends and integrated multiple data sources to monitor disparities in chronic diseases
A 2013 report, the State of US Health,39 looked at trends in premature deaths due to injury or disease, and demonstrated the major health threat stemming from behavioral risk factors such as poor diet and sedentary lifestyles It concluded that dietary factors cause more deaths each year than cancer or smoking40 The results included life expectancy trends broken down by state and county
First Lady Michelle Obama cited the research in her campaign to improve Americans' diets and increase their level of physical activity41
A paper published in the journal Population Health Metrics in June 2011 showed that life expectancy was rising in some poorer US counties – especially in the South42 – a surprising result which was widely discussed43
Other research projects include the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative, which focuses on inequalities in health outcomes and access in southern Mexico and Central America; Gavi Full Country Evaluations, which evaluates immunization programs in Bangladesh, India, Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia; and HealthRise, a partnership with Medtronic Philanthropy to evaluate programs targeting diabetes and heart disease, and sponsor small grants to make improvements
In 2014, IHME announced the establishment of the University of Washington Center for Demography and Economics of Aging, funded by the National Institute on Aging NIA It is one of 14 NIA Demography Centers at leading universities and policy organizations around the United States
Global Health Data Exchange GHDxedit
In March 2011, IHME launched the Global Health Data Exchange or GHDx, which indexes and hosts information about microdata, aggregated data, and research results with a focus on health-related and demographic datasets At launch, the site listed about 1,000 datasets; as of 2015, there are more than 30,000 As part of a partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, GHDx includes 35 years of CDC data on child and maternal health GHDx uses the Drupal 7 open source content management system and Apache SOLR for search The site includes visualization and GIS tools, and has been noted by the health and global health communities44
IHME offers two types of global health fellowships, plus master's degrees and PhD programs45
IHME receives core grant funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation46 and the state of Washington The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC; Inter-American Development Bank; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health; Medtronic Philanthropy; and the National Institute on Aging have also contributed funding through project grants and contracts
Initially, some within the World Health Organization had criticized IHME for trying to do the work that WHO already does There had also been tension between UNICEF and IHME because a report from the latter showed "lackluster progress" on child death rates316
The 2010 Global Burden of Disease report was criticized for its lack of transparency of methods and data as well as its use of complex statistical methods to fill in data gaps when reliable statistics were unavailable Thomas Bollyky, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, called for more transparency The report was also criticized for its use of verbal autopsies because many diseases have similar symptoms, leading to potential mistakes2947
Igor Rudan and Kit Yee Chan argue that the emergence of IHME introduced competition to the field of global health metrics, which was previously a field where WHO maintained a monopoly: "The GBD initiative has emerged as a well-organised and rapidly growing collaboration that is now seriously challenging WHO's role in generating global health estimates"48
Rudan and Chan also note that IHME "struggled to generate support, legitimacy, and acceptable for their findings" after publishing the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study, due to concerns of lack of transparency, as well as the existence of parallel estimates of disease burden from WHO48
The World Health Organization did not acknowledge the GBD 2010 estimates4816
The Global Burden of Disease Study GBD 2013 expanded collaboration and increased transparency but "fell short of allowing full independent replication of all results"48
- Timeline of global health
- Priority-setting in global health
- Dean Jamison
- ^ "Institute for Heath Metrics and Evaluation" Retrieved 27 June 2011
- ^ McNiel, Donal 16 February 2008 "Gates Foundation's Influence Criticized" New York Times Retrieved 9 May 2010
- ^ a b Doughton, Sandi 9 April 2008 "Seattle institute aims to help cure world-health data disorder" Seattle Times Retrieved 9 May 2010
- ^ "Data Visualizations" Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Retrieved 27 February 2015
- ^ Paulson, Tom 4 June 2007 "$105 million Gates gift helps start global health center" Seattle PI Retrieved 9 May 2010
- ^ Murray, CJL; Laakso, T; Shibuya, K; Lopez, AD 22 September 2007 "Can we achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 New analysis of country trends and forecasts of under-5 mortality to 2015" The Lancet 370: 1040–1054 PMID 17889243 doi:101016/s0140-67360761478-0 Retrieved 27 February 2015
- ^ Rajaratnam, JK; Marcus, JR; Flaxman, AD; Wang, H; Levin-Rector, A; Dwyer, L; Costa, M; Lopez, AD; Murray, CJL 24 May 2010 "Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4" The Lancet 375: 1988–2008 PMID 20546887 doi:101016/s0140-67361060703-9
- ^ "Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013" PDF The Lancet Retrieved 28 February 2015
- ^ Hogan, MC; Foreman, KJ; Naghavi, M; Ahn, SY; Wang, M; Makela, SM; Lopez, AD; Lozano, R; Murray, CJL 8 May 2010 "Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5" The Lancet 375: 1609–1623 PMID 20382417 doi:101016/s0140-67361060518-1
- ^ Rajaratnam, JK; Marcus, JR; Levin-Rector, A; Chalupka, AN; Wang, H; Dwyer, L; Costa, M; Lopez, AD; Murray, CJL 30 April 2010 "Worldwide mortality in men and women aged 15–59 years from 1970 to 2010: a systematic analysis" The Lancet 375: 1704–1720 PMID 20434763 doi:101016/s0140-67361060517-x
- ^ "Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013" Retrieved 28 February 2015
- ^ "Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013" PDF
- ^ "IHME's Founding Board Members" IHME Retrieved 28 February 2015
- ^ "Governance"
- ^ "Global Health Metrics & Evaluation conference Media Advisory"
- ^ a b c Doughton, Sandi January 25, 2017 "Historic gift: Gates Foundation gives $279 million to University of Washington" The Seattle Times Retrieved January 25, 2017
- ^ Ravishankar, N; Gubbins, P; Cooley, RJ; Leach-Kemon, K; Michaud, CM; Jamison, DT; Murray, CJL 20 June 2009 "Financing of global health: tracking development assistance for health from 1990 to 2007" The Lancet 373: 2113–2124 PMID 19541038 doi:101016/s0140-67360960881-3
- ^ Lu, C; Schneider, MT; Gubbins, P; Leach-Kemon, K; Jamison, D; Murray, CJL 17 April 2010 "Public financing of health in developing countries: a cross-national systematic analysis" The Lancet 375: 1375–1387 PMID 20381856 doi:101016/s0140-67361060233-4
- ^ "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013"
- ^ Murray, Christopher JL; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan July 2014 "Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013" Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
- ^ "Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013"
- ^ "Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013" The Lancet
- ^ "Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996- 2012"
- ^ "Temporal trends in ischemic heart disease mortality in 21 world regions, 1980-2010: the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study"
- ^ Srebotnjak, T; Mokdad, AH; Murray, CJL 29 September 2010 "A novel framework for validating and applying standardized small area measurement strategies" Population Health Metrics 8: 26 doi:101186/1478-7954-8-26
- ^ "WHO: World Malaria Report 2010" World Health Organization Retrieved 27 February 2015
- ^ Gakidou, E; Cowling, K; Lozano, R; Murray, CJL "Increased educational attainment and its effect on child mortality in 175 countries between 1970 and 2009: a systematic analysis" The Lancet 376: 959–974 PMID 20851260 doi:101016/s0140-67361061257-3
- ^ "The story of GBD 2010: a "super-human" effort"
- ^ a b Doughton, Sandi 14 March 2013 "Gates, UW teaming up on massive health study" The Seattle Times Retrieved January 27, 2017
- ^ "GBD History"
- ^ "New estimates of malaria deaths: concern and opportunity"
- ^ Kelland, Kate 14 May 2012 "Analysis: Health by numbers: A statistician's challenge" Reuters Retrieved January 25, 2017
- ^ Gakidou, E; Cowling, K; Lozano, R; Murray, CJL 18 September 2010 "Increased educational attainment and its effect on child mortality in 175 countries between 1970 and 2009: a systematic analysis" The Lancet 376: 959–974 PMID 20851260 doi:101016/s0140-67361061257-3
- ^ Paulson, Paul "Number crunchers say the evidence is: Transparency strengthens global health" NPR Humanosphere Retrieved 30 June 2011
- ^ "Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis"
- ^ "Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets"
- ^ Hogan, MC; Foreman, KJ; Naghavi, M; Ahn, SY; Wang, M; Makela, SM; Lozano, R; Lopez, AD; Murray, CJL 8 May 2010 "Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5" The Lancet 375: 1609–1623 PMID 20382417 doi:101016/s0140-67361060518-1
- ^ Paulson, Tom "Number crunchers say the evidence is: Transparency strengthens global health" NPR Humanosphere Retrieved 27 February 2015
- ^ "The State of US Health: Innovations, Insights, and Recommendations from the Global Burden of Disease Study" IHME
- ^ "The State of US Health, 1990-2010 Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors" JAMA 310: 591–608 10 July 2013 PMID 23842577 doi:101001/jama201313805
- ^ "Healthy Diet Important For Increasing Years of Healthy Life, New Study Says"
- ^ Kulkarni, SC; Levin-Rector, A; Ezzati Murray CJL, M; Murray, CJL 15 June 2011 "Falling behind: life expectancy in US counties from 2000 to 2007 in an international context" Population Health Metrics 9: 16 doi:101186/1478-7954-9-16
- ^ Pallarito, Karen 16 June 2011 "Life expectancy in US trails top nations" CNN Retrieved 28 February 2015
- ^ Van Dam, Andrew "Institute launches global health data clearinghouse" Association of Health Care Journalists Retrieved 28 February 2015
- ^ "Degree Programs in Health Metrics and Evaluation" Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington Retrieved 27 March 2015
- ^ Paulson, Tom 4 June 2007 "$105 million Gates' gift helps start global health center" Seattle PI Retrieved 27 February 2015
- ^ "Verbal Autopsy VA" Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Retrieved January 28, 2017
- ^ a b c d Rudan, Igor; Chan, Kit Yee December 18, 2014 "Global health metrics needs collaboration and competition" PDF The Lancet 385: 92–94 doi:101016/S0140-67361462006-7 Retrieved January 27, 2017
- IHME homepage
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