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Indians in Hong Kong

pre registration for indians in hong kong, indians in hong kong
Hong Kong has been the place of settlement for Indians for a long time Some of them have lived there for many generations, and consider Hong Kong as their home

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Indian Army in Hong Kong
      • 111 Hong Kong Hindu and Sikh Cremation Memorial
      • 112 World War II
        • 1121 Political context
        • 1122 Battle of Hong Kong
        • 1123 Internment camps in Hong Kong for Indian POWs
  • 2 Citizenship
  • 3 Occupational history
    • 31 Life in Hong Kong
  • 4 Languages, communities, and worship
  • 5 Diversity of work
  • 6 Labour legislation in Hong Kong
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Footnotes
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading

Historyedit

Historic links between the India and Hong Kong can be traced back to the founding days of British Hong Kong12 Indian traders and the British East India Company had already commenced commercial activities in Macau 16543 and Canton 1771 long before Hong Kong became a British colony in 184145 At the time when the Union Jack flag was hoisted in January 1841 there were around 2,700 soldiers and 4 merchants from the Indian subcontinent6 Indian troops and traders played an important role in the early development of Hong Kong7 In the early years of British Hong Kong, the Indian gold mohur and the rupee were legal tender Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation HSBC was created in 1864 with 2 Parsees and 1 Indian Jew among the 13 founding committee members In 1877, 4324% of goods imported into Hong Kong were from India and 1762% of exports from Hong Kong went to India By 1913, trade with India had effectively collapsed with Hong Kong importing just 1378% from India while exports from Hong Kong were reduced to 230%8 Indian businessmen were engaged in society building in Hong Kong through significant philanthropic contributions: Hormusjee Nowrojee Mody9 figured prominently in the founding of University of Hong Kong HKU101112 Star Ferry was founded by Abdoolally Ebrahim in 1842 and developed by Dorabjee Naorojee from 1888 Staff for the engineering services of the Kowloon-Canton Railway were recruited from India Prior to World War II, 60% of the police force were Sikhs from Punjab In 1949, Jehangir Hormusjee Ruttonjee founded Ruttonjee Sanatorium13 Large number of Indians served in the military, police and prison services of British Hong Kong till India gained independence from Britain on 15 August 194714151617 In 1952 business leaders of the Indian community founded the Indian Chamber of Commerce Hong Kong ICCHK It aims to promote and improve the image of Indian trade in Hong Kong and Southern China As early as 1955, India was asked by Governor Alexander Grantham to weigh-in on China as to the well-being of Hong Kong residents when the colony would revert to China18

Indian Army in Hong Kongedit

Further information: The Cenotaph Hong Kong

Soldiers of the East-India Company, British Raj and Princely States in the Indian subcontinent were crucial in securing and defending Hong Kong as a crown colony for Britain19202122 Examples of troops from the Indian sub-continent include the 1st Travancore Nair Infantry, 59th Madras Native Infantry, 26th Bengal Native Infantry, 5th Light Infantry, 40th Pathans, 6th Rajputana Rifles, 11th Rajputs, 10th Jats, 72nd Punjabis, 12th Madras Native Infantry, 38th Madras Native Infantry, Indian Medical Service, Indian Hospital Corps, Royal Indian Army Service Corps, etc2324 Large contingents of troops from India were garrisoned in Hong Kong right from the start of British Hong Kong and until after World War II2526 Contributions by the Indian military services in Hong Kong suffer from the physical decay of battle-sites,27282930 destruction of documentary archives and sources of information,31 questionable historiography, conveniently lopsided narratives,3233 unchallenged confabulation of urban myths34 and incomplete research within academic circles in Hong Kong,3536 Britain37 and India382039 Despite high casualties among troops from the British Raj during the Battle of Hong Kong, their contributions are either minimised or ignored40 The use of generic words such as "Allied", "British", "Commonwealth" fails to highlight that a significant number of soldiers who defended Hong Kong were from India4142 Commonwealth War Graves Commission CWGC Sai Wan War Cemetery references the graves of Indian troops as "Commonwealth" soldiers43 Transcripts of proceedings from war tribunals held in Hong Kong from 1946 to 1948 by British Military Courts are yet to be fully released44

Hong Kong Hindu and Sikh Cremation Memorialedit

Located on the hillside behind the Hindu Temple at 1B Wong Nei Chong Road opposite side from the Happy Valley Racecourse there exists a Commonwealth War Graves Commission CWGC memorial to 8 Hindu and Sikh soldiers whose mortal remains were cremated at the cremation ground behind the Hindu temple A large white granite obelisk bearing the names of eight Indian soldiers who served in Hong Kong to assist with colonial defence of the Hong Kong garrison during the First World War45 As with Commonwealth War Graves Commissions CWGC memorials all over the world, the military memorial is open to the general public and access is through the staircase at the rear of the Hindu Temple

World War IIedit

Main article: Battle of Hong Kong Further information: Gin Drinkers Line, The Cenotaph Hong Kong, and Wong Nai Chung Gap See also: Sai Wan War Cemetery, Stanley Military Cemetery, Ma Tau Chung, Sham Shui Po Barracks, Lei Yue Mun Fort, Khalsa Diwan Sikh Temple, and Lei Yue Mun Park and Holiday Village Indian gunners manning a 92-inch gun artillery position at Mount Davis Battery46 on Hong Kong Island

During World War II, soldiers of the Indian Army were involved in the Battle of Hong Kong47 Indian troops were also incorporated within several overseas regiments as for example the Hong Kong Singapore Royal Artillery Regiment which had Sikh gunners48

Political contextedit

Public sentiment in the Indian subcontinent, solely preoccupied with gaining independence from Britain, made it impossible for the Viceroy of India to obtain political consensus for entry into World War II by British India The failure of Britain to fully honour promises made prior to World War I: to permit self-determination in India immediately after Armistice and grant independence thereafter; made Indians reluctant to be drawn into war in Europe and defending Britain's colonial territories49 The unilateral declaration of India's entry into the war by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow, without consultation with elected leaders of the provincial assemblies in India, led to civil disobedience campaigns and calls for immediate independence from Britain50 Some Indians, including soldiers serving overseas as personnel of the British Indian Army, were receptive to calls by Congress President Subhas Chandra Bose to join the Indian National Army of the Indian Independence League51 Sikhs serving with the British Indian Army had customarily been permitted to retain their turbans in accordance to their religious traditions Orders to wear steel helmets - forced upon Sikh soldiers of the British Indian Army sent to serve in Hong Kong with the 12th heavy regiment of the Royal Artillery Hong Kong Battery - ended in revolt in 1941 with many troops charged with mutiny5253545556 British India participated in the War Effort both at the planning stages Eastern Group Supply Council and in combat operations throughout Asia5758

Battle of Hong Kongedit

The 5th Battalion of the 7th Rajput Regiment and 2nd Battalion of the 14th Punjab Regiment suffered the heaviest combat losses amongst all troop formations of the British Empire when the Imperial Japanese Army overran Hong Kong59606162 Imperial Japanese Army committed atrocities against Indian civilians and soldiers during the Battle of Hong Kong636465

Internment camps in Hong Kong for Indian POWsedit

Japanese occupation of Hong Kong saw Indians interred in significant numbers at Sham Shui Po Barracks, Argyle Street Camp, Ma Tau Chung, Stanley Internment Camp, North Point Camp and Gun Club Hill Barracks66 Indian civilians sent food parcels to POWs interred at Stanley Internment Camp67 Indians were posted on guard duty as sentries at internment camps6869 At the end of February 1942, the Japanese government stated that it held 3829 Indian prisoners of war in Hong Kong out of a total of 1094770 Noteworthy Indian POWs who distinguished themselves during internment include Captain Mateen Ahmed Ansari of 5/7 Rajput Regiment and Subedar-Major Haider Rehinan Khan of 2/14 Punjab Regiment71 The stories of Indian survivors of the Battle of Hong Kong are yet to be published

Citizenshipedit

See also: British nationality law and Hong Kong Many people of Indian origin once held British passports like this, issued to British Dependent Territories Citizens

Indians in Hong Kong include citizens of the Republic of India, British citizens, and a small number of stateless persons and naturalised citizens of the People's Republic of China

According to the statistics of the Republic of India's High Level Committee on Indian Diaspora, among Hong Kong residents there are 22,000 Indian citizens and 28,500 non-citizen Persons of Indian Origin people with origins in British India, including places which lie outside today's Republic of India, and having citizenships of countries other than the Republic of India Note that this number may include people who consider themselves as Pakistanis, Nepalis, or other South Asian nationalities72 The citizenship of Hong Kong residents of Indian descent who lacked Republic of India citizenship was a major point of contention in the years leading up to the handover Many Indians had settled in Hong Kong, taking it as their only home and naturalising as Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies CUKCs This status initially made no distinctions between residents of the United Kingdom and elsewhere, but from the 1960s onwards a number of nationality acts successively scraped away the privileges it offered, creating a class of CUKCs who had no right of abode in the United Kingdom itself Eventually in 1981, these restrictions were codified in a new class of British citizenship, the British Dependent Territories Citizenship BDTC Furthermore, as this status would cease to be effective after the 1997 handover, the British government created the new status of British National, a restricted form of British nationality which also did not grant right of abode in the United Kingdom By 1985, out of about 14,000 Indians settled in Hong Kong, 6,000 were BDTCs73

Unlike the majority people of Chinese descent, who were seen by the incoming Chinese administration as always having been Chinese citizens, the ethnic minorities, including Indians, would be left only with BNO status, which amounted to effective statelessness due to the lack of guarantee of returnability to the United Kingdom or anywhere else7475 With their citizenship in limbo, by the 1990s many Indians in Hong Kong reportedly would not even marry among themselves, preferring to look overseas for potential spouses with foreign passports76 Some rich Indians were granted full British citizenship under the British Nationality Selection Scheme, but the Home Office opposed a blanket grant for fears of the precedent it might set Younger Indians formed lobbying groups such as the Indian Resources Group to press their case with the British government They emphasised that their members had not applied for emigration to other countries such as Canada or the United States, and would be unlikely to settle in Britain were they granted citizenship; instead, they intended to remain in Hong Kong, and believed that British citizenship would facilitate this aim77

In the end, the British government formally agreed to grant citizenship to any BNO, BDTC, or other British subject who had no other citizenship on 4 February 1997 Thus, most stateless people of Indian origin were able to obtain British citizen passports74 However, confusion over the interaction of British and Indian nationality laws effectively rendered this promise useless in roughly 200 cases, all minors who had acquired Indian citizenship at birth and later became BNOs by registration Indian nationality law provides that any Indian citizen acquiring foreign citizenship by naturalisation or registration loses his citizenship of India; only Indians who acquired foreign citizenship by reason of birth could hold dual citizenship The Indian government stated that people who had acquired BNO status by birth remained Indian citizens until age 18 However, BNO status is not acquired by birth, meaning that every single Indian adult or minor who registered as a BNO lost his Indian citizenship Notwithstanding that, the British Home Office used the Indian government's statement as a basis for denying full British citizenship to people who were minors on 4 February 1997; the Home Office misunderstood India's dual citizenship provisions to mean that they were still entitled to Indian citizenship on that date, when in fact they were not78 More than a decade after the handover, they have not naturalised as Chinese citizens; instead, they continue to hold only BNO passports in hopes of being able to attain the full British citizenship that was promised to them75

A small proportion of Indians have availed themselves of naturalisation as Chinese citizens, which according to law can be requested by any Hong Kong permanent resident who has Chinese relatives, who has settled there, or who has other legitimate reasons, and who is willing to renounce all foreign citizenships Prior to 2002, the Hong Kong Immigration Department discouraged Indians and other ethnic minorities from taking this course, with immigration officers reportedly refusing to even give them the forms to fill in thus they would not show up in rejection statistics It took until December 2002 to see the first case of successful naturalisation application by an ethnic minority resident with no Chinese relatives, an Indian girl7980 Immigration Department statistics provided to the Legislative Council at various times show that from July 1997 to April 2005, only 552 Indian citizens applied for naturalisation as Chinese citizens, while from May 2005 to November 2012, nearly five times as many 2,672 applied In total, among the 3,224 Indians who applied for naturalisation from July 1997 to November 2012, 2,487 771% had their applications accepted818283 Persons of Indian origin who are citizens of China, or any of whose ancestors were ever citizens of China, are not eligible to obtain a Persons of Indian Origin Card84

Occupational historyedit

Some famous Indians are Hormusjee Naorojee Mody, Dorabjee Naorojee Mithaiwala and Jehangir Hormusjee Ruttonjee who arrived independently in the course of trade from Bombay and Gujarat

In the pre-war period, most of the Indians took part in the army Before the Second World War, nearly 60% of the police forces were Sikhs Also, some Indians have established businesses in Hong Kong The Harilela family runs one of the best-known business groups85

After the war, the number of Indians taking up positions at government sections had declined as most of the Indians were no longer citizens of the British colony after India gained independence in 1947 A large number of Sikh policemen left Hong Kong and about 150 Punjabi Muslim and Pathan worked in the police force in 195286 Meanwhile, other Indian communities such as Marwaris and Tamil Muslims came to Hong Kong for trading

More Indians stepped into the fields like international companies, banking, airlines, travel agents, medical, media and insurance sector86 The banking and financial sector had the strongest presence of Indian professionals Information technology and telecommunications have also interested highly qualified Indians In the 1950s, tailoring had become an industry that was popular with Indians and around 200 tailoring shops were owned by them at that time After 2005, there have been a growing number of diamond merchants from Gujarat who have settled in Hong Kong and have formed groups like Sarjan Group, GGHK group and Gujarati Samaj for sports and cultural activities Gujarati Diamond Merchants are one of the richest and most affluent groups among Hong Kong Indians who own costly properties such as hotels, houses and offices near Tsim Sha Tsui and Laguna Verde in Hung Hom

Life in Hong Kongedit

The Indians scattered and worked in different areas of Hong Kong Some of them are permanent citizens As they are one of the ethnic minorities in Hong Kong with diverse cultures, languages and religions

Languages, communities, and worshipedit

Due to different cultural backgrounds, Indians have their own languages such as Gujarati, Sindhi, Bengali, Tamil, and Punjabi But most of them are fluent in English, and some in Cantonese as well

Among respondents to the 2011 Census who self-identified as Indian, 372% stated that they spoke English as their usual language, 46% Cantonese, and 579% some other language With regards to additional spoken languages other than their usual language, 520% stated that they spoke English, 307% Cantonese, and 70% Mandarin Multiple responses were permitted to the latter question, hence the responses are non-exclusive 108% did not speak English as either their usual language nor an additional language, while the respective figures for Cantonese and Mandarin were 647% and 930%87

Diversity of workedit

There are many Indians running different kinds of businesses in Hong Kong On Nathan Road and Mody Road in Tsim Sha Tsui, there are a lot of tailoring and retailing shops Also, around 15% restaurants in Hong Kong are operated by Indians88 Recently, many of them are teachers or owners of Yoga centres

For most Indians in Hong Kong, occupations vary according to their education level and family status The majority of them are managers, administrative officers and technological fields like Engineers89

Positions Indians Pakistanis Nepalese Working force of HK
Managers and Administrative officers 312% 92% 11% 107%
Professionals/ assistant professionals 223% 69% 43% 209%
Clerk, tertiary industry 181% 142% 207% 313%
Craftsmanship / Machine control related 49% 244% 292% 172%
Non technological fields 232% 452% 446% 195%

Source: “香港南亞裔概況”, the Census and Statistics Department, 2001

The percentage of Indians earning less than $4,000 per month or more than $30,000 per month is higher than that in the total working force of Hong Kong, or other South Asian nationalities This reveals a bimodal income distribution

Salary range Indians Pakistanis Nepalese Working force of HK
<4000 119% 29% 73% 104%
4,000-9,000 247% 514% 411% 328%
10,000-14,999 156% 278% 371% 23%
15,000-19,999 98% 64% 11% 115%
20,000-24,999 82% 45% 22% 78%
25,000-29,999 42% 13% 08% 34%
≧30,000 256% 58% 06% 111%

Source: “香港南亞裔概況”, the Census and Statistics Department, 2001

Labour legislation in Hong Kongedit

The Employment Agencies Administrationcitation needed of the Labour Department is responsible for administering Part XII of the Employment Ordinance and the Employment Agency Regulations90 They co-operate with some Individual Consulate Generals in Hong Kong to process contracts for workers while the absence of the participation of India may make it more difficult for the Indians to get a job in Hong Kong through the institutions

Local Indians have integrated well in Hong Kong They are not only physically rooted in Hong Kong, but also a part of Hong Kong society They engage in talk shows, dramas, art exhibitions or TV programs Also, there is a group of Sikhs who set up the Sahib Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji Educational Trust for the local Indians

See alsoedit

Ruttonjee Hospital

Footnotesedit

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  2. ^ Wordie, Jason 2002 Streets : exploring Hong Kong Island Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press pp 4,57,83,85,87,128,132,135,157,177,192,292 ISBN 978-9622095632 
  3. ^ Carroll, John M 2005 Edge of empires : Chinese elites and British colonials in Hong Kong Online-Ausg ed Cambridge Mass: Harvard university press pp 19, 24 ISBN 9780674017016 
  4. ^ Ngo, edited by Tak-Wing 1999 Hong Kong's history : state and society under colonial rule 1 publ ed London: Routledge p 15 ISBN 0-415-20305-8 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list link
  5. ^ Kwong Chi Man, Tsoi Yiu Lun Eastern Fortress: A Military History of Hong Kong, 1840-1970 Hong Kong University Press p 9 ISBN 9789888208715  |access-date= requires |url= help
  6. ^ Kwok S T, Narain, K 2003Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong KongP18
  7. ^ Carroll, John M 2005 Edge of empires : Chinese elites and British colonials in Hong Kong Online-Ausg ed Cambridge Mass: Harvard university press pp 10,11,44,54,81,92,137,163 ISBN 9780674017016 
  8. ^ Ngo, edited by Tak-Wing 1999 Hong Kong's history : state and society under colonial rule 1 publ ed London: Routledge p 35 ISBN 0-415-20305-8 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list link
  9. ^ Kuruvilla, PK 5 April 2016 "Making an enduring mark in distant lands" The Hindu The Hindu Retrieved 19 June 2017 
  10. ^ Wordie, Jason 2002 Streets : exploring Hong Kong Island Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press p 17 ISBN 978-9622095632 
  11. ^ Kwok S T, Narain, K 2003Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong KongP32
  12. ^ Kwok S T, Narain, K 2003Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong KongP22
  13. ^ Grantham, Alexander 2012 Via ports : from Hong Kong to Hong Kong New ed ed Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press p 100 ISBN 9789888083855 CS1 maint: Extra text link
  14. ^ Harris, Oliver Lindsay ; with the memories of John R 2005 The battle for Hong Kong 1941-1945 : hostage to fortune Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press p 218 ISBN 9622097790 
  15. ^ Kwong Chi Man, Tsoi Yiu Lun Eastern Fortress: A Military History of Hong Kong, 1840-1970 Hong Kong University Press pp 19,31,66,119,120,144,145 ISBN 9789888208715  |access-date= requires |url= help
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  83. ^ "本港去年729人入中國籍" Ming Pao 12 January 2011 Retrieved 28 May 2011 
  84. ^ "Persons of Indian Origin PIO Card Scheme" Beijing: Embassy of India Retrieved 12 January 2014 
  85. ^ Kwok S T, Narain, K 2003Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong KongP30
  86. ^ a b Kwok S T, Narain, K 2003Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong KongP60
  87. ^ "Table 45: Proportion of ethnic minorities aged 5 and over able to speak selected languages/dialects, 2011" PDF 2011 Census Thematic Report: Ethnic Minorities PDF Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department December 2012 Retrieved 19 November 2015 
  88. ^ 吳雪兒 2009 Tandoor INDIAN RESTAURANT Retrieved April 29, from http://hkepochtimescom/9/3/17/97164htm
  89. ^ 2001年政府統計處 2006 香港南亞裔概況, P15
  90. ^ Employment Agencies Administration 2009 Labour Department of Hong Kong Retrieved April, 29, from http://wwwlabourgovhk/eng/service/content4_2htm

Hong Kong Indian Lifestyle Portal http://wwwHKYantoYancom Indian Restaurants in Hong Kong island East http://wwwhkyantoyancom/drink-dine/indian-restaurants-in-island-east Indian Restaurants in Hong Kong Lantau Island http://wwwhkyantoyancom/drink-dine/indian-restaurants-in-lantau Indian Beauty parlours in Hong Kong http://wwwhkyantoyancom/life-and-style/indian-beauty-parlours-in-hong-kong Indian Grocery Store in Hong Kong http://wwwspicestorehk/en/ Hong Kong Indian Community Portal http://wwwhongkongindianscom Shailesh DABHI,Sahajanand diam limited1

Referencesedit

  • Kwok S T, Narain, K 2003 Co-Prosperity in Cross-Culturalism: Indians in Hong Kong Hong Kong: The Commercial Press HK Ltd ISBN 962-07-6325-4
  • 香港明愛青少年及社區服務九龍社區中心 2006 香港南亞裔概況 香港: 香港明愛青少年及社區服務九龍社區中心 ISBN 978-988-98441-4-1

Further readingedit

  • Rubinoff, Janet A "Indians in Hong Kong: Citizenship After 1997" Canada and Hong Kong Update 加港研究通訊 P: Jiā Gǎng Yánjiū Tōngxùn 4 Spring 1991 p 9–10 PDF document: p 59-60/224 PDF version Archive, txt file Archive
  1. ^ H "Tandoor Indian Restaurant" wwwtandoorcomhk Retrieved 20 May 2017 

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