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incubus, incubus demon
An incubus is a Lilin-demon in male form who, according to mythological and legendary traditions, lies upon women in order to engage in sexual activity with them Its female counterpart is a succubus Salacious tales of incubi and succubi have been told for many centuries in traditional societies Some traditions hold that repeated sexual activity with an incubus or succubus may result in the deterioration of health, or even death1


  • 1 Etymological, ancient and religious descriptions
  • 2 Regional variations
  • 3 Scientific explanations
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes

Etymological, ancient and religious descriptionsedit

The word incubus is derived from Late Latin incubo a nightmare induced by such a demon; from incubāre to lie upon2 One of the earliest mentions of an incubus comes from Mesopotamia on the Sumerian King List, ca 2400 BC, where the hero Gilgamesh's father is listed as Lilu3 It is said that Lilu disturbs and seduces women in their sleep, while Lilitu, a female demon, appears to men in their erotic dreams4 Two other corresponding demons appear as well: Ardat lili, who visits men by night and begets ghostly children from them, and Irdu lili, who is known as a male counterpart to Ardat lili and visits women by night and begets from them These demons were originally storm demons, but they eventually became regarded as night demons because of mistaken etymology5 Written later but described as happening before the Sumerian King List was completed is the mention of the Nephilim: Christian tradition attributes the completion of the Biblical book of Genesis to the time of the 16th century BC, and in chapter 6, verse 4 describes fallen angels having sexual intercourse with human females just prior to the flood of Noah, traditionally held as happening in the 24th century BC

Incubi were thought to be demons who had sexual relations with women, sometimes producing a child by the woman Succubi, by contrast, were demons thought to have intercourse with men Debate about the demons began early in the Christian tradition St Augustine touched on the topic in De Civitate Dei "The City of God" There were too many alleged attacks by incubi to deny them He stated, "There is also a very general rumor Many have verified it by their own experience and trustworthy persons have corroborated the experience others told, that sylvans and fauns, commonly called incubi, have often made wicked assaults upon women"6 Questions about the reproductive capabilities of the demons continued Eight hundred years later, Thomas Aquinas lent himself to the ongoing discussion, stating, "Still, if some are occasionally begotten from demons, it is not from the seed of such demons, nor from their assumed bodies, but from the seed of men, taken for the purpose; as when the demon assumes first the form of a woman, and afterwards of a man; just so they take the seed of other things for other generating purposes"7 This view was also shared by King James and in his dissertation titled Dæmonologie he refutes the possibility for angelic entities to reproduce and instead offered a suggestion that a devil would carry out two methods of impregnating women: the first, to steal the sperm out of a dead man and deliver it into a woman If a demon could extract the semen quickly, the transportation of the substance could not be instantly transported to a female host, causing it to go cold This explains his view that Succubae and Incubi were the same demonic entity only to be described differently based on the sexes being conversed with Being abused in such a way caused women at nunneries to be burned if they were found pregnant The second method was the idea that a dead body could be possessed by a devil, causing it to rise and have sexual relations with others This is similar to depictions of revenants or vampires and a spirit taking deceased corpse to cause some mischief8 It became generally accepted that incubi and succubi were the same demon, able to switch between male and female forms9 A succubus would be able to sleep with a man and collect his sperm, and then transform into an incubus and use that seed on women Even though sperm and egg came from humans originally, the spirits' offspring were often thought of as supernatural10

Some sources indicate that it may be identified by its unnaturally large or cold penis11 Though many tales claim that the incubus is bisexual,12 others indicate that it is strictly heterosexual and finds attacking a male victim either unpleasant or detrimental13

Incubi are sometimes said to be able to conceive children The half-human offspring of such a union is sometimes referred to as a cambion An incubus may pursue sexual relations with a woman in order to father a child, as in the legend of Merlin14

According to the Malleus Maleficarum, exorcism is one of the five ways to overcome the attacks of incubi, the others being Sacramental Confession, the Sign of the Cross or recital of the Angelic Salutation, moving the afflicted to another location, and by excommunication of the attacking entity, "which is perhaps the same as exorcism"15 On the other hand, the Franciscan friar Ludovico Maria Sinistrari stated that incubi "do not obey exorcists, have no dread of exorcisms, show no reverence for holy things, at the approach of which they are not in the least overawed"16

Regional variationsedit

There are a number of variations on the incubus theme around the world The alp of Teutonic or German folklore is one of the better known In Zanzibar, Popo Bawa primarily attacks men and generally behind closed doors17 "The Trauco", according to the traditional mythology of the Chiloé Province of Chile, is a hideous deformed dwarf who lulls nubile young women and seduces them The Trauco is said to be responsible for unwanted pregnancies, especially in unmarried women Perhaps another variation of this conception is the "Tintín" in Ecuador, a dwarf who is fond of abundant haired women and seduces them at night by playing the guitar outside their windows; a myth that researchers believe was created during the Colonial period of time to explain pregnancies in women who never left their houses without a chaperone, very likely covering incest or sexual abuse by one of the family's friends18 In Hungary, a lidérc can be a Satanic lover that flies at night and appears as a fiery light an ignis fatuus or will o' the wisp or, in its more benign form as a featherless chicken19

In Brazil and the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, the Amazon River Dolphin or boto is believed to be a combination of siren and incubus, that shape-shifts into a very charming and handsome man who seduces young women and takes them into the river20 It is said to be responsible for disappearances and unwanted pregnancies,21 which metamorphoses back into a dolphin during the day According to legend the boto always wears a hat to disguise the breathing hole at the top of its head22

The Southern African incubus demon is the Tokolosh Chaste women place their beds upon bricks to deter the rather short fellows from attaining their sleeping forms They also share the hole in the head detail and water dwelling habits of the Boto

In Swedish folklore, there is the mara or mare, a spirit or goblin that rides on the chests of humans while they sleep, giving them bad dreams or "nightmares"23 Belief in the mare goes back to the Norse Ynglinga saga from the 13th century,24 but the belief is probably even older The mare was likely inspired by sleep paralysis

In Assam, a north-eastern province of India it is mostly known as "pori" Assamese: পৰী, meaning "angel" According to the mythology, Pori comes to a man at night in his dreams and attracts towards her Gradually the victim's health deteriorates and in some cases a tendency to commit suicide generates in him

In Turkish culture, incubus is known as Karabasan It is an evil being that descends upon some sleepers at night These beings are thought to be spirits or jinns It can be seen or heard in the nightmare and a heavy weight is felt on the chest Yet people cannot wake up from that state Some of the causes are sleeping without adequately covering the body especially women and eating in bed

Scientific explanationsedit

Victims may have been experiencing waking dreams or sleep paralysis The phenomenon of sleep paralysis is well-established During the fourth phase of sleep the deepest stage, also known as REM sleep, motor centers in the brain are inhibited, producing paralysis The reason for this is ultimately unknown but the most common explanation is that this prevents one from acting out one's dreams Malfunctions of this process can either result in somnambulism sleepwalking or, conversely, sleep paralysis - where one remains partially or wholly paralysed for a short time after waking

Additional to sleep paralysis is hypnagogia In a near-dream state, it is common to experience auditory and visual hallucinations Mostly these are forgotten upon fully waking or soon afterwards, in the same manner as dreams However, most people remember the phenomenon of hearing music or seeing things in near-sleep states at some point in their lives Typical examples include a feeling of being crushed or suffocated, electric "tingles" or "vibrations", imagined speech and other noises, the imagined presence of a visible or invisible entity, and sometimes intense emotion: fear or euphoria and orgasmic feelings These often appear quite real and vivid; especially auditory hallucinations of music which can be quite loud, indistinguishable from music being played in the same room Humanoid and animal figures, often shadowy or blurry, are often present in hypnagogic hallucinations, more so than other hallucinogenic states This may be a relic of an ancient instinct to detect predatory animals

The combination of sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucination could easily cause someone to believe that a "demon was holding them down" Nocturnal arousal etc could be explained away by creatures causing otherwise guilt-producing behavior Add to this the common phenomena of nocturnal arousal and nocturnal emission, and all the elements required to believe in an incubus are present10

On the other hand, some victims of incubi could well have been the victims of real sexual assault Rapists may have attributed the rapes of sleeping women to demons in order to escape punishment A friend or relative is at the top of the list in such cases and would be kept secret by the intervention of "spirits"16

See alsoedit

  • Dæmonologie of King James
  • Alp
  • Batibat
  • Christian demonology
  • Classification of demons
  • Demon
  • Demonology
  • Fiery serpents
  • Gancanagh
  • Krampus
  • Lilith
  • List of fictional demons
  • List of theological demons
  • Night terror
  • Sexuality in Christian demonology
  • Trauco


  1. ^ Stephens, Walter 2002, Demon Lovers, p 23, The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-77261-6
  2. ^ "Incubus" Referencecom Retrieved September 26, 2014 
  3. ^ Raphael Patai, p 221, The Hebrew Goddess: Third Enlarged Edition, ISBN 978-0-8143-2271-0
  4. ^ Siegmund Hurwitz, Lilith: The First Eve ISBN 978-3-85630-522-2
  5. ^ Raphael Patai, p 221 & 222, The Hebrew Goddess: Third Enlarged Edition, ISBN 978-0-8143-2271-0
  6. ^ Augustine 410, The City of God 1523,'The City of God'
  7. ^ Aquinus, Thomas 1265–1274, "Summa Theologica", "Summa Theologica"
  8. ^ Warren, Brett 2016 The Annotated Dæmonologie of King James A Critical Edition In Modern English pp 79–83 ISBN 1-5329-6891-4 
  9. ^ Carus, Paul 1900, The History of The Devil and The Idea of Evil From The Earliest Times to The Present Day, "The Devil's Prime," at sacred-textscom
  10. ^ a b Lewis, James R, Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy, Sisung Kelle S Editor 1996, Angels A to Z, Entry: Incubi and Succubi, pp 218, 219, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 0-7876-0652-9
  11. ^ Russel, Jeffrey Burton 1972, Witchcraft in The Middle Ages, pp 239, 235 Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, ISBN 0-8014-0697-8
  12. ^ Russsel, Jeffrey Burton 1972, Witchcraft in The Middle Ages, p 145, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, ISBN 0-8014-0697-8
  13. ^ Stephens, Walter 2002, Demon Lovers, pp 54, 55, 332, 333, The University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-77261-6
  14. ^ Merlin's father was said to be an incubus in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae and many later tales See Lacy, Norris J 1991 "Merlin" In Norris J Lacy, The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, p 322 New York: Garland, 1991 ISBN 0-8240-4377-4
  15. ^ Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger, James 1486, Summers, Montague translator – 1928, The Malleus Maleficarum, Part 2, Chapter 1, "The Remedies prescribed by the Holy Church against Incubus and Succubus Devils," at sacred-textscom
  16. ^ a b Masello, Robert 2004, Fallen Angels and Spirits of The Dark, p 66, The Berkley Publishing Group, 200 Madison Ave New York, NY 10016, ISBN 0-399-51889-4
  17. ^ Maclean, William Reuters May 16, 2005 "Belief in sex-mad demon tests nerves" "World Wide Religious News WWRN" Retrieved December 11, 2011  External link in |publisher= help
  18. ^ "TIN TIN" A brief description of the myth at EDUFUTUROin Spanish
  19. ^ Mack, Dinah, Mack, Carol K 1999, A Field Guide to Demons, Fairies, Fallen Angels and Other Subversive Spirits, p 209, Henry Holt and Company, LLC, ISBN 0-8050-6270-X
  20. ^ "Whales and Dolphins" at ancientspiralcom
  21. ^ Boto at librarythinkquestorg
  22. ^ "The Dolphin Legend" at sumaumanet
  23. ^ Bjorvand and Lindeman 2007:719–720
  24. ^ Ynglinga saga, stanza 13, in Hødnebø and Magerøy 1979:12

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