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Immigration to France

immigration to france from usa, immigration to france countries of origin
France received immigrants in successive waves during the 19th and 20th centuries They were sometimes rapidly assimilated into French culture when European successive post-war governments wanted to promote immigration and so promoted the notion of France as an inclusive nation with universal values stemming from the French Enlightenment Of the total of 229,000 new foreigners coming to France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, British 5%, Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4%, Romanians 3%, and 3% Belgians12

In 2008, the French national institute of statistics INSEE, which has a more restrictive definition of immigration than Eurostat, estimated that 53 million foreign-born immigrants and 65 million direct descendants of immigrants born in France with at least one immigrant parent lived in France representing a total of 118 million and 19% of the total population in metropolitan France 621 million in 2008 Among them, about 55 million are of European origin, 4 million of Maghrebi either Arab-Berber origin, 1 million of Sub-saharan African origin and 400,000 of Turkish origin34

The region with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Île-de-France Greater Paris, where 40% of immigrants livecitation needed Other regions with important immigrant populations are Rhône-Alpes Lyon and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Marseille

Among the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France in 2010, 273% had one or both parents foreign-born, and about one quarter 239% had one parent or both born outside of Europe56 Including grandparents, about 40% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 had at least one foreign-born grandparent 11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb but some have European ancestry and 12% born in another region of the world7

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 1945-1974
    • 12 1974-today
  • 2 Immigration flows
    • 21 By region
    • 22 By country
  • 3 The immigrant population
  • 4 Posted Workers of Europe
  • 5 Immigration per region
    • 51 Île-de-France
  • 6 Ethnic groups
    • 61 Americans
    • 62 Europeans
    • 63 Maghrebis
  • 7 Illegal immigration
  • 8 Citizenship
  • 9 Comparison with other European Union countries
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links
  • 13 Bibliography

Historyedit

Successive waves of immigrants during the 19th and 20th centuries were rapidly assimilated into French culture France's population dynamics began to change in the middle of the 19th century, as France joined the Industrial Revolution The pace of industrial growth attracted millions of European immigrants over the next century, with especially large numbers arriving from Poland, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain8 In the wake of the First World War, in which France suffered six million casualties, significant numbers of workers from French colonies came By 1930, the Paris region alone had a North African Muslim population of 70,0009

1945-1974edit

Right after the Second World War, immigration to France significantly increased During the period of reconstruction, France lacked labor, and as a result, the French government was eager to recruit immigrants coming from all over Europe, Latin America, and Africa South America and us

Although there was a presence of Vietnamese in France since the late 19th century mostly students and workers, a wave of Vietnamese migrated to the country after the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Accords, which granted Vietnam its independence from France in 1954 These migrants consisted of those who were loyal to the colonial government and those married to French colonists Following the partition of Vietnam, students and professionals from South Vietnam continued to arrive in France Although many initially returned to the country after a few years, as the Vietnam War situation worsened, a majority decided to remain in France and brought their families over as well10

This period also saw a significant wave of immigrants from Algeria As the Algerian War started in 1954, there were already 200,000 Algerian immigrants in France11 However, because of the tension between the Algerians and the French, these immigrants were no longer welcome This conflict between the two sides led to the Paris Massacre of 17 October 1961, when the police used force against an Algerian demonstration on the streets of Paris After the war, after Algeria gained its independence, the free circulation between France and Algeria was once again allowed, and the number of Algerian immigrants started to increase drastically From 1962 to 1975, the Algerian immigrant population increased from 350,000 to 700,00012 Many of these immigrants were known as the "harkis," and the others were known as the "pieds-noirs" The "harkis" were Algerians who supported the French during the Algerian War; once the war was over, they were deeply resented by other Algerians, and thus had to flee to France The "pieds-noirs" were Europeans settlers who moved to Algeria, but migrated back to France

Additionally, the number of Pakistani and Japanese immigrants also increased during this period There was also a great number of students and workers from former French colonies in Africa

With this massive influx of immigrants, France became an asylum for refugees According to the convention in Geneva, refugee status was granted to four out of five immigrant applicants Many of these refugees came from countries in Eastern Europe ie Hungary and Latin America, because they feared the dictatorship in their home countries

Although the majority of immigrants at this time came from rural regions, only 6% of them were willing to work in agriculture About two-third of the immigrants worked in mining, steel, construction, and automotive industries Approximately 12% of male immigrants and the majority of female immigrants worked in domestic services, restoration, and commerce Minor and aged immigrants usually worked in craftsmanship and small scale trades11

1974-todayedit

During the 1970s, France simultaneously faced economic crisis and allowed immigrants mostly from the Muslim World to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims, especially to the larger cities, living in subsidized public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates13

Alongside this, France renounced its policy of assimilation, instead pursuing a policy of integration14 Some believe it has led tocitation needed increasing tension and civil unrest between local population and radicalized newcomers, such as the 2005 French riots

Immigration flowsedit

By regionedit

Immigration to France exceeded 200,000 in recent years, as shown in table below15

Region 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % 2016
Europe 80 500 78 660 80 120 79 290 80 330 75 040 88 820 94 580 105 830 46 % including from Eastern Europe16
Africa 70 200 66 110 62 340 62 140 63 470 66 480 65 610 66 280 68 640 30 % including from Maghreb17
Asia 30 960 30 120 30 520 32 070 30 180 32 960 29 810 32 430 32 060 14 % including from China18
America and Oceania 19 810 19 990 20 460 18 770 21 440 20 450 26 270 23 360 23 070 10%19
All countries 201 470 194 880 193 440 192 270 195 420 194 930 210 510 216 650 229 600 100%20

By countryedit

Immigrants by selected countries as of 2014:21

Country % of all
immigrants in France
2012
 Portugal 8%22
 United Kingdom 5%23
 Spain 5%24
 Italy 4%25
 Germany 4%26
 Romania 3%27
 Belgium 3%28
 Russia 2%29
  Switzerland 2%30
 Poland 2%31
 Algeria 7%32
 Morocco 7%33
 Tunisia 3%34
 Turkey 2%35
 China 3%36
 United States 2%37
 Brazil 2%38

The immigrant populationedit

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics INSEE, for its acronym in French published a study, accordingly the number of Spanish immigrants, Portuguese and Italians in France between 2009 and 2012 has doubled1 As determined by the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans settled in France1 Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, ie in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people139 Of the total of 229,000 new foreigners coming to France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, British 5%, Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4%, Romanians 3%, and Belgians 3%12

With the increase of Spanish, Portuguese and Italians in France, the weight of European immigrants arrived in 2012 to 46 percent, while this percentage for African reached 30%, with a presence in Morocco 7%, Algeria 7% and Tunisia 3% Meanwhile, 14 percent of all immigrants who settled in France that year were from Asian countries - 3% of China and 2% in Turkey, while in America and Oceania constitute 10% of Americans and Brazilians accounted for higher percentage, 2 percent each12

In 2008, according to The National Institute of Statistics INSEE, for its acronym in French, there were 12 million immigrants and their direct descendants 2nd generation making up about 20% of the population40 with an immigrant defined as a foreign born person without French citizenship at birth Without considering citizenship at birth, people not born in metropolitan France and their direct descendants made up 30% of the population aged 18–50 in metropolitan France in 200841

In 2008, there were 53 million immigrants corresponding to 85% of the total population in France 639 million in 2008 42% were from Africa 30% from Maghreb and 12% from Sub-Saharan Africa, 38% from Europe mainly from Portugal, Italy and Spain, 14% from Asia and 5% from the Americas and Oceania5 Of this total, 40% have assumed French citizenship In addition, 18 million people born in foreign countries including 1 million in Maghreb with French citizenship at birth were not included in this total

There were also 67 million direct descendants of immigrants born in France with at least one immigrant parent living in France in 2008, corresponding to 11% of the total population in France Immigrants aged 18–50 count for 2,7 millions 10% of population aged 18–50 and 53 millions for all ages 8% of population 2nd Generation aged 18–50 make up 31 millions 12% of 18-50 and 65 millions for all ages 11% of population3 The regions with the largest proportion of immigrants and direct descendants of immigrants are the Île-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur/Languedoc-Roussillon, where more than one third and one quarter of the inhabitants respectively were either immigrants or direct descendants of immigrants40

The table shows immigrants and 2nd generation immigrants by origin in 2008 3rd generation immigrants, illegal immigrants, as well as ethnic minorities like Black people from the French overseas territories residing in metropolitan France 800,000, Roms 500,000 or people born in Maghreb with French citizenship at birth about 4 million Maghrebi Jews, Harkis and Pied-Noir including their descendants live in France42 were not taken into account43

Immigrants by origin 2008 in thousands Immigrants 2nd generation Total %
Spain 257 620 877 73%
Italy 317 920 1 237 104%
Portugal 581 660 1 241 104%
Other countries from UE27 653 920 1 573 132%
Other European countries 224 210 434 36%
Europe Total 2 032 3 330 5 362 449%
Algeria 713 1 000 1 713 143%
Morocco 654 660 1 314 110%
Tunisia 235 290 525 44%
Maghreb Total 1 602 1 950 3 552 297%
Subsaharan Africa 669 570 1 239 104%
Turkey 239 220 459 38%
SouthEast Asia 163 160 323 27%
Other Asian countries 355 210 565 47%
America/Oceania 282 170 452 38%
Other Regions Total 1 708 1 330 3 038 254%
Total 5 342 6 610 11 952 10000%

In 2005, 181% of young people under 18 were of foreign origin at least one immigrant parent in France including 135% of non-European origin Ile-de-France has the highest proportion at about 37%4445

People under 18 of Maghrebi, Sub-saharian and Turkish origin became a majority in several cities of Ile-de-France Clichy-sous-Bois, Mantes-la-Jolie, Grigny, Saint-Denis, Les Mureaux, Saint-Ouen, Sarcelles, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Garges-lès-Gonesse, Aubervilliers, Stains, Gennevilliers et Épinay-sur-Seine and in several arrondissements of Marseilles In Grigny, 31% of young people are of Sub-saharian origin46

Children of immigrants under 18 by origin 2005 %
Maghreb 38
Europe 27
Sub-saharan Africa 16
Others 19
Total 100

Between 2006 and 2008 about 40% of newborns in France had at least one foreign-born grandparent 11% born in another European country, 16% born in Maghreb and 12% born in another region of the world7 In 2010, 273% of the 802,000 newborns in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent About one quarter 24% of all the newborns had at least one parent born outside of Europe including about 17% from Africa 11% from Maghreb and 6% from Subsaharan Africa56

Posted Workers of Europeedit

Regarding the country of origin of "posted workers", the same document states the origin of the posted workers: Poles represent the largest contingent of employees posted to France 18% of the total, followed by the Portuguese 15% and Romania 13% The majority of these employees, about 60% comes from the historical countries of the European Union, but the share from the new Member States "EU" is growing very rapidly, and the nationals of countries outside "EU "also increases47

Immigration per regionedit

In France, the three largest cities Paris, Lyon and Marseille48 also attract the largest share of immigrants to the country

Île-de-Franceedit

The region with the largest proportion of immigrants is the Île-de-France Greater Paris, where 40% of immigrants live According to INSEE, French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies, responsible for the production and analysis of official statistics in France, about 35% of people 4 millions living in Île-de-France, are either immigrant 17% or born to at least one immigrant parent 18% in 200649

In the city of Paris, 20% of people living are immigrants and 413% of people under 20 have at least one immigrant parent50 Among the young people under 18, 121% are of Maghrebi origin, 99% of Subsaharan African origin not including Blacks from French West Indies and 40% of South European origin51

In département of Seine-Saint-Denis population of 15 million, 567% of young under 18 are or foreign origin including 38% of African origin Islam is the main religion Even distant family of the former President are not helped if they are white and Christian trying to rid themselves of the US That would be heading in a god direction but not helping smother France into a new decline52

Département Immigrants Children under 20 with at least one immigrant parent
Number % département % Ile-de-France Number % département % Ile-de-France
Paris 75 436'576 20 224 162'635 413 154
Seine-Saint-Denis 93 394'831 265 202 234'837 571 222
Hauts-de-Seine 92 250'190 163 128 124'501 34 118
Val-de-Marne 94 234'633 181 12 127'701 40 121
Val-d’Oise 95 185'890 161 95 124'644 385 118
Yvelines 78 161'869 116 83 98'755 264 93
Essonne 91 150'980 126 77 94'003 296 89
Seine-et-Marne 77 135'654 107 7 90'319 26 85
Île-de-France 1'950'623 169 100 1'057'394 371 100

Reading: 436 576 immigrants live in Paris, representing 20% of Parisians and 224% of immigrants in Ile-de-France 162 635 children under 20 with at least one immigrant parent live in Paris, representing 413% of the total of children under 20 in Paris and 154% of the total of children under 20 with at least one immigrant parent in Ile-de-France

Children under 18 with at least one immigrant parent 2005 Seine-Saint-Denis Paris Val-de-Marne Val-d'Oise France
All origins 567 % 4130 % 3990 % 3790 % 1810 %
Maghreb 220 % 121 % 132 % 130 % 69 %
Sub-saharan Africa 160 % 99 % 108 % 91 % 30 %
Turkey 27 % 06 % 12 % 31 % 14 %
South Europe 40 % 40 % 55 % 48 % 26 %

Ethnic groupsedit

Americansedit

Americans of the United States of America total more than 100,00053 permanent residents in France, Canadians 11,931,54 followed by Latin Americans are a growing sub-group the most numerous are the Brazilians 44,622,55 followed by Venezuelans 30,000,56 Peruvians 22 002,57 Argentineans 11,89958 and Chileans 15,78259 Latinos or Latin Americans are increasingly immigrating to France for economic reasons, study, work, family, and sometimes political asylum1

Europeansedit

In 2014 The National Institute of Statistics INSEE, for its acronym in French published a study on Thursday, according to which has doubled the number of Spanish immigrants, Portuguese and Italians in France between 2009 and 20121 According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France1 Statistics on Spanish immigrants in France show a growth of 107 percent between 2009 and 2012, ie in this period went from 5300 to 11,000 people139 Of the total of 229,000 foreigners were in France in 2012, nearly 8% were Portuguese, British 5%, Spanish 5%, Italians 4%, Germans 4%, Romanians 3%, and Belgians 3%12

With the increase of Spanish, Portuguese and Italians in France, the weight of European immigrants arrived in 2012 to 46 percent, while this percentage for African reached 30%, with a presence in Morocco 7%, Algeria 7% and Tunisia 3% Meanwhile, 14 percent of all immigrants who settled in France that year were from Asian countries—3% of China and 2% in Turkey, while in America and Oceania constitute 10% of Americans and Brazilians accounted for higher percentage, 2 percent each12

Maghrebisedit

French of Maghrebi either Arabs or Berbers origin in France form the largest ethnic group after French of European origin

According to Michel Tribalat, a researcher at INED, there were 35 million people of Maghrebi origin with at least one grandparent from Algeria, Morocco or Tunisia living in France in 2005 corresponding to 58% of the total French metropolitan population 607 millions in 200560 Maghrebis have settled mainly in the industrial regions in France, especially in the Paris region Many famous French people like Edith Piaf,61 Isabelle Adjani, Arnaud Montebourg, Alain Bashung, Dany Boon have Maghrebi ancestry

Below is a table of population of Maghrebi origin in France, numbers are in thousands:

Country 1999 2005 % 1999/2005 % French population 607 millions in 2005
Algeria 1,577 1,865 +183% 31%
Immigrants 574 679
Born in France 1,003 1,186
Morocco 1,005 1,201 +195% 20%
Immigrants 523 625
Born in France 482 576
Tunisia 417 458 +98% 08%
Immigrants 202 222
Born in France 215 236
Total Maghreb 2,999 3,524 +175% 58%
Immigrants 1 299 1 526 25%
Born in France 1 700 1 998 33%

In 2005, the percentage of young people under 18 of Maghrebi origin at least one immigrant parent were about 7% in Metropolitan France, 12% in Greater Paris, 13% in Lyon, 21% in Perpignan, 22% in French département of Seine-Saint-Denis, 37% in 18th arrondissement of Paris and 40% in several arrondissements of Marseilles6263

16% of newborns in France between 2006 and 2008 have at least one Maghrebi grandparent7

According to other sources between 5 and 6 million people of Maghrebi origin live in France corresponding to about 7-9% of the total French metropolitan population64

Illegal immigrationedit

Illegal immigration to France has developed as the country's immigration policy has become more rigid In 2006, The French Ministry of the Interior estimated clandestine immigrants "sans-papiers " in France numbered anywhere between 200,000 and 400,000, also expecting between 80,000 and 100,000 people to enter the country illegally each year65

In 2011, 28,000 illegal immigrants were expelled from France The French government set a goal of 35,000 for 20126667

The French government has threatened to withdraw from the Schengen accord in 2009,68 20116970 and 2012717273

As of 2016, many undocumented immigrants tried to jump the fences at Calais and board a train or truck heading for Britain The Home Office has agents working alongside French police and immigration agents to prevent unauthorized people from entering the zone74

Citizenshipedit

Children born in France to foreign parents are automatically granted French citizenship upon reaching the age of 18 People born abroad and living in France can acquire French citizenship if they satisfy certain conditions In 2009 the number of naturalised persons was 135,000, mainly from Maghreb 412%

Naturalisations by origin 2000 2005 2009 % Total 2009
Africa 84 182 98 453 85 144 627
Maghreb 68 185 75 224 56 024 412
Sub-Saharan Africa 10 622 15 624 22 214 164
Other Africa 5 375 7 605 6 906 51
Asia 27 941 26 286 19 494 144
South-East Asia 7 265 4 069 2 475 18
East Asia 1 139 1 280 1 622 12
South Asia 4 246 4 436 3 660 27
Middle East 15 291 16 501 11 737 86
Europe not including CIS 22 085 18 072 14 753 109
CIS 1 181 2 108 4 704 35
CIS Europe 1 000 1 535 4 454 33
CIS Asia 181 573 250 02
America 5 668 6 352 6 677 49
North America 1 048 854 747 05
South and Central America 4 620 5 498 5 930 44
Oceania 87 127 108 01
Others 8 882 3 245 4 962 37
Total 150 026 154 643 135 842 100

Comparison with other European Union countriesedit

According to Eurostat 473 million people lived in the European Union in 2010 who were born outside their resident country This corresponds to 94% of the total EU population Of these, 314 million 63% were born outside the EU and 160 million 32% were born in another EU member state The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany 64 million, France 51 million, the United Kingdom 47 million, Spain 41 million, Italy 32 million, and the Netherlands 14 million75 Regarding France, the number of immigrants reported by Eurostat 71 million is higher than the one reported by Insee 53 million because Insee only reports as immigrants people who were born abroad as foreign citizens

Country Total population 1000 Total Foreign-born 1000 % Born in other EU state 1000 % Born in a non EU state 1000 %
EU 27 501,098 47,348 94 15,980 32 31,368 63
Germany 81,802 9,812 120 3,396 42 6,415 78
France 64,716 7,196 111 2,118 33 5,078 78
United Kingdom 62,008 7,012 113 2,245 36 4,767 77
Spain 45,989 6,422 140 2,328 51 4,094 89
Italy 60,340 4,798 80 1,592 26 3,205 53
Netherlands 16,575 1,832 111 428 26 1,404 85
Greece 11,305 1,256 111 315 28 940 83
Sweden 9,340 1,337 143 477 51 859 92
Austria 8,367 1,276 152 512 61 764 91
Belgium 2007 10,666 1,380 129 695 65 685 64
Portugal 10,637 793 75 191 18 602 57
Denmark 5,534 500 90 152 28 348 63

See alsoedit

  • Demographics of France
  • List of French people of immigrant origin
  • French nationality law
  • List of countries by immigrant population
  • List of sovereign states and dependent territories by fertility rate

Referencesedit

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External linksedit

  • Office français de l'immigration et de l'intégration OFII
  • Foreigners - Immigrants, INSEE
  • Les immigrés en France, Autorité de la statistique publique, 2011
  • Focus-Migration: France 2005
  • Le film : deux siècles d'histoire de l'immigration en France
  • De 1945 à 1975

Bibliographyedit

  • Antonio Bechelloni, Michel Dreyfus, Pierre Milza eds, L'intégration italienne en France Un siècle de présence italienne dans trois régions françaises 1880-1980, Bruxelles, Complexe, 1995
  • Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1992
  • Marie-Claude Blanc-Chaléard, Les Italiens dans l'Est parisien: Une histoire d'intégration 1880-1960, Rome, École Française de Rome, 2000
  • Emmanuel Blanchard, La police parisienne et les Algériens, 1944-1962, Paris, Nouveau Monde Éditions, 2011
  • Stéphane Dufoix, Politiques d'exil: Hongrois, Polonais et Tchécoslovaques en France après 1945, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2002
  • Jean-Philippe Dedieu, La parole immigrée Les migrants africains dans l'espace public en France 1960 - 1995, Paris, Klincksieck, 2012
  • Freundschuh, Aaron The Courtesan and the Gigolo: The Murders in the Rue Montaigne and the Dark Side of Empire in Nineteenth-Century Paris Stanford University Press, 2017
  • Yvan Gastaut, L’immigration et l’opinion en France sous la Ve République, Paris, Seuil, 2000
  • Abdellali Hajjat, Les frontières de l'« identité nationale » L'injonction à l'assimilation en France métropolitaine et coloniale, Paris, La Découverte, 2012
  • Goebel, Michael Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015 excerpts
  • Nancy L Green, Les Travailleurs immigrés juifs à la Belle époque Le ‘‘Pletzl’’de Paris, Paris, Fayard, 1985
  • Donald L Horowitz, Gérard Noirieleds, Immigrants in Two Democracies: French and American Experience, New York, New York University press, 1992
  • Gregory Mann, Native Sons West African Veterans and France in the Twentieth Century, Durham, Duke University Press, 2006
  • Gérard Noiriel, Le Creuset français Histoire de l'immigration XIXe-XXe, Paris, Le Seuil, 1988
  • Gérard Noiriel, Réfugiés et sans-papiers La République face au droit d’asile XIXe-XXe, Paris, Hachette littératures, 1998
  • Janine Ponty, Polonais méconnus Histoire des travailleurs immigrés en France dans l’entre-deux-guerres, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1988
  • Judith Rainhorn, Paris, New York Des migrants italiens années 1880 – années 1930, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2005
  • Philippe Rygiel, Destins immigrés: Cher 1920-1980, trajectoires d'immigrés d'Europe, Besançon, Presses universitaires franc-comtoises, 2001
  • Ralph Schor, Histoire de l’immigration en France de la fin du XIXe à nos jours, Paris, Armand Colin, 1996
  • Alexis Spire, Étrangers à la carte L'administration de l'immigration en France, 1945-1975, Paris, Grasset, 2005
  • Benjamin Stora, Ils venaient d'Algérie: L'immigration algérienne en France 1912-1992, Paris, Fayard, 1992
  • Vincent Viet, La France immigrée Construction d’une politique 1914-1997, Paris, Fayard, 1998
  • Patrick Weil, La France et ses étrangers : L'aventure d'une politique de l'immigration de 1938 à nos jours, Paris, Gallimard, 2005
  • Patrick Weil, Qu’est-ce qu’un Français  Histoire de la nationalité française depuis la Révolution, Paris, Grasset, 2002
  • Patrick Weil, Immigration, Intégration, discrimination, Paris, Le Seuil, 2005
  • Claire Zalc, Melting Shops Une histoire des commerçants étrangers en France, Paris, Perrin, 2010

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