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Hypnagogia

hypnagogia, hypnagogia symptoms
Hypnagogia is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep: the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep Mental phenomena that occur during this "threshold consciousness" phase include lucid thought, lucid dreaming, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis

Contents

  • 1 Definitions
  • 2 History
  • 3 Symptoms
    • 31 Sights
    • 32 Tetris effect
    • 33 Sounds
    • 34 Sleep paralysis
    • 35 Other sensations
    • 36 Cognitive and affective phenomena
  • 4 Physiology
  • 5 Daydreaming and waking reveries
  • 6 Investigative methodology
  • 7 Society and culture
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 References
    • 101 Bibliography
  • 11 External links

Definitionsedit

Sometimes the word hypnagogia is used in a restricted sense to refer to the onset of sleep, and contrasted with hypnopompia, Frederic Myers's term for waking up1 However, hypnagogia is also regularly employed in a more general sense that covers both falling asleep and waking up, and Havelock Ellis questioned the need for separate terms2 Indeed, it is not always possible in practice to assign a particular episode of any given phenomenon to one or the other, given that the same kinds of experience occur in both, and that people may drift in and out of sleep In this article hypnagogia will be used in the broader sense, unless otherwise stated or implied

Other terms for hypnagogia, in one or both senses, that have been proposed include "presomnal" or "anthypnic sensations", "visions of half-sleep", "oneirogogic images" and "phantasmata",2 "the borderland of sleep", "praedormitium",3 "borderland state", "half-dream state", "pre-dream condition",4 "sleep onset dreams",5 "dreamlets",6 and "wakefulness-sleep transition" WST7

Threshold consciousness commonly called "half-asleep" or "half-awake", or "mind awake body asleep" describes the same mental state of someone who is moving towards sleep or wakefulness, but has not yet completed the transition Such transitions are usually brief, but can be extended by sleep disturbance or deliberate induction, for example during meditationcitation needed

Historyedit

Early references to hypnagogia are to be found in the writings of Aristotle, Iamblichus, Cardano, Simon Forman and Swedenborg8 Romanticism brought a renewed interest in the subjective experience of the edges of sleep9 In more recent centuries, many authors have referred to the state; Edgar Allan Poe, for example, wrote of the "fancies" he experienced "only when I am on the brink of sleep, with the consciousness that I am so"3

Serious scientific inquiry began in the 19th century with Johannes Peter Müller, Jules Baillarger and Alfred Maury, and continued into the 20th century with Leroy10

Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, contains an elaborate description of the hypnagogic state in Chapter XXXIV11

The advent of electroencephalography EEG has supplemented the introspective methods of these early researchers with physiological data The search for neural correlates for hypnagogic imagery began with Davis et al in the 1930s,12 and continues with increasing sophistication While the dominance of the behaviorist paradigm led to a decline in research, especially in the English speaking world, the later twentieth century has seen a revival, with investigations of hypnagogia and related altered states of consciousness playing an important role in the emerging multidisciplinary study of consciousness1314 Nevertheless, much remains to be understood about the experience and its corresponding neurology, and the topic has been somewhat neglected in comparison with sleep and dreams; hypnagogia has been described as a "well-trodden and yet unmapped territory"15

The word hypnagogia entered the popular psychology literature through Dr Andreas Mavromatis in his 1983 thesis,16 while hypnagogic and hypnopompic were coined by others in the 1800s and noted by Havelock Ellis The term hypnagogic was originally coined by Alfred Maury1718 to name the state of consciousness during the onset of sleep Hypnopompic was coined by Frederic Myers soon afterwards to denote the onset of wakefulness The term hypnagogia is used by Dr Mavromatis to identify the study of the sleep-transitional consciousness states in general, and he employs hypnogogic toward sleep or hypnapompic from sleep for the purpose of identifying the specific experiences under study19

Important reviews of the scientific literature have been made by Leaning,20 Schacter,6 Richardson and Mavromatis2

Symptomsedit

Transition to and from sleep may be attended by a wide variety of sensory experiences These can occur in any modality, individually or combined, and range from the vague and barely perceptible to vivid hallucinations21

Sightsedit

Among the more commonly reported,2223 and more thoroughly researched, sensory features of hypnagogia are phosphenes which can manifest as seemingly random speckles, lines or geometrical patterns, including form constants, or as figurative representational images They may be monochromatic or richly colored, still or moving, flat or three-dimensional offering an impression of perspective Imagery representing movement through tunnels of light is also reported Individual images are typically fleeting and given to very rapid changes They are said to differ from dreams proper in that hypnagogic imagery is usually static and lacking in narrative content,13 although others understand the state rather as a gradual transition from hypnagogia to fragmentary dreams,24 ie, from simple Eigenlicht to whole imagined scenes Descriptions of exceptionally vivid and elaborate hypnagogic visuals can be found in the work of Marie-Jean-Léon, Marquis d'Hervey de Saint Denys

Tetris effectedit

People who have spent a long time at some repetitive activity before sleep, in particular one that is new to them, may find that it dominates their imagery as they grow drowsy, a tendency dubbed the Tetris effect This effect has even been observed in amnesiacs who otherwise have no memory of the original activity25 When the activity involves moving objects, as in the video game Tetris, the corresponding hypnagogic images tend to be perceived as moving The Tetris effect is not confined to visual imagery, but can manifest in other modalities For example, Robert Stickgold recounts having experienced the touch of rocks while falling asleep after mountain climbing5 This can also occur to people who have travelled on a small boat in rough seas, or have been swimming through waves, shortly before going to bed, and they feel the waves as they drift to sleep, or people who have spent the day skiing who continue to "feel snow" under their feet, also people who have spent considerable time jumping on a trampoline will find that they can feel the up-and-down motion before they go to sleep Many chess players reportcitation needed the phenomenon of seeing the chess board and pieces during this state New employees working stressful and demanding jobs often report doingclarification needed work-related tasks in this period before sleep

Soundsedit

Hypnagogic hallucinations are often auditory or have an auditory component Like the visuals, hypnagogic sounds vary in intensity from faint impressions to loud noises, like knocking and crash and bangs exploding head syndrome People may imagine their own name called, crumpling bags, white noise, or a doorbell ringing Snatches of imagined speech are common While typically nonsensical and fragmented, these speech events can occasionally strike the individual as apt comments on—or summations of—their thoughts at the time They often contain word play, neologisms and made-up names Hypnagogic speech may manifest as the subject's own "inner voice", or as the voices of others: familiar people or strangers More rarely, poetry or music is heard26

Sleep paralysisedit

Humming, roaring, hissing, rushing, zapping, and buzzing noises are frequent in conjunction with sleep paralysis This happens when the REM atonia sets in sooner than usual, before the person is fully asleep, or persists longer than usual, after the person has in other respects fully awoken14 Sleep paralysis is reportedly very frequent among narcoleptics It occurs frequently in about 6% of the rest of the population, and occurs occasionally in 60%27 In surveys from Canada, China, England, Japan and Nigeria, 20% to 60% of individuals reported having experienced sleep paralysis at least once in their lifetime2829 The paralysis itself is frequently accompanied by additional phenomena Typical examples include a feeling of being crushed or suffocated, electric "tingles" or "vibrations", imagined speech and other noises, the imagined presence of a visible or invisible entity, and sometimes intense emotion: fear or euphoria and orgasmic feelings2830 Sleep paralysis has been proposed as an explanation for at least some alien abduction experiences, the Night Hag and shadow people hauntings31

Other sensationsedit

Gustatory, olfactory and thermal sensations in hypnagogia have all been reported, as well as tactile sensations including those kinds classed as paresthesia or formication Sometimes there is synesthesia; many people report seeing a flash of light or some other visual image in response to a real sound Proprioceptive effects may be noticed, with numbness and changes in perceived body size and proportions,26 feelings of floating or bobbing, and out-of-body experiences32 Perhaps the most common experience of this kind is the falling sensation, and associated hypnic jerk, encountered by many people, at least occasionally, while drifting off to sleep33

Cognitive and affective phenomenaedit

Thought processes on the edge of sleep tend to differ radically from those of ordinary wakefulness Hypnagogia may involve a "loosening of ego boundaries  openness, sensitivity, internalization-subjectification of the physical and mental environment empathy and diffuse-absorbed attention"34 Hypnagogic cognition, in comparison with that of normal, alert wakefulness, is characterized by heightened suggestibility,35 illogic and a fluid association of ideas Subjects are more receptive in the hypnagogic state to suggestion from an experimenter than at other times, and readily incorporate external stimuli into hypnagogic trains of thought and subsequent dreams This receptivity has a physiological parallel; EEG readings show elevated responsiveness to sound around the onset of sleep36

Herbert Silberer described a process he called autosymbolism, whereby hypnagogic hallucinations seem to represent, without repression or censorship, whatever one is thinking at the time, turning abstract ideas into a concrete image, which may be perceived as an apt and succinct representation thereof37

The hypnagogic state can provide insight into a problem, the best-known example being August Kekulé’s realization that the structure of benzene was a closed ring while half-asleep in front of a fire and seeing molecules forming into snakes, one of which grabbed its tail in its mouth38 Many other artists, writers, scientists and inventors — including Beethoven, Richard Wagner, Walter Scott, Salvador Dalí, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla and Isaac Newton — have credited hypnagogia and related states with enhancing their creativity39 A 2001 study by Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett found that, while problems can also be solved in full-blown dreams from later stages of sleep, hypnagogia was especially likely to solve problems which benefit from hallucinatory images being critically examined while still before the eyes40

A feature that hypnagogia shares with other stages of sleep is amnesia But this is a selective forgetfulness, affecting the hippocampal memory system, which is responsible for episodic or autobiographical memory, rather than the neocortical memory system, responsible for semantic memory5 It has been suggested that hypnagogia and REM sleep help in the consolidation of semantic memory,41 but the evidence for this has been disputed42 For example, suppression of REM sleep due to antidepressants and lesions to the brainstem has not been found to produce detrimental effects on cognition43

Hypnagogic phenomena may be interpreted as visions, prophecies, premonitions, apparitions and inspiration artistic or divine, depending on the experiencers' beliefs and those of their culture

Physiologyedit

Physiological studies have tended to concentrate on hypnagogia in the strict sense of spontaneous sleep onset experiences Such experiences are associated especially with stage 1 of NREM sleep,44 but may also occur with pre-sleep alpha waves4546 Davis et al found short flashes of dreamlike imagery at the onset of sleep to correlate with drop-offs in alpha EEG activity12 Hori et al regard sleep onset hypnagogia as a state distinct from both wakefulness and sleep with unique electrophysiological, behavioral and subjective characteristics,2213 while Germaine et al have demonstrated a resemblance between the EEG power spectra of spontaneously occurring hypnagogic images, on the one hand, and those of both REM sleep and relaxed wakefulness, on the other47

To identify more precisely the nature of the EEG state which accompanies imagery in the transition from wakefulness to sleep, Hori et al proposed a scheme of 9 EEG stages defined by varying proportions of alpha stages 1–3, suppressed waves of less than 20μV stage 4, theta ripples stage 5, proportions of sawtooth waves stages 6–7, and presence of spindles stages 8–922 Germaine and Nielsen found spontaneous hypnagogic imagery to occur mainly during Hori sleep onset stages 4 EEG flattening and 5 theta ripples23

The "covert-rapid-eye-movement" hypothesis proposes that hidden elements of REM sleep emerge during the wakefulness-sleep transition stage48 Support for this comes from Bódicz et al, who note a greater similarity between WST wakefulness-sleep transition EEG and REM sleep EEG than between the former and stage 2 sleep7

Respiratory pattern changes have also been noted in the hypnagogic state, in addition to a lowered rate of frontalis muscle activity6

Daydreaming and waking reveriesedit

Microsleep short episodes of immediate sleep onset may intrude into wakefulness at any time in the wakefulness-sleep cycle, due to sleep deprivation and other conditions,49 resulting in impaired cognition and even amnesia13

Gurstelle and Oliveira distinguish a state which they call daytime parahypnagogia DPH, the spontaneous intrusion of a flash image or dreamlike thought or insight into one's waking consciousness DPH is typically encountered when one is "tired, bored, suffering from attention fatigue, and/or engaged in a passive activity" The exact nature of the waking dream may be forgotten even though the individual remembers having had such an experience50 Gustelle and Oliveira define DPH as "dissociative, trance-like, but, unlike a daydream, not self-directed"—however, daydreams and waking reveries are often characterised as "passive", "effortless",51 and "spontaneous",13 while hypnagogia itself can sometimes be influenced by a form of autosuggestion, or "passive concentration",52 so these sorts of episodes may in fact constitute a continuum between directed fantasy and the more spontaneous varieties of hypnagogia Others have emphasized the connections between fantasy, daydreaming, dreams, and hypnosis53

In his book, Zen and the Brain, James H Austin cites speculation that regular meditation develops a specialized skill of "freezing the hypnagogic process at later and later stages" of the onset of sleep, initially in the alpha wave stage and later in theta54

Investigative methodologyedit

Self-observation spontaneous or systematic was the primary tool of the early researchers Since the late 20th century, this has been joined by questionnaire surveys and experimental studies All three methods have their disadvantages as well as points to recommend them55

Naturally, amnesia contributes to the difficulty of studying hypnagogia, as does the typically fleeting nature of hypnagogic experiences These problems have been tackled by experimenters in a number of ways, including voluntary or induced interruptions,23 sleep manipulation,56 the use of techniques to "hover on the edge of sleep" thereby extending the duration of the hypnagogic state,56 and training in the art of introspection to heighten the subject's powers of observation and attention56

Techniques for extending hypnagogia range from informal ones eg, the subject holds up one of their arms as they go to sleep, so as to be awakened when it falls,56 to the use of biofeedback devices to induce a "theta" state, characterized by relaxation and theta EEG activity57 The theta state is produced naturally the most when we are dreaming

Another method is to induce a state said to be subjectively similar to sleep onset in a Ganzfeld setting, a form of sensory deprivation But the assumption of identity between the two states may be unfounded The average EEG spectrum in Ganzfeld is more similar to that of the relaxed waking state than to that of sleep onset58 Wackerman et al conclude that "the Ganzfeld imagery, although subjectively very similar to that at sleep onset, should not be labeled as 'hypnagogic' Perhaps a broader category of 'hypnagoid experience' should be considered, covering true hypnagogic imagery as well as subjectively similar imagery produced in other states"58

Society and cultureedit

further explanation needed

  • Dracula
  • Ghostbusters
  • Marianne
  • Paranormal Activity
  • Delicacies of Molten Horror Synapse, by the avant-garde filmmaker Stan Brakhage Brakhage states that he shaped this film to look like "what hypnagogic vision might see while watching television"
  • Dream 2012 film, a Telugu movie

See alsoedit

  • Sleep onset
  • False awakening
  • Hag in folklore
  • Hypnic jerk
  • Lucid dream
  • Meditation
  • Nightmare
  • Night terror
  • Segmented sleep
  • Sleep disorder
  • Sleep paralysis
  • Yoga nidra
  • Dream yoga
  • Consciousness
  • Form constant

Further readingedit

  • Warren, Jeff 2007 "The Hypnagogic" The Head Trip: Adventures on the Wheel of Consciousness ISBN 978-0-679-31408-0 

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Myers, Frederic 1903 Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death London: Longmans 
  2. ^ a b c Mavromatis 1987, p 1
  3. ^ a b Mavromatis 1987, p 4
  4. ^ Lachman, Gary 2002 'Hypnagogia' Fortean Times
  5. ^ a b c Stickgold, R, interviewed 30 October 2000 by Norman Swan for The Health Report on Australia's Radio National transcript, retrieved 3 July 2008
  6. ^ a b c Schacter DL 1976 "The hypnagogic state: A critical review of the literature" Psychological Bulletin 83: 452–481 doi:101037/0033-2909833452 
  7. ^ a b "Róbert Bódizs, Melinda Sverteczki and Eszter Mészáros, Wakefulness-sleep transition: Emerging electroencephalographic similarities with the rapid eye movement phase" Brain Research Bulletin 76: 85–89 doi:101016/jbrainresbull200711013 Retrieved 2008-03-31 
  8. ^ Mavromatis 1987, pp 3–4
  9. ^ Pfotenhauer, Helmut & Schneider, Sabine 2006 Nicht völlig wachen und nicht ganz ein Traum: Die Halfschlafbilder in der Literatur Verlag Königshausen & Neumann ISBN 3-8260-3274-8
  10. ^ Leroy, EB 1933 Les visions du demi-sommeil Paris: Alcan
  11. ^ Oliver Twist, Barnes & Noble Classics, 2003 p296
  12. ^ a b Davis H, Davis PA, Loomis AL, Harvey EN, Hobart G 1937 "'Changes in human brain potentials during the onset of sleep'" Science 86: 448–50 doi:101126/science862237448 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  13. ^ a b c d e Vaitl; et al 2005 Psychological Bulletin 131 1  Missing or empty |title= helpCS1 maint: Explicit use of et al link
  14. ^ a b Blackmore 2003
  15. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p xiii
  16. ^ Brunel University which was later published by Routledge hardback 1987, paperback 1991 under the title "Hypnagogia" the Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep and reprinted in a new paperback edition in 2010 by Thyrsos Press
  17. ^ Maury, Louis Ferdinand Alfred 1848'Des hallucinations hypnagogiques, ou des erreurs des sens dans l'etat intermediaire entre la veille et le sommeil' Annales Medico-Psychologiques du système nerveux, 11, 26-40
  18. ^ Maury, Louis Ferdinand Alfred 1865 Le sommeil et les rêves: études psychologiques sur ces phénomènes et les divers états qui s'y rattachent, suivies de recherches sur le developpement de l'instinct et de l'intelligence dans leurs rapports avec le phénomène du sommeil Paris: Didier 
  19. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p 3
  20. ^ Leaning FE 1925 "An introductory study of hypnagogic phenomena" Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 35: 289–409 
  21. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p 14
  22. ^ a b c Hori, T, Hayashi, M, & Morikawa, T 1993 Topographical EEG changes and hypnagogic experience In: Ogilvie, RD, & Harsh, JR Eds Sleep Onset: Normal and Abnormal Processes, pp 237–253
  23. ^ a b c Germaine A, Nielsen TA 1997 "'Distribution of spontaneous hypnagogic images across Hori's EEG stages of sleep onset'" Sleep Research 26: 243 
  24. ^ Lehmann D, Grass P, Meier B 1995 "'Spontaneous conscious covert cognition states and brain electric spectral states in canonical correlations'" International Journal of Psychophysiology 19: 41–52 doi:101016/0167-87609400072-m CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  25. ^ Stickgold R, Malia A, Maguire D, Roddenberry D, O'Connor M 2000 "'Replaying the game: Hypnagogic images in normals and amnesics'" Science 290 5490: 350–3 doi:101126/science2905490350 PMID 11030656 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  26. ^ a b Mavromatis 1987, p 81
  27. ^ Thorpy, MJ ed 1990 'Sleep paralysis' ICSD-International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual Rochester, Minn: American Sleep Disorders Association
  28. ^ a b Blackmore Susan J, Parker Jennifer J 2002 "'Comparing the Content of Sleep Paralysis and Dream Reports'" Dreaming 12 1: 45–59 
  29. ^ Spanos NP, McNulty SA, DuBreuil SC, Pires M 1995 "'The frequency and correlates of sleep paralysis in a university sample'" Journal of Research in Personality 29 3: 285–305 doi:101006/jrpe19951017 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  30. ^ Cheyne JA 2003 "'Sleep Paralysis and the Structure of Waking-Nightmare Hallucinations'" Dreaming 13 3: 163–79 doi:101023/a:1025373412722 
  31. ^ Blackmore, Susan 1998 "Abduction by Aliens or Sleep Paralysis" Skeptical Inquirer, May/June 1998 Retrieved 13 May 2014
  32. ^ Petersen, Robert 1997 Out of Body Experiences Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc ISBN 1-57174-057-0 
  33. ^ Oswald Ian 1959 "'Sudden bodily jerks on falling asleep'" Brain 82 1: 92–103 doi:101093/brain/82192 
  34. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p 82
  35. ^ Ellis, Havelock 1897 'A note on hypnagogic paramnesia' Mind, New Series, Vol 6:22, 283-287
  36. ^ Mavromatis 1987, pp 53–54
  37. ^ Silberer, Herbert 1909 'Bericht ueber eine Methode, gewisse symbolische Halluzinations-Erscheinungen hervorzurufen und zu beobachten' Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische Forschungen 1:2, pp 513-525; Eng Transl by Rapaport D, 'Report on a method of eliciting and observing certain symbolic hallucination phenomena', in Rapaport's Organization and pathology of thought, pp 195-207 Columbia Univ Press, New York 1951
  38. ^ Rothenberg, Albert Autumn 1995 "Creative Cognitive Processes in Kekulé's Discovery of the Structure of the Benzene Molecule" The American Journal of Psychology University of Illinois Press 108 3: 419–438 doi:102307/1422898 JSTOR 1422898 
  39. ^ Runco & Pritzker 1999, pp 63–64
  40. ^ Barrett, Deirdre The Committee of Sleep 2001 http://wwwamazoncom/dp/0812932412
  41. ^ Stickgold, Robert 1998 'Sleep: off-line memory reprocessing' Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2:12, pp 484-92
  42. ^ Vertes Robert E, Kathleen Eastman E 2000 "'The case against memory consolidation in REM sleep' Behavioral and Brain" Behavioural and Brain Sciences 23: 867–76 doi:101017/s0140525x00004003 
  43. ^ Vertes R 2004 "'Memory Consolidation in SleepDream or Reality'" Neuron 44 1: 135–48 doi:101016/jneuron200408034 PMID 15450166 
  44. ^ Rechtschaffen, A, & Kales, A 1968 A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects Washington, DC: Public Health Service, US Government Printing
  45. ^ Foulkes D, Vogel G 1965 "'Mental activity at sleep onset'" Journal of Abnormal Psychology 70: 231–43 doi:101037/h0022217 
  46. ^ Foulkes D, Schmidt M 1983 "'Temporal sequence and unit composition in dream reports from different stages of sleep'" Sleep 6: 265–80 
  47. ^ Nielsen T, Germain A, Ouellet L 1995 "'Atonia-signalled hypnagogic imagery: Comparative EEG mapping of sleep onset transitions, REM sleep, and wakefulness'" Sleep Research 24: 133 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  48. ^ Bodizs Robert, Sverteczki Melinda, Sandor Lazar Alpar, Halasz Peter 2005 "Human parahippocampal activity: non-REM and REM elements in wake-sleep transition" Brain Research Bulletin 65 2: 169–76 doi:101016/jbrainresbull200501002 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  49. ^ Oswald, I 1962 Sleeping and waking: Physiology and psychology Amsterdam: Elsevier
  50. ^ Gurstelle EB, Oliveira JL 2004 "'Daytime parahypnagogia: a state of consciousness that occurs when we almost fall asleep'" Medical Hypotheses 62 2: 166–8 doi:101016/s0306-98770300306-2 
  51. ^ Runco & Pritzker 1999, p 64
  52. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p 73
  53. ^ Singer Jerome L, Pope Kenneth 1981 "'Daydreaming and imagery skills as predisposing capacities for self-hypnosis'" International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 29 3: 271–81 doi:101080/00207148108409161 
  54. ^ Austin, James H1999 Zen and the Brain: Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness First MIT Press paperback edition, 1999 MIT Press ISBN 0-262-51109-6, p 92
  55. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p 286
  56. ^ a b c d Blackmore 2003, p 314
  57. ^ Mavromatis 1987, p 93
  58. ^ a b Wackermann, Jiri, Pütz, Peter, Büchi, Simone, Strauch, Inge & Lehmann, Dietrich 2000 'A comparison of Ganzfeld and hypnagogic state in terms of electrophysiological measures and subjective experience' Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, pp 302-15

Bibliographyedit

  • Blackmore, Susan 2003 Consciousness: an Introduction London: Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-80909-4 
  • Mavromatis, Andreas 1987 Hypnagogia: the Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep London: Routledge and Kegan Paul ISBN 0-7102-0282-2 
  • Runco, Mark A; Pritzker, Stephen R 1999 Encyclopedia of Creativity: a-h 

External linksedit

  • "Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena" in the British Journal of Psychiatry
  • "Hypnagogia" by Gary Lachman in Fortean Times

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