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Hybrid electric vehicle

hybrid electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicle pdf
A hybrid electric vehicle HEV is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine ICE system with an electric propulsion system hybrid vehicle drivetrain The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance There are a variety of HEV types, and the degree to which each functions as an electric vehicle EV varies as well The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car, although hybrid electric trucks pickups and tractors and buses also exist

Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative brakes, which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into electric energy to charge the battery, rather than wasting it as heat energy as conventional brakes do Some varieties of HEVs use their internal combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator this combination is known as a motor–generator, to either recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed; this is known as a start-stop system A hybrid-electric produces less emissions from its ICE than a comparably sized gasoline car, since an HEV's gasoline engine is usually smaller than a comparably sized pure gasoline-burning vehicle natural gas and propane fuels produce lower emissions and if not used to directly drive the car, can be geared to run at maximum efficiency, further improving fuel economy

Although Ferdinand Porsche developed the Lohner-Porsche2 in 1901, hybrid electric vehicles did not become widely available until the release of the Toyota Prius in Japan in 1997, followed by the Honda Insight in 19993 While initially perceived as unnecessary due to the low cost of gasoline, worldwide increases in the price of petroleum caused many automakers to release hybrids in the late 2000s; they are now perceived as a core segment of the automotive market of the future45

As of January 2017update, over 12 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide since their inception in 199716 As of April 2016update, Japan ranked as the market leader with more than 5 million hybrids sold, followed by the United States with cumulative sales of over 4 million units since 1999, and Europe with about 15 million hybrids delivered since 200061 Japan also has the world's highest hybrid market penetration78 In 2016 the hybrid market share accounted for 38% of new standard passenger car sales, and 257% of new passenger vehicle sales including kei cars Norway ranks second with a hybrid market share of 69% of new car sales in 2014, followed by the Netherlands with 37%, France and Sweden, both with 23%9

Global sales are led by the Toyota Motor Company with more than 10 million Lexus and Toyota hybrids sold as of January 2017update,1 followed by Honda Motor Co, Ltd with cumulative global sales of more than 135 million hybrids as of June 2014update;101112 Ford Motor Corporation with over 424,000 hybrids sold in the United States through June 2015;1314151617 and the Hyundai Group with cumulative global sales of 200,000 hybrids as of March 2014update, including both Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors hybrid models18 As of January 2017update, worldwide hybrid sales are led by the Toyota Prius liftback, with cumulative sales of almost 4 million units1 The Prius nameplate had sold more than 6 million hybrids up to January 20171 Global Lexus hybrid sales achieved the 1 million unit milestone in March 201619 As of January 2017update, the conventional Prius is the all-time bst-selling hybrid car in both Japan and the US, with sales of over 18 million in Japan and 175 million in the United States16


Contents

  • 1 Classification
    • 11 Types of powertrain
    • 12 Types by degree of hybridization
    • 13 Plug-in hybrids PHEVs
  • 2 History
    • 21 Early days
    • 22 Predecessors of current technology
    • 23 Modern hybrids
    • 24 Latest developments
  • 3 Sales and rankings
    • 31 Annual sales in top markets
    • 32 Japanese market
    • 33 American market
    • 34 European market
  • 4 Technology
    • 41 Engines and fuel sources
      • 411 Fossil fuels
      • 412 Biofuels
    • 42 Electric machines
    • 43 Design considerations
    • 44 Conversion kits
  • 5 Environmental impact
    • 51 Fuel consumption
    • 52 Noise
    • 53 Pollution
    • 54 Top ten EPA-rated hybrids
  • 6 Vehicle types
    • 61 Motorcycles
    • 62 Automobiles and light trucks
    • 63 High-performance cars
    • 64 Formula 1
    • 65 Taxis
    • 66 Buses
    • 67 Trucks
    • 68 Military vehicles
    • 69 Locomotives
    • 610 Marine and other aquatic
    • 611 Aircraft
  • 7 Hybrid premium and showroom cost parity
  • 8 Raw materials shortage
  • 9 Legislation and incentives
    • 91 Canada
    • 92 Israel
    • 93 Japan
    • 94 Jordan
    • 95 Malaysia
    • 96 Netherlands
    • 97 New Zealand
    • 98 Republic of Ireland
    • 99 Sweden
    • 910 United Kingdom
    • 911 United States
      • 9111 Federal
      • 9112 States and local
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Classificationedit

Types of powertrainedit

Main article: Hybrid vehicle drivetrain The Toyota Highlander Hybrid has a series-parallel drivetrain The Saturn Vue Green Line is a mild hybrid The 2005–06 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid is a mild hybrid using the electric motor mainly to power the accessories The BMW Concept 7 Series ActiveHybrid is a mild hybrid with an electric motor designed to increase power and performance

Hybrid electric vehicles can be classified according to the way in which power is supplied to the drivetrain:

  • In parallel hybrids, the ICE and the electric motor are both connected to the mechanical transmission and can simultaneously transmit power to drive the wheels, usually through a conventional transmission Honda's Integrated Motor Assist IMA system as found in the Insight, Civic, Accord, as well as the GM Belted Alternator/Starter BAS Hybrid system found in the Chevrolet Malibu hybrids are examples of production parallel hybrids20 The internal combustion engine of many parallel hybrids can also act as a generator for supplemental recharging Currently, commercialized parallel hybrids use a full size combustion engine with a single, small <20 kW electric motor and small battery pack as the electric motor is designed to supplement the main engine, not to be the sole source of motive power from launch Parallel hybrids are more efficient than comparable non-hybrid vehicles especially during urban stop-and-go conditions where the electric motor is permitted to contribute,20 and during highway operation
  • In series hybrids, only the electric motor drives the drivetrain, and a smaller ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries They also usually have a larger battery pack than parallel hybrids, making them more expensive Once the batteries are low, the small combustion engine can generate power at its optimum settings at all times, making them more efficient in extensive city driving20
  • Power-split hybrids have the benefits of a combination of series and parallel characteristics As a result, they are more efficient overall, because series hybrids tend to be more efficient at lower speeds and parallel tend to be more efficient at high speeds; however, the cost of power-split hybrid is higher than a pure parallel20 Examples of power-split referred to by some as "series-parallel" hybrid powertrains include current models of Ford, General Motors, Lexus, Nissan, and Toyota2021

In each of the hybrids above it is common to use regenerative braking to recharge the batteries

Types by degree of hybridizationedit

Further information: Mild hybrid
  • Full hybrid, sometimes also called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both22 Ford's hybrid system, Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive and General Motors/Chrysler's Two-Mode Hybrid technologies are full hybrid systems23 The Toyota Prius, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Ford Fusion Hybrid are examples of full hybrids, as these cars can be moved forward on battery power alone A large, high-capacity battery pack is needed for battery-only operation These vehicles have a split power path allowing greater flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in complexity
  • Mild hybrid, is a vehicle that cannot be driven solely on its electric motor, because the electric motor does not have enough power to propel the vehicle on its own2223 Mild hybrids only include some of the features found in hybrid technology, and usually achieve limited fuel consumption savings, up to 15 percent in urban driving and 8 to 10 percent overall cycle2223 A mild hybrid is essentially a conventional vehicle with oversize starter motor, allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, braking, or stopped, yet restart quickly and cleanly The motor is often mounted between the engine and transmission, taking the place of the torque converter, and is used to supply additional propulsion energy when accelerating Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the gasoline engine is off, and as in other hybrid designs, the motor is used for regenerative braking to recapture energy As compared to full hybrids, mild hybrids have smaller batteries and a smaller, weaker motor/generator, which allows manufacturers to reduce cost and weight23
Honda's early hybrids including the first generation Insight used this design,23 leveraging their reputation for design of small, efficient gasoline engines; their system is dubbed Integrated Motor Assist IMA Starting with the 2006 Civic Hybrid, the IMA system now can propel the vehicle solely on electric power during medium speed cruising Another example is the 2005–2007 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid, a full-size pickup truck23 Chevrolet was able to get a 10% improvement on the Silverado's fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand and using regenerative braking General Motors has also used its mild BAS Hybrid technology in other models such as the Saturn Vue Green Line, the Saturn Aura Greenline and the Malibu Hybrid23

Plug-in hybrids PHEVsedit

Main article: Plug-in hybrid The BYD F3DM is the world's first mass-produced plug-in hybrid with an all-electric range of 40 to 60 miles The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid able to run in all-electric mode up to 35 miles

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle PHEV, also known as a plug-in hybrid, is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric powersource A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine; and of an all-electric vehicle, also having a plug to connect to the electrical grid PHEVs have a much larger all-electric range as compared to conventional gasoline-electric hybrids, and also eliminate the "range anxiety" associated with all-electric vehicles, because the combustion engine works as a backup when the batteries are depleted222425

Chinese battery manufacturer and automaker BYD Auto released the F3DM PHEV-62 PHEV-100 km hatchback to the Chinese fleet market on December 15, 2008, for 149,800 yuan US $22,0002627 General Motors launched the 2011 Chevrolet Volt series plug-in in December 20102829 At the time, the Volt displaced the Toyota Prius as the most fuel-efficient car sold in the United States3031

As of December 2016update, the Volt/Ampera family is the world's all-time best-selling plug-in hybrid car, with global sales totaling about 134,500 units since its inception, including over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe3233 The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV ranks second with about 119,500 units delivered worldwide32 Third is the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid with cumulative global sales of 79,300 units at the end of January 20171


Historyedit

Further information: History of plug-in hybrids

Early daysedit

The Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid was the first gasoline-electric hybrid automobile

William H Patton filed a patent application for a gasoline-electric hybrid rail-car propulsion system in early 1889, and for a similar hybrid boat propulsion system in mid 18893435 He went on to test and market the Patton Motor Car, a gas-electric hybrid system used to drive tram cars and small locomotives A gasoline engine drove a generator that served to charge a lead acid battery in parallel with the traction motors A conventional series-parallel controller was used for the traction motors A prototype was built in 1889, an experimental tram car was run in Pullman, Illinois in 1891, and a production locomotive was sold to a street railway company in Cedar Falls, Iowa in 18973637

In 1896, the Armstrong Phaeton was developed by Harry E Dey and built by the Armstrong Company of Bridgeport, CT for the Roger Mechanical Carriage Company Though there were steam, electric, and internal combustion vehicles introduced in the early days, the Armstrong Phaeton was innovative with many firsts Not only did it have a gasoline powered 65-liter, two-cylinder engine, but also a dynamo flywheel connected to an onboard battery The dynamo and regenerative braking were used to charge the battery Its electric starter was used 16 years before Cadillac's The dynamo also provided ignition spark and powered the electric lamps The Phaeton also had the first semi-automatic transmission no manual clutch The exhaust system was an integrated structural component of the vehicle The Armstrong Phaeton's motor was too powerful; the torque damaged the carriage wheels repeatedlycitation needed

In 1900, while employed at Lohner Coach Factory, Ferdinand Porsche developed the Mixte,238 a 4WD series-hybrid version of "System Lohner-Porsche" electric carriage that previously appeared in 1900 Paris World Fair239 George Fischer sold hybrid buses to England in 1901; Knight Neftal produced a racing hybrid in 190240

Figure 1 of Henri Pieper's 1905 Hybrid Vehicle Patent Application

In 1905, Henri Pieper of Germany/Belgium introduced a hybrid vehicle with an electric motor/generator, batteries, and a small gasoline engine It used the electric motor to charge its batteries at cruise speed and used both motors to accelerate or climb a hill The Pieper factory was taken over by Imperia, after Pieper died41 The 1915 Dual Power, made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker, had a four-cylinder ICE and an electric motor Below 15 mph 24 km/h the electric motor alone drove the vehicle, drawing power from a battery pack, and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph 56 km/h top speed About 600 were made up to 191842 The Woods hybrid was a commercial failure, proving to be too slow for its price, and too difficult to service In England, the prototype Lanchester petrol-electric car was made in 1927 It was not a success, but the vehicle is on display in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum4344 The United States Army's 1928 Experimental Motorized Force tested a gasoline-electric bus in a truck convoycitation needed

In 1931 Erich Gaichen invented and drove from Altenburg to Berlin a 1/2 horsepower electric car containing features later incorporated into hybrid cars Its maximum speed was 25 miles per hour 40 km/h, but it was licensed by the Motor Transport Office, taxed by the German Revenue Department and patented by the German Reichs-Patent Amt The car battery was re-charged by the motor when the car went downhill Additional power to charge the battery was provided by a cylinder of compressed air which was re-charged by small air pumps activated by vibrations of the chassis and the brakes and by igniting oxyhydrogen gas No production beyond the prototype was reportedcitation needed

Porsche's Elefant tank destroyer, restored for museum display

During the Second World War, Ferdinand Porsche sought to use his firm's experience in hybrid drivetrain design for powering armored fighting vehicles for Nazi Germany A series of designs, starting with the VK 3001 P, the unsuccessful VK 4501 P heavy tank prototype which became the Elefant tank destroyer and concluding with the heaviest armored fighting vehicle ever prototyped, the Panzerkampfwagen Maus of nearly 190 tonnes in weight, were crippled by substandard supplies of copper required for the electric final drives for his designscitation needed

Predecessors of current technologyedit

The regenerative braking system, a core design concept of most modern production HEVs, was developed in 1967 for the American Motors Amitron and called Energy Regeneration Brake by AMC45 This completely battery powered urban concept car was recharged by braking, thus increasing the range of the automobile46 The AMC Amitron was first use of regenerative braking technology in the US47

A more recent working prototype of the HEV was built by Victor Wouk one of the scientists involved with the Henney Kilowatt, the first transistor-based electric car Wouk's work with HEVs in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the "Godfather of the Hybrid"48 Wouk installed a prototype hybrid drivetrain with a 16-kilowatt 21 hp electric motor into a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program, but the program was stopped by the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA in 1976 while Eric Stork, the head of the EPA's vehicle emissions control program at the time, was accused of a prejudicial coverup49

The regenerative brake concept was further developed in the early 1980s by David Arthurs, an electrical engineer, using off-the shelf components, military surplus, and an Opel GT50 The voltage controller to link the batteries, motor a jet-engine starter motor, and DC generator was Arthurs' The vehicle exhibited 75 miles per US gallon 31 L/100 km; 90 mpg‑imp fuel efficiency, and plans for it were marketed by Mother Earth News51

In 1982, Fritz Karl Preikschat invented an electric propulsion and braking system for cars based on regenerative braking52 While clearly not the only patent relating to the hybrid electric vehicle, the patent was important based on 120+ subsequent patents directly citing it52 The patent was issued in the US and the system was not prototyped or commercialized

In 1989, Audi produced its first iteration of the Audi Duo the Audi C3 100 Avant Duo experimental vehicle, a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro This car had a 94 kilowatts 128 PS; 126 bhp Siemens electric motor which drove the rear roadwheels A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels The vehicle's front roadwheels were powered by a 23-litre five-cylinder petrol engine with an output of 100 kilowatts 136 PS; 134 bhp The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country, and electric mode in the city Mode of operation could be selected by the driver Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made; one drawback was that due to the extra weight of the electric drive, the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same enginecitation needed

Two years later, Audi, unveiled the second duo generation, the Audi 100 Duo – likewise based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro Once again, this featured an electric motor, a 213 kilowatts 290 PS; 286 bhp three-phase machine, driving the rear roadwheels This time, however, the rear wheels were additionally powered via the Torsen centre differential from the main engine compartment, which housed a 20-litre four-cylinder enginecitation needed

Research and Development was advancing in the 1990s with projects such as the early BMW 5 Series E34 CVT hybrid-electric vehicle 53 In 1992, Volvo ECC was developed by Volvo The Volvo ECC was built on the Volvo 850 platform In contrast to most production hybrids, which use a gasoline piston engine to provide additional acceleration and to recharge the battery storage, the Volvo ECC used a gas turbine engine to drive the generator for recharging

The Clinton administration initiated the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles PNGV program on 29 September 1993, that involved Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, USCAR, the DoE, and other various governmental agencies to engineer the next efficient and clean vehicle54 The United States National Research Council USNRC cited automakers' moves to produce HEVs as evidence that technologies developed under PNGV were being rapidly adopted on production lines, as called for under Goal 2 Based on information received from automakers, NRC reviewers questioned whether the "Big Three" would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective, pre-production prototype vehicles by 2004, as set out in Goal 355 The program was replaced by the hydrogen-focused FreedomCAR initiative by the George W Bush administration in 2001,56 an initiative to fund research too risky for the private sector to engage in, with the long-term goal of developing effectively carbon emission- and petroleum-free vehicles

1998 saw the Esparante GTR-Q9 became the first Petrol-Electric Hybrid to race at Le Mans, although the car failed to qualify for the main event The car managed to finished second in class at Petit Le Mans the same year

Modern hybridsedit

See also: List of hybrid vehicles Toyota Prius first generation 2000 Honda Insight first generation 2010 Honda Insight second generation The 2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid was launched in the US in March 200957

Automotive hybrid technology became widespread beginning in the late 1990s The first mass-produced hybrid vehicle was the Toyota Prius, launched in Japan in 1997, and followed by the Honda Insight, launched in 1999 in the United States and Japan3 The Prius was launched in Europe, North America and the rest of the world in 200058 The first-generation Prius sedan has an estimated fuel economy of 52 miles per US gallon 45 L/100 km; 62 mpg‑imp in the city and 45 miles per US gallon 52 L/100 km; 54 mpg‑imp in highway driving The two-door first-generation Insight was estimated at 61 miles per US gallon 39 L/100 km; 73 mpg‑imp miles per gallon in city driving and 68 miles per US gallon 35 L/100 km; 82 mpg‑imp on the highway3

The Toyota Prius sold 300 units in 1997 and 19,500 in 2000, and cumulative worldwide Prius sales reached the one million mark in April 200858 By early 2010, the Prius global cumulative sales were estimated at 16 million units5960 Toyota launched a second-generation Prius in 2004 and a third in 200961 The 2010 Prius has an estimated US Environmental Protection Agency combined fuel economy cycle of 50 miles per US gallon 47 L/100 km; 60 mpg‑imp61

The Audi Duo III was introduced in 1997, based on the Audi B5 A4 Avant, and was the only Duo to ever make it into series production2 The Duo III used the 19-litre Turbocharged Direct Injection TDI diesel engine, which was coupled with a 21 kilowatts 29 PS; 28 bhp electric motor Due to low demand for it because of its high price,clarification needed only about sixty Audi Duos were produced Until the release of the Audi Q7 Hybrid in 2008, the Duo was the only European hybrid ever put into production262

The Honda Civic Hybrid was introduced in February 2002 as a 2003 model, based on the seventh-generation Civic63 The 2003 Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version, but delivers 50 miles per US gallon 47 L/100 km; 60 mpg‑imp, a 40 percent increase compared to a conventional Civic LX sedan63 Along with the conventional Civic, it received a styling update for 2004 The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius second generation improved passenger room, cargo area, and power output, while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions The Honda Insight first generation stopped being produced after 2006 and has a devoted base of owners A second-generation Insight was launched in 2010 In 2004, Honda also released a hybrid version of the Accord but discontinued it in 2007, citing disappointing sales64

The Ford Escape Hybrid, the first hybrid electric sport utility vehicle SUV, was released in 2005 Toyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in March 2004 allowing Ford to use 20 patentscitation needed from Toyota related to hybrid technology, although Ford's engine was independently designed and builtcitation needed In exchange for the hybrid licenses, Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyotacitation needed Toyota announced calendar year 2005 hybrid electric versions of the Toyota Highlander Hybrid and Lexus RX 400h with 4WD-i, which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels, negating the need for a transfer case

In 2006, General Motors Saturn Division began to market a mild parallel hybrid, the 2007 Saturn Vue Green Line, which utilized GM's Belted Alternator/Starter BAS Hybrid system combined with a 24-litre L4 engine and an FWD automatic transmission The same hybrid powertrain was also used to power the 2008 Saturn Aura Greenline and Malibu Hybrid models As of December 2009update, only the BAS-equipped Malibu is still in limited production

In 2007, Lexus released a hybrid electric version of their GS sport sedan, the GS 450h, with a power output of 335 bhp65 The 2007 Camry Hybrid became available in summer 2006 in the United States and Canada Nissan launched the Altima Hybrid with technology licensed by Toyota in 200766

Commencing in fall 2007, General Motors began to market their 2008 Two-Mode Hybrid models of their GMT900-based Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon SUVs, closely followed by the 2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid67 version68 For the 2009 model year, General Motors released the same technology in their half-ton pickup truck models, the 2009 Chevrolet Silverado69 and GMC Sierra70 Two-Mode Hybrid models

The Ford Fusion Hybrid officially debuted at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show in November 2008,71 and was launched to the US market in March 2009, together with the second-generation Honda Insight and the Mercury Milan Hybrid57

Latest developmentsedit

The 2011 Honda CR-Z hybrid was launched in Japan in February 2010, followed by the US in August 201072 2009–2010

The Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid was unveiled at the 2009 Seoul Motor Show, and sales began in the South Korean domestic market in July 2009 The Elantra LPI Liquefied Petroleum Injected is the world's first hybrid vehicle to be powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas LPG as a fuel The Elantra PLI is a mild hybrid and the first hybrid to adopt advanced lithium polymer Li–Poly batteries7374 The Elantra LPI Hybrid delivers a fuel economy rating of 419 miles per US gallon 561 L/100 km; 503 mpg‑imp and CO2 emissions of 99 g/km to qualify as a Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle SULEV73

The Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid was unveiled in the 2009 Chicago Auto Show,75 and sales began in the US in October 20097677 The S400 BlueHybrid is a mild hybrid and the first hybrid car to adopt a lithium ion battery7578 The hybrid technology in the S400 was co-developed by Daimler AG and BMW2375 The same hybrid technology is being used in the BMW ActiveHybrid 7, expected to go on sales in the US and Europe by mid-201079 In December 2009 BMW began sales of its full hybrid BMW ActiveHybrid X6, while Daimler launched the Mercedes-Benz ML450 Hybrid by lease only8081

The 2011 Toyota Auris Hybrid is the first mass-produced hybrid electric vehicle built in Europe82

Sales of the Honda CR-Z began in Japan in February 2010, followed by the US and European markets later in the year, becoming Honda's third hybrid electric car in the market7283 Honda also launched the 2011 Honda Fit Hybrid in Japan in October 2010, and unveiled the European version, the Honda Jazz Hybrid, at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, which went on sale in some European markets by early 201184

Mass production of the 2011 Toyota Auris Hybrid began in May 2010 at Toyota Manufacturing UK TMUK Burnaston plant and became the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle to be built in Europe82 Sales in the UK began in July 2010, at a price starting atGB£18,950 US$27,450, GB£550 US$800 less than the Toyota Prius8586 The 2011 Auris Hybrid shares the same powertrain as the Prius, and combined fuel economy is 743 mpg‑imp 380 L/100 km; 619 mpg‑US8788

The 2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid was unveiled at the 2010 New York International Auto Show89 and sales began in the US in September 201090 The MKZ Hybrid is the first hybrid version ever to have the same price as the gasoline-engine version of the same car91 The Porshe Cayenne Hybrid was launched in the US in late 201029

2011–2015 2013 Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid

Volkswagen announced at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show the launch of the 2012 Touareg Hybrid, which went on sale on the US in 20119293 VW also announced plans to introduce diesel-electric hybrid versions of its most popular models in 2012, beginning with the new Jetta, followed by the Golf Hybrid in 2013 together with hybrid versions of the Passat9495 Other gasoline-electric hybrids released in the US in 2011 were the Lexus CT 200h, the Infiniti M35 Hybrid, the Hyundai Sonata Hybrid and its siblling the Kia Optima Hybrid9697

The Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 was launched in the European market in 2012, becoming the world's first production diesel-electric hybrid According to Peugeot the new hybrid delivers a fuel economy of up to 62 miles per US gallon 38 L/100 km; 74 mpg‑imp and CO2 emissions of 99g/km on the European test cycle9899

The 2012 Toyota Prius c was released in the US in March 2012, and was launched in Japan as Toyota Aqua in December 2011

The Toyota Prius v, launched in the US in October 2011, is the first spinoff from the Prius family Sales in Japan began in May 2011 as the Prius Alpha The European version, named Prius +, was launched in June 2012100 The Prius Aqua was launched in Japan in December 2011, and was released as the Toyota Prius c in the US in March 2012101 The Prius c was launched in Australia in April 2012102 The production version of the 2012 Toyota Yaris Hybrid went on sale in Europe in June 2012103

Other hybrids released in the US during 2012 are the Audi Q5 Hybrid, BMW 5 Series ActiveHybrid, BMW 3 series Hybrid, Ford C-Max Hybrid, Acura ILX Hybrid Also during 2012 were released the next generation of Toyota Camry Hybrid and the Ford Fusion Hybrid, both of which offer significantly improved fuel economy in comparison with their previous generations104105106 The 2013 models of the Toyota Avalon Hybrid and the Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid were released in the US in December 201214

Global sales of the Toyota Prius liftback passed the 3 million milestone in June 2013 The Prius liftbak is available in almost 80 countries and regions, and it is the world's best selling hybrid electric vehicle107 Toyota released the hybrid versions of the Corolla Axio sedan and Corolla Fielder station wagon in Japan in August 2013 Both cars are equipped with a 15-liter hybrid system similar to the one used in the Prius c108

The fourth generation Prius was released in Japan in December 2015

Sales of the Honda Vezel Hybrid SUV began in Japan began in December 2013109 The Range Rover Hybrid diesel-powered electric hybrid was unveiled at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show, and retail deliveries in Europe are slated to start in early 2014110 Ford Motor Company, the world's second largest manufacturer of hybrids after Toyota Motor Corporation, reached the milestone of 400,000 hybrid electric vehicles produced in November 2014111 After 18 years since the introduction of hybrid cars, Japan became in 2014 the first country to reach sales of over 1 million hybrid cars in a single year, and also the Japanese market surpassed the United States as the world's largest hybrid market112113

The redesigned and more efficiente fourth generation Prius was released for retail customers in Japan in December 2015 The launch in North American market is scheduled for January 2016, and February in Europe114 The 2016 model year Prius Eco surpassed the 2000 first generation Honda Insight as the all-time EPA-rated most fuel efficient gasoline-powered car available in the US without plug-in capability115116117

Sales and rankingsedit

As of January 2017update, more than 12 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide since their inception in 199761 As of April 2016update, Japan ranked as the market leader with more than 5 million hybrids sold, followed by the United States with cumulative sales of over 4 million units since 1999, Europe with about 15 million, and the rest of the world with combined sales of over 500,000 hybrids6 As of August 2014update, more than 130,000 hybrids have been sold in Canada, of which, over 100,000 are Toyota and Lexus models118 In Australia, over 50,000 Lexus and Toyota models have been sold through February 2014119120

As of January 2017update, global hybrid sales led by Toyota Motor Company TMC with over 10 million Lexus and Toyota hybrids sold;1 followed by Honda Motor Co, Ltd with cumulative global sales of more than 135 million hybrids as of June 2014update;101112 Ford Motor Corporation with over 424,000 hybrids sold in the United States through June 2015, of which, around 10% are plug-in hybrids;1314151617 Hyundai Group with cumulative global sales of 200,000 hybrids as of March 2014update, including both Hyundai Motors and Kia Motors hybrid models;18 and PSA Peugeot Citroën with over 50,000 diesel-powered hybrids sold in Europe through December 2013121

The Toyota Prius is the all-time top selling hybrid in both Japan and the US6

TMC experienced record sales of hybrid cars during 2013, with 1,279,400 units sold worldwide, and it took nine months to achieve one million hybrid sales122123 Again in 2014, TMC sold a record one million hybrids in nine months124 Toyota hybrids combined with Lexus models reached 1 million units in May 2007,125 and the US reached the 1 million mark of sales of both brands by February 2009126 Worldwide sales of TMC hybrids totaled over 2 million vehicles by August 2009,125 3 million units by February 2011,127 5 million in March 2013,128 7 million in September 2014,124 and the 8 million mark in July 2015129 The 9 million sales mark was reached in April 2016, again, selling one million hybrids in just ninth months,130 and the 10 million milestone in January 2017, achieved one more time just nine months after the previous million1

Ford experienced record sales of its hybrids models in the US during 2013, with almost 80,000 units sold, almost triple the 2012 total131 During the second quarter of 2013 Ford achieved its best hybrid sales quarter ever, up 517% over the same quarter of 2012132 In 2013 Toyota’s hybrid market share in the US declined from 2012 totals due to new competition, particularly from Ford with the arrival of new products such as the C-Max Hybrid and the new styling of the Fusion Except for the Prius c, sales of the other models of the Prius family and the Camry Hybrid suffered a decline from 2012, while the Fusion Hybrid experienced a 1643% increase from 2012, and C-Max Hybrid sales climbed 1566%15 During 2013 Ford increased its market share of the American hybrid market from 75% in 2012 to 147% in 201315133

As of January 2017update, global hybrid sales are led by the Prius family, with cumulative sales of 60361 million units excluding plug-in hybrids representing 60% of the 10 million hybrids sold worldwide by Toyota and Lexus since 19971 As of January 2017update, the Toyota Prius liftback is the leading model of the Toyota brand with cumulative sales of 3985 million units Ranking second is the Toyota Aqua/Prius c, with global sales of 1380 million units, followed by the Prius v/α/+ with 671,200, the Camry Hybrid with 614,700 units, the Toyota Auris with 378,000 units, and the Toyota Yaris Hybrid with 302,7001 US sales of the Toyota Prius reached the 10 million milestone in early April 2011,134 and cumulative sales of the Prius in Japan exceeded the 1 million mark in August 2011135 As of January 2017update, sales of the Prius liftback totaled over 18 million units in Japan and 175 million in the United States, ranking as the all-time best-selling hybrid car in both countries16

Global sales of Lexus brand hybrid vehicles worldwide reached the 500 thousand mark in November 2012136 The 1 million sales milestone was achieved in March 201619 The Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h ranks as the top selling Lexus hybrid with 363,000 units delivered worldwide as of January 2017update, followed by the Lexus CT 200h with 290,800 units, and the Lexus ES 300h with 143,200 units1

Annual sales in top marketsedit

Top national markets for hybrid electric vehicles between 2007 and 2015
Country Number of hybrids sold or registered by year
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008137 2007138
 Japan 633,2001130 Over 1 million112 679,1001139 678,0001140 316,3001140 392,2001140 334,000141 94,259 69,015
 US 384,404142 452,15216 495,77116 434,49814 268,752143 274,210144 290,271144 312,386144 352,274144
 France2 56,030145 41,208145 46,785146 27,730147 13,340148 9,443149 9,399150 9,137150 7,268151
 UK 44,580152 37,215153 29,129153 24,900154 23,391155 22,127156 14,645157 15,385157 15,971157
 Italy 25,240145 21,154145 14,695158 5,885159 5,244160
 Germany 22,529161 22,908162 24,963163 21,438164 12,622165 10,661166 8,374166 6,464166 7,591166
 Spain 18,406145 12,083145 10,294167 10,030168 10,350169
 Netherlands 13,752170 10,341171 18,356172 19,519173174 14,874160 16,111175 16,122176 11,837176 3,013176
 Canada Not available ~15,000177 ~25,000178 Not available 16,167179 19,963180 14,828
World Over 12 million Over 16 million Over 13 million Over 12 million - - 740,000181 511,758 500,405
Notes: 1 Partial sales, includes only Toyota/Lexus sales140 2 French registrations between 2011 and 2013 include plug-in hybrids

Japanese marketedit

As of April 2016update, Japan ranks as the world's market leader with more than 5 million hybrids sold since 1997, representing around 45% of cumulative global hybrid sales since their inception6 After 18 years since their introduction in the Japanese market, annual hybrid sales surpassed the 1 million mark for the first time in 2014 With cumulative sales of over 4 million hybrids through December 2014, Japan surpassed the United States as the world's largest hybrid market6112113 It was also the first time that all eight major Japanese manufacturers offered hybrid vehicles in their lineup113

Japan also has the world's highest hybrid market penetration7 The hybrid market share of new car sales began to increase significantly in 2009, when the government implemented aggressive fiscal incentives for fuel efficient vehicles and the third generation Prius was introduced That year, the hybrid market share of new car sales in the country, including kei cars, jumped from less than 5% in 2008 to over 10% in 2009 If only conventional passenger cars are accounted for, the hybrid market share was about 15% By 2013 the hybrid market share accounted for more than 30% of the 29 million standard passenger vehicles sold, and about 20% of the 45 million passenger vehicles including kei cars8 Sales of standard cars in 2016 totaled 149 million units, with the hybrid segment achieving a record 38% market share Accounting for kei cars, hybrids achieved a market share of 257% of new passenger car sales, up from 223% in 20157 In 2016 every one of the standard cars listed in the Japanese top-20 best selling car ranking had a hybrid version on sale7 and the two top selling standard cars were models only available as a hybrid, the Toyota Prius and the Toyota Aqua182

Toyota's hybrid sales in Japan since 1997, including both Toyota and Lexus models, passed the 1 million mark in July 2010,183 2 million in October 2012,184 and topped the 3 million mark in March 2014119 As of January 2017update, TMC hybrid sales in the country totaled 4,853,000 vehicles, of which, only 4,900 units are commercial vehicles1185 Cumulative sales of the original Prius in Japan reached the 1 million mark in August 2011135 Sales of the Prius family vehicles totaled 3,435,800 units through January 20171 The Prius liftback is the top selling model with 1,812,800 units, followed by the Aqua with 1,154,500 units, the Prius α with 446,400, and the Prius plug-in with 22,1001 Cumulative sales of Honda's hybrid vehicles since November 1999 reached 25,239 units by January 2009,186 and in March 2010, Honda announced that the new 2010 Insight broke through 100,000 sales in Japan in just one year after its introduction187

The Toyota Prius α was launched in Japan in May 2011

Hybrid sales in Japan almost tripled in 2009 as compared to 2008 as a result of government incentives that included a scrappage program, tax breaks on hybrid vehicles and other low-emission cars and trucks, and a higher levy on gasoline that rose prices in the order of US$45059181188 New hybrid car sales jumped from 94,259 in 2008137 to 334,000 in 2009,141 and hybrid sales in 2009 represented around 10% of new vehicles sales in Japan In contrast, the US market share was 28% for the same year59 These record sales allowed Japan to surpass the US in total new hybrid sales, with the Japanese market representing almost half 48% of the worldwide hybrid sales in 2009 while the US market represented 42% of global sales141 The Toyota Prius became the first hybrid to top annual new car sales in Japan with 208,876 units sold in 200959189 The Insight ranked fifth in overall sales in 2009 with 93,283 units sold59

A total of 315,669 Priuses were sold domestically in 2010, making the Prius the country's best-selling vehicle for the second straight year Also the Prius broke Japan's annual sales record for a single model for the first time in 20 years, surpassing the Toyota Corolla, which in 1990 set the previous sales record with 300,008 units190 The Prius sold 252,528 units in 2011, becoming the best-selling vehicle for the third-consecutive year This figure includes sales of the Prius α, launched in May 2011, and the Toyota Aqua, launched in December Despite keeping to the top selling spot, total Prius sales for 2011 were 20% lower than 2010 due partly to the disruptions caused by the March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, and also because government incentives for hybrid cars were scaled back191192 Nevertheless, during the 2011 Japanese fiscal year April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2012, hybrid vehicles accounted for 16% of all new car sales in the country193 In May 2012, hybrid sales reached a record market share of 197% of new car sales in the country, including kei cars Sales were led by the conventional Prius followed by the Toyota Aqua Also during this month, hybrid sales represented 25% of Honda sales and 46% of Toyota sales in the country194

The Toyota Aqua has been the top selling new car in Japan for three years running, from 2013 to 2015195196197

The Toyota Aqua, released in December 2011, ranked as the second top selling new car in Japan in 2012 after the conventional Prius198 Totaling 262,367 units sold in 2013, the Aqua topped new car sales in Japan in 2013, including kei car sales195 And with 233,209 units sold during 2014, down 111% from 2013, the Aqua was the top selling new car in Japan for the second consecutive year196 Again in 2015, with 215,525 units sold, down 76% from 2014, the Aqua ranked as the top selling new car in Japan197 The Toyota Aqua not only was the best-selling new car in Japan for three years running, from 2013 to 2015,195196197 but it is considered the most successful nameplate launch in the Japanese market of the last 20 years199 In the first quarter of 2016, the Prius liftback surpassed the Aqua as the best-selling new car,200 the Prius ended 2016 as the best-selling standard car in the Japanese market with 248,258 units, followed by the Aqua with 168,208 units182201

American marketedit

Further information: Hybrid electric vehicles in the United States HEV market share of new car sales in the US between 1999 and 2015141516142143144

The market of hybrid electric vehicles in the United States is the second largest in the world after Japan, and represents about 36% of the more than 11 million hybrid sold worldwide through April 20166 Cumulative sales passed 2 million units in May 2011,202 the 3 million mark in October 2013,203 and 4 million in April 20166 Sales of hybrid vehicles in the US began to decline following the financial crisis of 2007–08, and after a short recovery, began to decline again in 2014 due to low gasoline prices616 Hybrid sales in the American market achieved its highest market share ever in 2013, capturing 319% of new car sales that year At the end of 2015 the hybrid take rate had fallen to 221%, and dropped to 185% for hybrid sales between January and April 20166204

Cumulative US total hybrid sales by year
1999–2014141516143144 US top selling HEV models in 2014 by market share16

Since their inception in 1999, a total of 4,058,258 hybrid electric automobiles and sport utility vehicles have been sold in the country through May 20166 The Toyota Prius family is the market leader with 1,932,805 units sold through April 2016, representing a 480% market share of total hybrid sales in the US141516142143144204 The conventional Toyota Prius is the top selling hybrid model, with 1,643,000 units sold since 2000 through April 2016, representing a 408% market share of all hybrids sold in the US since their inception in 19996 Out of the 9,0145 million hybrids sold by Toyota Motor Company worldwide through April 2016, the United States accounted for 447% of TMC global hybrid sales130

As of April 2016update, sales of the conventional Prius are followed by the Toyota Camry Hybrid, with 345,640 units sold since 2006, the Honda Civic Hybrid, with cumulative sales of 234,610 vehicles since 2002, the Ford Fusion Hybrid with 166,341 units since 2009, and the Toyota Prius c with 165,075 units since 20126 Among the hybrids built by American manufacturers, the siblings Lincoln MKZ/Mercury Milan/Fusion Hybrids rank first, with combined sales of 200,899 units since 2009 through 2015, followed by the Ford Escape Hybrid and its sibling the Mercury Mariner Hybrid with combined sales of 130,803 vehicles between 2004 and 2012, when the hybrid lineup was discontinued Ranking next is the Ford C-Max Hybrid, with 72,330 units sold since 2012 through 2015, and the Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid with 38,204 units since 2008141516142143144

California has been the state leading hybrid sales in the US with 55,553 vehicles sold in 2009,179 74,932 in 2008,137 and 91,417 in 2007138 In 2009 it was followed by New York 15,438 and Florida 14,949179 In terms of new hybrids sold per capita, the District of Columbia was the leader in 2009 with 379 hybrids per 1000 residents, followed by California 154 and Washington 153179 The top 5 U S metropolitan area markets for sales of hybrid electric vehicles in 2009 were Los Angeles 26,677, New York 21,193, San Francisco 15,799, Washington, DC 11,595, and Chicago 8,990179

Considering hybrid sales between January 2010 through September 2011, the top selling metropolitan region was the San Francisco Bay Area, with 84% of all new cars sold during that period, followed by Monterey-Salinas with 69%, and Eugene, Oregon, with 61% The following seven top selling markets are also on the West Coast, including Seattle-Tacoma and Los Angeles with 57%, San Diego with 56%, and Portland with 54% The Washington DC Metro Area, with 42%, is the next best selling region out of the West Coast205

Sales of Prius family vehicles in California represented 26% of all Prius purchases in the US during 2012 With 60,688 units sold during this year, the Prius became the best selling vehicle in California, ahead of the previous leader, the Honda Civic 57,124 units and the third ranked, the Toyota Camry 50,250 units206 Again in 2013, the Prius nameplate was the best selling vehicle in California with 69,728 units sold in the state, ahead of the Honda Civic 66,982 and the Honda Accord 63,194207208

European marketedit

The Toyota Auris Hybrid is the top selling hybrid electric vehicle in Europe with 296,400 units sold through April 2016

As of April 2016update, about 15 million hybrids cars have been sold in Europe since their introduction, representing around 136% of cumulative global hybrid sales6 Of these, Toyota and Lexus hybrids totaled around 11 million units 74%130 PSA Peugeot Citroën had sold over 50,000 diesel-powered hybrids in Europe through December 2013121 In 2014, one-fourth of all new vehicles sold by Toyota in the European Union were hybrid-electric9 The top selling hybrid markets in 2015 were France, followed by the UK, Italy, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, and Norway145

As of December 2014update, hybrid vehicles accounted for 14% of new passenger car registrations in the EU Member States, up from 11% in 20129209 The Netherlands is the leading country within the Union states with a market share of 37% of total passenger car sales in 2014, though fewer hybrid vehicles were sold in the Dutch market in 2014 than in previous years Accounting for all countries in the continent, Norway is the segment leader, with a market share of 69% in 20149

Sales of hybrids in Europe went up from around 9,000 units in 2004 to 39,880 in 2006, with Toyota accounting for 91% of hybrid sales and Honda with 3,410 units sold that year Cumulative sales of Toyota hybrids since 2000 reached 69,674 units in 2006, while Honda hybrid sales reached over 8,000 units210 By January 2009, Honda had sold 35,149 hybrids in Europe, of which 34,757 were Honda Civic Hybrids186 During 2008 combined sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrids in Europe were 57,819 units, representing 52% of total Toyota sales in the region Toyota sales were led by Prius with 41,495 units211 Cumulative sales of the Toyota Prius reached 100,000 units in 2008 and the 200,000 mark was reached in July 2010 The UK has been one of the leading European markets for the Prius since its inception, with 20% of Prius sales in Europe by 2010212

The Toyota Yaris Hybrid, released in 2012, is available in Europe in lieu of the Prius c

Toyota's European hybrid sales reached 70,529 vehicles in 2010, including sales of 15,237 Toyota Auris Hybrids213 Sales reached 84,839 units in 2011, including 59,161 Toyota and 25,678 Lexus hybrid vehicles The Auris hybrid sold 32,725 units in 2011 Lexus hybrids made up 85% of total sales in Western Europe in 2011 Toyota and Lexus hybrids represented 10% percent of Toyota's European new car sales in 2011214215 TMC share of hybrid sales out of the company's total European sales climbed from 13% in 2012 to 20% during the first 11 months of 2013216

During the first nine months of 2013, over 118,000 hybrids were sold in Western Europe representing a 14% market share of new car sales in the region217 A total of 192,664 hybrid cars were sold in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2014 Sales increased 215% in 2015, with 234,170 units sold145 In 2015, gasoline-powered hybrids represented 916% of total hybrid registrations218 The top selling model in 2015 was the Toyota Auris Hybrid, with 75,810 units, up 130% from 2014; followed by the Yaris Hybrid with 68,902 units, up 22% from 2014 Seven of the top ten hybrids models sold in 2015 were from either Toyota or the Lexus brand218 Toyota achieved record hybrid sales in 2015 with 201,500 units delivered130 Hybrid registrations in the European Union and EFTA countries totaled 74,796 units during the first quarter of 2016, up 297% from the same quarter the previous year219

Cumulative TMC sales since the Prius introduction in Europe in 2000 passed the one million unit milestone in November 2015220 As of April 2016update, the top selling Toyota hybrids were the Auris Hybrid 296,400, the conventional Prius 287,100, and the Yaris Hybrid 230,800 The top selling Lexus models are the Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h with 97,700 units, and the Lexus CT 200h with 64,300 units130

UK

Since 2006 hybrid car registrations in the UK totaled 257,404 units up to April 2016, including 11,679 diesel-electric hybrids, which were introduced in 2011152153154155156157221 The market share of the British hybrid segment climbed from 11% in 2010, to 12% in 2012, and achieved 15% of new car registrations in 20149

Since 2000, when the Prius was launched in the UK, 100,000 Toyota hybrids had been sold by May 2014, and almost 50,000 Lexus models since the introduction of the RX 400h in 2005222 Honda had sold in the UK more than 22,000 hybrid cars through December 2011 since the Insight was launched in the country in 2000223 After 15 years since the launch of the Prius in the British market, combined sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrids reached the 200,000 unit milestone in November 2015224

A total of 37,215 hybrids were registered in 2014, and while petrol-electric hybrids increased 326% from 2013, diesel-electric hybrids declined 126%153 Hybrid registrations totaled a record of 44,580 units in 2015, consisting of 40,707 petrol-powered hybrids and 3,873 powered by diesel; the latter experienced a 363% increase from 2014, while petrol-powered hybrid grew by 181% The hybrid segment market shared reached 169% of new car registrations in the UK that year152

France

A total of 165,915 hybrid cars have been registered in France between 2007 and 2014,146147148149150151225 including 33,547 diesel-powered hybrids French registrations account plug-in hybrid together with conventional hybrids146148225 Among EU Member States, France had the second largest hybrid market share in 2014, with 23% of new car sales, down from 26% in 20139

Diesel hybrid technology, introduced by PSA Peugeot Citroën with the HYbrid4 system in 2011, represented 202% of the hybrid car stock sold in France between 2011 and 2014146147148225 Among the 13,340 units registered in 2011, the top selling models in the French market were the Toyota Auris 4,740 units, the Prius 2,429 units, and the Honda Jazz Hybrid 1,857 units The diesel-powered Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4, launched in late 2011, sold 401 units148 Toyota led hybrid sales in the French market in 2013 with 27,536 registrations of its Yaris, Auris and Prius models, followed by the PSA group with 13,400 registrations146 During 2014, a total of 42,813 hybrid cars and vans were registered, down 85% from 2013 Of these, 9,518 were diesel-electric hybrids, down 319% from 13,986 units a year earlier, while registrations of gasoline-electric hybrids were up 15%225 The top selling models in 2014 were the Toyota Yaris Hybrid with 12,819 units, Toyota Auris with 10,595 and the Peugeot 3008 with 4,189 units225 Hybrid registrations in 2014 included 1,519 plug-in hybrids, with sales led by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with 820 units225226

The Netherlands

As of 31 December 2015update, hybrid car registrations totaled 131,011 units, up 117% from 117,259 a year earlier170 By the end of 2009 there were about 39,300 hybrid cars registered in the Netherlands, up from 23,000 the previous year Most of the registered hybrid cars belonged to corporate fleets due to tax incentives established in the country in 2008227228 During the first eight months of 2013, around 65% of TMC cars sold in the Netherlands have been hybrids, with the technology particularly popular among fleet owners and taxi drivers229 Following the same market trend as in 2014, more plug-in hybrids were registered in 2015 41,226 in the country than conventional hybrids 13,752170171

As a result of the tax incentives, the country has had for several years the highest hybrid market share among EU Member States Hybrid sales climbed from 07% in 2006 and 2007 to 24% in 2008, and reached 42% in 2009 Due to the financial crisis of 2007–08, the market fell for two years to 27% in 2011, but recovered to 45% in 2012209 As fewer hybrid vehicles were sold in the Dutch market in 2014 than in previous years, the hybrid segment market share fell to 37% of total passenger car sales in 2014 The sales decline is due to a change in the national vehicle taxation scheme9 As of 2014update, Japan ~20% and Norway 69% are the only countries with a higher market share than the Netherlands89

Germany

As of January 2016update, there where were 130,365 hybrid cars registered in Germany,230 up from 85,575 on the roads in January 1, 2014,231 and 47,642 vehicles on January 1, 2012232 Hybrid car registrations totaled a record of 24,963 units in 2013,163 and declined to 22,908 in 2014,162 and to 22,529 in 2015161 The German hybrid market share climbed from 03% in 2010, to 08% in 2013, and declined 07% of new car registrations in 20149

Spain

A total of 10,350 hybrid cars were registered in Spain in 2011, up 22% from 2010 sales The top selling hybrids were the Toyota Prius, Toyota Auris HSD and the Lexus CT 200h, which together represented 83,2% of new hybrid car sales in the country169 During 2012 hybrid sales remained almost constant with 10,030 units sold, representing 144% of new passenger cars sales that year The top selling car was the Prius with 3,969 units, followed by the Auris HSD 2,234 and the Lexus CT 200h 1,244 Combined sales of Toyota and Lexus models represented 8915% of hybrid sales in the Spanish market in 2012168 Hybrid sales in 2013 increased 172% from 2012, with 10,294 units registered The Toyota Auris HSD was the top selling hybrid with 3,644 units, followed by the Prius 2,378 and the Yaris Hybrid 1,587 167

Technologyedit

The varieties of hybrid electric designs can be differentiated by the structure of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain, the fuel type, and the mode of operation

In 2007, several automobile manufacturers announced that future vehicles will use aspects of hybrid electric technology to reduce fuel consumption without the use of the hybrid drivetrain Regenerative braking can be used to recapture energy and stored to power electrical accessories, such as air conditioning Shutting down the engine at idle can also be used to reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions without the addition of a hybrid drivetrain In both cases, some of the advantages of hybrid electric technology are gained while additional cost and weight may be limited to the addition of larger batteries and starter motors There is no standard terminology for such vehicles, although they may be termed mild hybrids

Engines and fuel sourcesedit

Fossil fuelsedit

Main article: Fossil fuel

Free-piston engines could be used to generate electricity as efficiently as, and less expensively than, fuel cells233

Gasoline

Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid electric designs and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable futurecitation needed While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel, it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources Like most modern ICE powered vehicles, HEVs can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines, which would increase allowable ratios, but no plans are in place at present

Diesel

Diesel-electric HEVs use a diesel engine for power generation Diesels have advantages when delivering constant power for long periods of time, suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiencycitation needed The diesel engine's high torque, combined with hybrid technology, may offer substantially improved mileage Most diesel vehicles can use 100% pure biofuels biodiesel, so they can use but do not need petroleum at all for fuel although mixes of biofuel and petroleum are more commoncitation needed If diesel-electric HEVs were in use, this benefit would likely also apply Diesel-electric hybrid drivetrains have begun to appear in commercial vehicles particularly buses; as of 2007, no light duty diesel-electric hybrid passenger cars are currently available, although prototypes exist Peugeot is expected to produce a diesel-electric hybrid version of its 308 in late 2008 for the European market234

PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid drivetrain: the Peugeot 307, Citroën C4 Hybride HDi and Citroën C-Cactus235 Volkswagen made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 L/100 km 140 mpg‑imp; 120 mpg‑US fuel economy, but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid There have been no concrete dates suggested for these vehicles, but press statements have suggested production vehicles would not appear before 2009

At the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2009 both Mercedes and BMW displayed diesel-electric hybrids236

Robert Bosch GmbH is supplying hybrid diesel-electric technology to diverse automakers and models, including the Peugeot 308237

So far, production diesel-electric engines have mostlyvague appeared in mass transit busescitation needed

FedEx, along with Eaton Corp in the USA and Iveco in Europe, has begun deploying a small fleet of Hybrid diesel electric delivery trucks238 As of October 2007, Fedex operates more than 100 diesel electric hybrids in North America, Asia and Europe239

Liquefied petroleum gas Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid

Hyundai introduced in 2009 the Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid, which is the first mass production hybrid electric vehicle to run on liquefied petroleum gas LPG73

Hydrogen

Hydrogen can be used in cars in two ways: a source of combustible heat, or a source of electrons for an electric motor The burning of hydrogen is not being developed in practical terms; it is the hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle HFEV which is garnering all the attention Hydrogen fuel cells create electricity fed into an electric motor to drives the wheels Hydrogen is not burned, but it is consumed This means molecular hydrogen, H2, is combined with oxygen to form water 2H2 4e− + O2 --> 2H2O 4e− The molecular hydrogen and oxygen's mutual affinity drives the fuel cell to separate the electrons from the hydrogen, to use them to power the electric motor, and to return them to the ionized water molecules that were formed when the electron-depleted hydrogen combined with the oxygen in the fuel cell Recalling that a hydrogen atom is nothing more than a proton and an electron; in essence, the motor is driven by the proton's atomic attraction to the oxygen nucleus, and the electron's attraction to the ionized water molecule

An HFEV is an all-electric car featuring an open-source battery in the form of a hydrogen tank and the atmosphere HFEVs may also comprise closed-cell batteries for the purpose of power storage from regenerative braking, but this does not change the source of the motivation It implies the HFEV is an electric car with two types of batteries Since HFEVs are purely electric, and do not contain any type of heat engine, they are not hybrids

Biofuelsedit

Main articles: biofuel and flexifuel vehicle The Ford Escape Hybrid was the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flex-fuel engine capable of running on E85 fuel Demonstration Ford Escape E85 flex-fuel plug-in hybrid

Hybrid vehicles might use an internal combustion engine running on biofuels, such as a flexible-fuel engine running on ethanol or engines running on biodiesel In 2007 Ford produced 20 demonstration Escape Hybrid E85s for real-world testing in fleets in the US240241 Also as a demonstration project, Ford delivered in 2008 the first flexible-fuel plug-in hybrid SUV to the US Department of Energy DOE, a Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid, capable of running on gasoline or E85242

The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle would be the first commercially available flex-fuel plug-in hybrid capable of adapting the propulsion to the biofuels used in several world markets such as the ethanol blend E85 in the US, or E100 in Brazil, or biodiesel in Sweden243244 The Volt will be E85 flex-fuel capable about a year after its introduction245246

Electric machinesedit

In split path vehicles Toyota, Ford, GM, Chrysler there are two electrical machines, one of which functions as a motor primarily, and the other functions as a generator primarily One of the primary requirements of these machines is that they are very efficient, as the electrical portion of the energy must be converted from the engine to the generator, through two inverters, through the motor again and then to the wheels

Most of the electric machines used in hybrid vehicles are brushless DC motors BLDC Specifically, they are of a type called an interior permanent magnet IPM machine or motor These machines are wound similarly to the induction motors found in a typical home, but for high efficiency use very strong rare earth magnets in the rotor These magnets contain neodymium, iron and boron, and are therefore called Neodymium magnets

The price of Neodymium went through a price bubble due to Chinese export restriction in 2010–11, rising from $50/kg at the start of 2010 to $500/kg by the summer of 2011 This resulted in 'demand destruction' as many producers quickly turned to substituting induction motors in their cars to defend their production line This was in spite of such motors inferior 'power to weight' ratio attributes significantly impacting all but the most powerful energy guzzling motor sizes, eg those used in the Tesla As of April 2014 there are other non-Chinese producers of Neodymium and its price/kg is not much more than it was in 2010 Cutting edge UK motors that are now being produced are using Neodymium Permanent Magnet technology As security of supply returns, it is certain that there will accordingly be a return to superior motor designs that NdFeB Permanent Magnets enablecitation needed

Design considerationsedit

In some cases, manufacturers are producing HEVs that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost, rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts247 The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is partly controlled by the software within the hybrid system and partly the result of the engine, battery and motor size In the future, manufacturers may provide HEV owners with the ability to partially control this balance fuel efficiency vs added performance as they wish, through a user-controlled setting248 Toyota announced in January, 2006 that it was considering a "high-efficiency" buttoncitation needed

Conversion kitsedit

Main article: Electric vehicle conversion

One can buy a stock hybrid or convert a stock petroleum car to a hybrid electric vehicle using an aftermarket hybrid kit249

Environmental impactedit

For more details on this topic, see Hybrid vehicle § Environmental issues

Fuel consumptionedit

Main article: Fuel efficiency For more details on this topic, see Hybrid vehicle § Fuel consumption and emissions reductions

Current HEVs reduce petroleum consumption under certain circumstances, compared to otherwise similar conventional vehicles, primarily by using three mechanisms:250

  1. Reducing wasted energy during idle/low output, generally by turning the ICE off
  2. Recapturing waste energy ie regenerative braking
  3. Reducing the size and power of the ICE, and hence inefficiencies from under-utilization, by using the added power from the electric motor to compensate for the loss in peak power output from the smaller ICE

Any combination of these three primary hybrid advantages may be used in different vehicles to realize different fuel usage, power, emissions, weight and cost profiles The ICE in an HEV can be smaller, lighter, and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle, because the combustion engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand The drive system in a vehicle is required to operate over a range of speed and power, but an ICE's highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operation, making conventional vehicles inefficient On the contrary, in most HEV designs, the ICE operates closer to its range of highest efficiency more frequently The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines The greater fuel economy of HEVs has implication for reduced petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide251

Many hybrids use the Atkinson cycle, which gives greater efficiency, but less power for the size of engine

Noiseedit

See also: Electric vehicle warning sounds

Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of the electric motor at idling and low speeds, leading to roadway noise reduction,252 in comparison to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles, resulting in beneficial noise health effects although road noise from tires and wind, the loudest noises at highway speeds from the interior of most vehicles, are not affected by the hybrid design alone Reduced noise may not be beneficial for all road users, as blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets and feel quiet hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard253 Tests have shown that vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph 32 km/h254255

A 2009 study conducted by the NHTSA found that crashes involving pedestrian and bicyclist have higher incidence rates for hybrids than internal combustion engine vehicles in certain vehicle maneuvers These accidents commonly occurred on in zones with low speed limits, during daytime and in clear weather256

In January 2010 the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism issued guidelines for hybrid and other near-silent vehicles257 The Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010 was approved by the US Congress in December 2010,258259260 and the bill was signed into law by President Barack Obama on January 4, 2011261 A proposed rule was published for comment by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA in January, 2013 It would require hybrids and electric vehicles traveling at less than 186 miles per hour 30 km/h to emit warning sounds that pedestrians must be able to hear over background noises262263 The rules are scheduled to go into effect in September 2014263264 In April 2014 the European Parliament approved legislation that requires the mandatory use of Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems AVAS for all new electric and hybrid electric vehicles, and car manufacturers have to comply within 5 years265266

As of mid-2010, and in advance of upcoming legislation, some carmakers announced their decision to address this safety issue shared by regular hybrids and all types of plug-in electric vehicles, and as a result, the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt, both launched in late 2010, and the Nissan Fuga hybrid and the Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid, both launched in 2011, include synthesized sounds to alert pedestrians, the blind and others to their presence267268269270 Toyota introduced its Vehicle Proximity Notification System VPNS in the United States in all 2012 model year Prius family vehicles, including the Prius v, Prius Plug-in Hybrid and the standard Prius271272

There is also aftermarket technology available in California to make hybrids sound more like conventional combustion engine cars when the vehicle goes into the silent electric mode EV mode273 On August 2010 Toyota began sales in Japan of an onboard device designed to automatically emit a synthesized sound of an electric motor when the Prius is operating as an electric vehicle at speeds up to approximately 25 kilometres per hour 16 mph Toyota plans to use other versions of the device for use in gasoline-electric hybrids, plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles as well as fuel-cell hybrid vehicles planned for mass production257

Pollutionedit

See also: Hybrid Scorecard

Battery toxicity is a concern, although today's hybrids use NiMH batteries, not the environmentally problematic rechargeable nickel cadmium "Nickel metal hydride batteries are benign They can be fully recycled," says Ron Cogan, editor of the Green Car Journalthis quote needs a citation Toyota and Honda say that they will recycle dead batteries and that disposal will pose no toxic hazards Toyota puts a phone number on each battery, and they pay a $200 "bounty" for each battery to help ensure that it will be properly recycled

Top ten EPA-rated hybridsedit

The following table shows the fuel economy ratings and pollution indicators for the top ten most fuel efficient hybrids rated by the US Environmental Protection Agency as of June 2016update, for model year 2015 and 2016 available in the American market

Economic and environmental performance comparison
among EPA's top ten 2015/16 model year most fuel efficient hybrid models available in the US market274275
Vehicle Year
model
EPA
Combined
mileage
mpg
EPA
City
mpg
EPA
Highway
mpg
Annual
fuel
cost 1
USD
Tailpipe
emissions
grams per
mile CO2
EPA
Air Pollution
Score2
Annual
Petroleum
Use
barrel
Toyota Prius Eco 2016 56 58 53 US$650 158 NA 59
Toyota Prius 4th gen 2016 52 54 50 US$700 170 NA 63
Toyota Prius c 2015/16 50 53 46 US$700 178 7/8 66
Toyota Prius 3rd gen 2015 50 51 48 US$700 179 7/9 66
Honda Accord 2nd gen 2015 47 50 45 US$750 188 7/8 70
Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid 2016 46 47 46 US$750 212 7/8 78
Honda Civic Hybrid 3rd gen 2015 45 4 4 47 US$800 196 7/9 73
Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid 2015 45 42 48 US$950 200 7/9 73
2016 44 42 48 75
Ford Fusion 2nd gen 2015/16 42 44 41 US$850 211 7/9 78
2017 42 43 41 210 9/10
Toyota Prius v 2015/16 42 44 40 US$850 211 7/8 78
Source: US Department of Energy and US Environmental Protection Agency274
Notes: 1 Estimates assumes 15,000 miles 24,000 km per year 45% highway, 55% city using average fuel price of US$234/gallon for regular gasoline and US$257/gallon for premium gasoline
national average as of 7 June 2016update 2 All states except California and Northeastern states, otherwise274

Vehicle typesedit

Motorcyclesedit

Companies such as Zero Motorcycles276 and Vectrix have market-ready all-electric motorcycles available now, but the pairing of electrical components and an internal combustion engine ICE has made packaging cumbersome, especially for niche brands277

Also, eCycle Inc produces series diesel-electric motorcycles, with a top speed of 80 mph 130 km/h and a target retail price of $5500278

Peugeot HYmotion3 compressor,279280 a hybrid scooter is a three-wheeler that uses two separate power sources to power the front and back wheels The back wheel is powered by a single cylinder 125 cc, 20 bhp 15 kW single cylinder motor while the front wheels are each driven by their own electric motor When the bike is moving up to 10 km/h only the electric motors are used on a stop-start basis reducing the amount of carbon emissions281

SEMA has announced that Yamaha is going to launch one in 2010, with Honda following a year later, fueling a competition to reign in new customers and set new standards for mobility Each company hopes to provide the capability to reach 60 miles 97 km per charge by adopting advanced lithium-ion batteries to accomplish their claims These proposed hybrid motorcycles could incorporate components from the upcoming Honda Insight car and its hybrid powertrain The ability to mass-produce these items helps to overcome the investment hurdles faced by start-up brands and bring new engineering concepts into mainstream markets277

Automobiles and light trucksedit

See also: List of hybrid vehicles

High-performance carsedit

Mercedes F1 W06 Hybrid, driven by Nico Rosberg, during the 2015 Malaysian Grand Prix, using 16 L turbocharged V6 Hybrid engine

As emissions regulations become tougher for manufacturers to adhere to, a new generation of high-performance cars will be powered by hybrid technology for example the Porsche GT3 hybrid racing car Aside from the emissions benefits of a hybrid system, the immediately available torque which is produced from electric motors can lead to performance benefits by addressing the power curve weaknesses of a traditional combustion engine282 Hybrid racecars have been very successful, as is shown by the Audi R18 and Porsche 919, which have won the 24 hours of Le Mans using hybrid technologycitation needed

Formula 1edit

In 2014, Formula 1 has changed the cars from 24 L V8 engine to 16 L turbocharged V6 engine, limited to 15,000 rpm Turbocharged V6 engine speeds can go up to 360 km/h 220 mphcitation needed

Taxisedit

See also: Hybrid taxi A Toyota Camry Hybrid hybrid taxi in New York City

In 2000 North America's first hybrid electric taxi was put into service in Vancouver, British Columbia, operating a 2001 Toyota Prius which traveled over 332,000 km 206,000 mi before being retired283284 In 2015, taxi driver in Austria claims to have covered 1,000,000 km 620,000 mi in his Toyota Prius with the original battery pack285

Many of the major cities in the world are adding hybrid taxis to their taxicab fleets, led by San Francisco and New York City286 By 2009 15% of New York's 13,237 taxis in service are hybrids, the most in any city in North America, and also began retiring its original hybrid fleet after 300,000 and 350,000 miles 480,000 and 560,000 km per vehicle286287 Other cities where taxi service is available with hybrid vehicles include Tokyo, London, Sydney, Melbourne, and Rome288

Busesedit

Main article: Hybrid electric bus Hybrid-powered bus

Hybrid technology for buses has seen increased attention since recent battery developments decreased battery weight significantly Drivetrains consist of conventional diesel engines and gas turbines Some designs concentrate on using car engines, recent designs have focused on using conventional diesel engines already used in bus designs, to save on engineering and training costs Several manufacturers are currently working on new hybrid designs, or hybrid drivetrains that fit into existing chassis offerings without major re-design A challenge to hybrid buses may still come from cheaper lightweight imports from the former Eastern block countries or China, where national operators are looking at fuel consumption issues surrounding the weight of the bus, which has increased with recent bus technology innovations such as glazing, air conditioning and electrical systems A hybrid bus can also deliver fuel economy though through the hybrid drivetrain Hybrid technology is also being promoted by environmentally concerned transit authorities

Trucksedit

Main article: Hybrid electric truck Hino hybrid diesel-electric truck

In 2003, GM introduced a hybrid diesel-electric military light truck, equipped with a diesel electric and a fuel cell auxiliary power unit Hybrid electric light trucks were introduced in 2004 by Mercedes Benz Sprinter and Micro-Vett SPA Daily Bimodale International Truck and Engine Corp and Eaton Corp have been selected to manufacture diesel-electric hybrid trucks for a US pilot program serving the utility industry in 2004 In mid-2005 Isuzu introduced the Elf Diesel Hybrid Truck on the Japanese Market They claim that approximately 300 vehicles, mostly route buses are using Hinos HIMR Hybrid Inverter Controlled Motor & Retarder system In 2007, high petroleum price means a hard sell for hybrid trucks289 and appears the first US production hybrid truck International DuraStar Hybrid290

Other vehicles are:

  • Big mining machines like the Liebherr T 282B dump truck or Keaton Vandersteen LeTourneau L-2350 wheel loader are powered that way Also there was several models of BelAZ 7530 and 7560 series in USSR now in Belarus since the middle of 1970th291
  • NASA's huge Crawler-Transporters are diesel-electric
  • Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid is a diesel-electric commercial truck
  • Azure Dynamics Balance Hybrid Electric is a gasoline-hybrid electric medium dutry truck based on the Ford E-450 chassis
  • Hino Motors a Toyota subsidiary has the world's first production hybrid electric truck in Australia 110 kW or 150 hp diesel engine plus a 23 kW or 31 hp electric motor292

Other hybrid petroleum-electric truck makers are DAF Trucks, MAN AG with MAN TGL Series, Nissan Motors and Renault Trucks with Renault Puncher

Hybrid electric truck technology and powertrain maker: ZF Friedrichshafen, EPower Engine Systems

By a voice vote, the United States House of Representatives approved the wwwcongressgov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/445 for heavy duty plug-in hybrid vehicles authored by representative James Sensenbrenner

Military vehiclesedit

Some 70 years after Porsche's pioneering efforts in hybrid-drivetrain armored fighting vehicles in World War II, the United States Army's manned ground vehicles of the Future Combat System all use a hybrid electric drive consisting of a diesel engine to generate electrical power for mobility and all other vehicle subsystems However, with the current 2010 DOD budget all FCS land vehicles have been put on hold Other military hybrid prototypes include the Millenworks Light Utility Vehicle, the International FTTS, HEMTT model A3, and the Shadow RST-V

Locomotivesedit

Main article: Hybrid Locomotive

In May 2003, JR East started test runs with the so-called NE new energy train and validated the system's functionality series hybrid with lithium-ion battery in cold regions In 2004, Railpower Technologies had been running pilots in the US with the so-called Green Goats,293 which led to orders by the Union Pacific294 and Canadian Pacific295 Railways starting in early 2005

Railpower offers hybrid electric road switchers,296 as does GE297 Diesel-electric locomotives may not always be considered HEVs, not having energy storage on board, unless they are fed with electricity via a collector for short distances for example, in tunnels with emission limits, in which case they are better classified as dual-mode vehicles

Marine and other aquaticedit

Main article: Electric boat

For large boats that are already diesel-electric, the upgrade to hybrid can be as straightforward as adding a large battery bank and control equipment; this configuration can provide fuel saving for the operators as well as being more environmentally sensitive298

Producers of marine hybrid propulsion include:

  • eCycle Inc299
  • Solar Sailor Holdings

Aircraftedit

Boeing has stated that for the subsonic concept, hybrid electric engine technology is a clear winner Hybrid electric propulsion has the potential to shorten takeoff distance and reduce noise300 The AgustaWestland Project Zero is one aircraft that is intended to be hybrid-electric

The DA36 E-Star, an aircraft designed by Siemens, Diamond Aircraft and EADS, employs a series hybrid powertrain with the propeller being turned only by a Siemens 70 kW 94 hp electric motor The aim is to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by up to 25% An onboard 40 hp 30 kW Austro Engines Wankel rotary engine and generator provides the electricity because of the small size, light weight and high power-to-weight ratio of the engines The electric motor also uses electricity stored in batteries to take off and climb reducing sound emissions by eliminating the engine The series hybrid powertrain using the Wankel engine reduces the weight of the plane by 100 kilos to its predecessor The DA36 E-Star first flew in June 2013, making this the first ever flight of a series hybrid powertrain Diamond aircraft state that the technology using Wankel engines is scalable to a 100-seater aircraft301302

Hybrid premium and showroom cost parityedit

Fuel use in vehicle designs
Vehicle type Fuel used
All-petroleum vehicle Most use of petroleum
Regular hybrid electric vehicle Less use of petroleum, but unable to be plugged in
Plug-in hybrid vehicle Residual use of petroleum More use of electricity
All-electric vehicle Most use of electricity
  • v
  • e

HEVs can be initially more expensive the so-called "hybrid premium" than pure fossil-fuel-based ICE vehicles, due to extra batteries, more electronics and in some cases other design considerations although battery renting can be used to reach the cost parity The trade-off between higher initial cost also called showroom costs and lower fuel costs difference often referred to as the payback period is dependent on usage – miles traveled, or hours of operation, fuel costs, and in some cases, government subsidies Traditional economy vehicles may result in a lower direct cost for many users before consideration of any externality

Consumer Reports ran an article in April 2006 stating that HEVs would not pay for themselves over 5 years of ownership However, this included an error with charging the "hybrid premium" twice303 When corrected, the Honda Civic Hybrid and Toyota Prius did have a payback period of slightly less than 5 years304 This includes conservative estimates with depreciation seen as more depreciation than a conventional vehicle, although that is not the current norm and with progressively higher gas prices In particular, the Consumer Reports article assumed $2/US gallon for 3 years, $3/US gallon for one year and $4/US gallon the last year As recent events have shown, this is a volatile market and hard to predict For 2006, gas prices ranged from low $2 to low $3, averaging about $260/US gallon

A January 2007 analysis by Intellichoicecom shows that all 22 currently available HEVs will save their owners money over a five-year period The most savings is for the Toyota Prius, which has a five-year cost of ownership 403% lower than the cost of comparable non-hybrid vehicles305

A report in the Greeley Tribune says that over the five years it would typically take for a new car owner to pay off the vehicle cost differential, a hybrid Camry driver could save up to $6,700 in gasoline at current gasoline prices, with hybrid tax incentives as an additional saving306

In countries with incentives to fight against global warming and contamination and promote vehicle fuel efficiency, the pay-back period can be immediate, and all-combustion-engine vehicles can cost more than hybrids because they generate more pollution

Toyota and Honda have already said they've halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future even without incentives307

Raw materials shortageedit

See also: Rare earth metals availability and supply security

The rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems308309

However, nearly all the rare earth elements in the world come from China,310 and one analyst believes that an overall increase in Chinese electronics manufacturing may consume this entire supply by 2012309 In addition, export quotas on Chinese rare earth exports have resulted in a generally shaky supply of those metals308311

A few non-Chinese sources such as the advanced Hoidas Lake project in northern Canada and Mt Weld in Australia are currently under development,311 however it is not known if these sources will be developed before a shortage hits

Legislation and incentivesedit

In order to encourage the purchase of HEVs, several countries have introduced legislation for incentives and ecotaxes

Canadaedit

Residents of Ontario and Quebec in Canada can claim a rebate on the Provincial Retail Sales Tax of up to $2,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of a hybrid electric vehicle312 Ontario has a green license plate for hybrid car users and was to announce a slew of benefits to go along with it in 2008313 Residents in British Columbia are eligible for a 100% reduction of sales tax up to a maximum of $2,000 if the hybrid electric vehicle is purchased or leased before April 1, 2011, extended in 2007/2008 budget from March 31, 2008, and expanded from a maximum of only $1,000 from April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, at which point the concession was scheduled to expire314 Prince Edward Island residents can claim rebates on the Provincial Sales Tax of up to $3,000 CDN on the purchase or lease of any hybrid vehicles since March 30, 2004315

Israeledit

In Haifa, hybrid vehicles are entitled to a free parking in city's parking lots for domestic citizens Other cities, such as Petah-Tikva, have quickly adopted similar free parking for hybrid cars

Japanedit

In 2009 the Japanese government implemented a set of policies and incentives that included a scrappage program, tax breaks on hybrid vehicles and other low emission cars and trucks, and a higher levy on gasoline that raised prices in the order of USD 450 per gallon New hybrid car sales for 2009 were almost triple those for 200859188

Jordanedit

In Jordan, customs and sales tax reduced for all hybrid vehicles from 55% to 25% of the vehicle list price, 125% customs fees and sales tax, if the new hybrid is a replacement for an old car more than 10 years age

Malaysiaedit

In Malaysia, since mid 2014 all CBU fully imported hybrid and EV cars sold in Malaysia gets significantly increase of price after the CBU hybrid and EV incentive package that expired on December 31, 2013 The cars that effected are Toyota Prius, Toyota Prius c, Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda CR-Z, Lexus CT200h, Audi A6 Hybrid, Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Nissan Leaf However the exemption of excise duties and import taxes for hybrids and EV will be extended for models that are CKD assembled in Malaysia The exemption will be extended until December 31, 2015 for hybrids and December 31, 2017 for EVs Only the locally assembled Honda Jazz Hybrid, Mercedes-Benz S400 L Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid and the facelifted Nissan Serena S-Hybrid are entitled for hybrid inducements

Netherlandsedit

In the Netherlands, the vehicle registration tax VRT, payable when a car is sold to its first buyer, can earn the owner of an HEV a discount up to €6,000

New Zealandedit

In Christchurch, hybrid vehicles are entitled to an hour free parking in city council parking buildings Where those buildings already provide an hour free, hybrid vehicles are entitled to an extra hour free

Republic of Irelandedit

In the Republic of Ireland, a discount of up to €1500 on VRT for hybrids, and up to €2500 for plugin hybrids is available until 31 December 2012316 Previously there was a potential reduction of 50% of VRT applicable before July 2008, when VRT rates were based on engine size, rather than the current CO2 emissions system317

Swedenedit

In Sweden there is an "Eco car" subsidy of SEK 10 000 ~ USD 1600 cash payout to private car owners For fringe benefit cars there is a reduction of the benefit tax of 40% for EVs & HEVs and 20% for other "Eco cars"318

United Kingdomedit

Drivers of HEVs in the United Kingdom benefit from the lowest band of vehicle excise duty car tax, which is based on carbon dioxide emissions In central London, these vehicles are also exempt from the £115 daily London congestion charge319 Due to their low levels of regulated emissions, the greenest cars are eligible for 100% discount under the current system To be eligible the car must be on the current Power Shift Register320 At present, these include the cleanest LPG and natural gas cars and most hybrid-, battery- and fuel cell-electric vehicles

United Statesedit

See also: Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

Federaledit

Further information: Hybrid tax credit

Through to December 31, 2010, the IRS permitted the purchaser of a hybrid electric car a federal income tax credit up to $3,400321 The tax credit was to be phased out two calendar quarters after the manufacturer reached 60,000 new cars sold in the following manner: it was reduced to 50% if delivered in either the third or fourth quarter after the threshold was reached, to 25% in the fifth and sixth quarters, and 0% thereafter322

As of April 2010, three auto manufactures reached the 60,000 cap; Toyota Motor Company reached it in 2007, Honda in 2008, and as of April 1, 2010, no Ford Motor Company hybrid vehicles remained eligible for this tax credit323 Vehicles purchased after December 31, 2010 are not eligible for this credit, as this benefit will expire on this date321323

States and localedit

  • Certain states eg, California, Florida, New York, and Virginia allowed singly occupied HEVs to enter the HOV lanes on the highway Initially, the Federal Highway Administration ruled that this was a violation of federal statute324 until August 10, 2005, when George W Bush signed the Transportation Equity Act of 2005 into law In California, a total of 85,250 owners of the three eligible hybrid models benefited from free access to HOV lanes from 2004 to mid-2011325 This incentive expired on July 1, 2011, and now hybrids are required to comply the minimum passenger requirements to use the HOV lanes326
  • Some states, eg, California, exempted hybrid electric cars from the biennial smog inspection, which costs over $50 as of 2004update
  • Until 2007, the city of San Jose, California issued a free parking tag for hybrid electric cars purchased at San Jose dealerships, after which the tag began being issued for a fee annually The qualified owners did not have to pay for parking in any city garage or at roadside parking meterscitation needed
  • Beginning October 1, 2004, the city of Los Angeles, California offers free parking to all HEVs The experiment is an extension to an existing offer of free parking for all pure electrical vehicles
  • In October 2005, the city of Baltimore, Maryland, started to offer discount on monthly parking in the city parking lots, and is considering free meter parking for HEVs
  • On 3 November 2005, The Boston Globe reported that Boston's city council was considering the same treatment for hybrid electric cars
  • Annual vehicle registration fees in Washington, DC are $36, half those paid for conventional vehicles $72citation needed

See alsoedit

  • Energy portal
  • renewable energy portal
  • Sustainable development portal
  • Energy Policy Act of 2005
  • Global Hybrid Cooperation
  • Comparison of Toyota hybrids
  • List of hybrid vehicles
  • Low-carbon fuel standard
  • Plug-in hybrid
  • Plug-in electric vehicle
  • Super ultra-low emission vehicle
  • UltraCommuter

Notesedit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Surpass 10 Million Units" Press release Toyota City, Japan: Toyota 2017-01-14 Retrieved 2017-01-15 This latest milestone of 10 million units was achieved just nine months after total sales reached 9 million units at the end of April 2016 
  2. ^ a b c d e "History of Hybrid Vehicles" HybridCarscom 2006-03-27 Archived from the original on 2009-02-08 Retrieved 2010-03-21 
  3. ^ a b c Matt Lake 2001-11-08 "How it works; A Tale of 2 Engines: How Hybrid Cars Tame Emissions" The New York Times Retrieved 2010-03-22 
  4. ^ Elizabeth Lowery 2007-07-01 "Energy diversity as a business imperative" The Futurist Retrieved 2010-03-21 
  5. ^ Dale Buss and Michelle Krebs 2008-06-03 "Big Three, Big Vehicles Taken to the Watershed in May" Edmunds Auto Observer Retrieved 2010-03-21 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Cobb, Jeff 2016-06-06 "Americans Buy Their Four-Millionth Hybrid Car" HybridCarscom Retrieved 2016-06-06 
  7. ^ a b c d Automotive Industry Data AID 2017-02-17 "Japan – Global car hybrid capital" AID Newsletter Retrieved 2017-02-23 
  8. ^ a b c Dan Rutherford 2014-04-04 "Hybrids break through in the Japan auto market" International Council on Clean Transportation ICCT Retrieved 2015-01-25 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i International Council on Clean Transportation ICCT 2016 "European Vehicle Market Statistics – Pocketbook 2015/16" PDF ICCT Retrieved 2016-06-17  See Figure 4-2 and 4–6, pp 41–44 See also tables in pp 81–107 for HEV market by country from 2001 to 2014
  10. ^ a b Honda Press Release 2012-10-15 "Cumulative worldwide sales of Honda hybrids passes 1 million units" Green Car Congress Retrieved 2012-10-16 
  11. ^ a b Roger Schreffler 2014-07-14 "Toyota Strengthens Grip on Japan EV, Hybrid Market" Ward's AutoWorld Retrieved 2014-04-30  Honda sold 187,851 hybrids in 2013
  12. ^ a b Roger Schreffler 2014-08-20 "Toyota Remains Unchallenged Global Hybrid Leader" Ward's AutoWorld Retrieved 2014-10-04  Honda sold 158,696 hybrids during the first six months of 2014
  13. ^ a b Will Nichols 2012-06-25 "Ford tips hybrids to overshadow electric cars" Business Green Retrieved 2012-10-16  By June 2012 Ford had sold 200,000 full hybrids in the US since 2004
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeff Cobb 2013-04-22 "December 2012 Dashboard" HybridCarscom and Baum & Associates Retrieved 2013-09-08  See the section: December 2012 Hybrid Cars Numbers A total of 434,498 hybrid electric vehicles were sold during 2012 Ford sold 32,543 hybrids in the US during 2012, including 14,100 Ford Fusion Hybrids, 10,935 C-Max Hybrids, 6,067 Lincoln MKZ Hybrids, and 1,441 Ford Escape Hybrids
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeff Cobb 2014-01-06 "December 2013 Dashboard" HybridCarscom and Baum & Associates Retrieved 2014-01-11 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jeff Cobb 2015-01-06 "December 2014 Dashboard" HybridCarscom and Baum & Associates Retrieved 2015-01-21 
  17. ^ a b Jeff Cobb 2015-07-02 "June 2015 Dashboard" HybridCarscom and Baum & Associates Retrieved 2015-08-22 
  18. ^ a b IHS Inc 2014-05-16 "News – Hyundai-Kia reports cumulative global hybrid sales of 200,000 units" IHS Technology Retrieved 2014-10-04 
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  26. ^ Crippen, A December 15, 2008 "Warren Buffett's Electric Car Hits the Chinese Market, But Rollout Delayed For US & Europe" CNBC Retrieved December 2008
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  78. ^ "Design of the Daimler S400 Mild Hybrid System" Green Car Congress 2009-06-11 Retrieved 2010-03-22 
  79. ^ Henny Hemmes 2009-10-28 "2010 BMW 7 Series ActiveHybrid Review" The Auto Channel Retrieved 2010-03-22 
  80. ^ Jim Motavalli 2009-12-09 "BMW: Hybrids Not the Only Green Answer" The New York Times Retrieved 2010-03-23 
  81. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam 2009-11-14 "Mercedes-Benz ML450 Hybrid launches next week for lease only" Autoblog Green Retrieved 2010-03-22 
  82. ^ a b "UK: Toyota prepares for hybrid production" Just-auto 2010-05-12 Retrieved 2010-05-27 
  83. ^ Williams, Stephen 2010-08-25 "Honda Jazz Hybrid Will Get Paris Premiere" The New York Times Retrieved 2010-08-26 
  84. ^ "Honda to Begin Sales of Two More Hybrid Models in 2010" Honda 2009-07-13 Retrieved 2010-03-24 
  85. ^ "Toyota Auris Hybrid Starts at $27,450" Edmunds Inside Line 2010-05-18 Retrieved 2010-05-27 
  86. ^ "Hybrid Invasion of Europe Begins with Auris Hybrid" HybridCars 2010-06-30 Retrieved 2010-07-01 
  87. ^ "What Car Green Awards 2010 – And the 2010 Award winner is" What Car 2010-07-01 Retrieved 2010-07-01 
  88. ^ "2011 Toyota Auris HSD T Spirit First Drive" Edmunds Inside Line 2010-05-26 Retrieved 2010-05-27 
  89. ^ "Ford Introduces 2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid; Projected 41 mpg City" Green Car Congress 2010-03-31 Retrieved 2010-04-05 
  90. ^ "September 2010 Dashboard: Hybrid Sales Slide, While Clean Diesel Continues Growth" HybridCarscom 2010-10-05 Retrieved 2010-10-05 
  91. ^ Jim Motavalli 2010-07-22 "Is This the End of the Hybrid Price Premium" The New York Times Retrieved 2010-07-25 
  92. ^ Nick Kurczewski 2010-03-05 "Geneva Auto Show: 2011 VW Touareg and 2012 Touareg Hybrid" The New York Times Retrieved 2010-03-26 
  93. ^ Scott Evans March 2010 "First Drive: 2011 Volkswagen Touareg" Motor Trend Retrieved 2010-03-26 
  94. ^ "VW to launch hybrid Jetta in 2012" Parker's Archived from the original on 2013-01-14 Retrieved 2010-03-26 
  95. ^ Motor Authority 2010-03-17 "VW To Focus on Several Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Launches Including Golf, Jetta, Passat and More" All Cars Electric Retrieved 2010-03-26 
  96. ^ Lawrence Ulrich 2010-04-01 "Amid Signs of Spring, Hints of Green" The New York Times Retrieved 2010-04-04 
  97. ^ "2011 Hybrid Cars" HybridCarscom 2011-01-13 Retrieved 2015-08-22 
  98. ^ "First Production Diesel-Electric Hybrid: Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4 at the 2010 Paris Auto Show" Edmunds Inside Line 2010-08-24 Retrieved 2010-08-24 
  99. ^ "Peugeot's Diesel 3008 Hybrid4" Green Car Congress 2010-08-24 Retrieved 2010-08-24 
  100. ^ Kim, Chang-Ran 2011-05-13 "UPDATE 1-Toyota gets 25,000 pre-sale orders for Prius Alpha in Japan" Reuters Retrieved 2011-05-13 
  101. ^ Donny Nordlicht 2012-03-12 "Make It Yours: 2012 Toyota Prius c Configurator Goes Live" Motor Trend Retrieved 2012-03-12 
  102. ^ Toyota Press Release 2011-11-15 "Prius C revealed among Toyota lineup for Tokyo Motor Show" AutoblogGreen Retrieved 2012-03-12  See press release for details
  103. ^ Toyota Press Release 2012-03-07 "2012 Toyota Yaris Hybrid plays big brother to the Prius C" Autoblog Green Retrieved 2012-03-08 
  104. ^ HybridCarscom and Baum & Associates 2012-10-04 "September 2012 Dashboard" HybridCarscom Retrieved 2012-10-21 
  105. ^ "Toyota introduces 7th generation Camry for 2012 with improved fuel economy and performance across all models; ~39% jump in EPA city cycle fuel economy for the hybrid" Green Car Congress 2011-08-23 Retrieved 2012-10-21 
  106. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield 2012-09-18 "2013 Ford Fusion Hybrid Gets EPA-Approved 47MPG All-Round" Green Car Reports Retrieved 2012-10-21 
  107. ^ Toyota Europe News 2013-07-03 "Worldwide Prius sales top 3-million mark; Prius family sales at 34 million" Green Car Congress Retrieved 2013-07-03 
  108. ^ Toyota News Japan 2013-08-06 "Toyota launches Corolla hybrid models in Japan" Green Car Congress Retrieved 2013-08-06 
  109. ^ Honda News 2013-12-20 "Honda begins sales of new VEZEL and VEZEL hybrid in Japan" Green Car Congress Retrieved 2013-12-30 
  110. ^ Steven J Ewing 2013-09-11 "Land Rover debuts Range Rover Hybrid, not bound for US" Autoblogcom Retrieved 2013-09-11 
  111. ^ Philippe Crowe 2014-11-28 "Ford Mondeo Hybrid Now In EU Production" HybridCarscom Retrieved 2014-11-30 
  112. ^ a b c 国内のHV車販売、100万台突破へ…14年 Domestic hybrid car sales, one million unit mark topped in 2014 Yomiuri Shimbun in Japanese 2014-12-30 Retrieved 2015-01-24  Over 1 million hybrid electric cars were sold in Japan in 2014 Side graph shows cumulative sales since 2010 of more than 4 million hybrids in the country
  113. ^ a b c Matt Gasnier 2015-02-16 "Japan Full Year 2014: Now with exclusive Top 189 All-local models" Best Selling Cars Blog Retrieved 2015-02-16  For the first time annual Japanese domestic sales in 2014 exceeded 1 million thanks to it also being the first time that all eight major manufacturers offer hybrid vehicles in their lineup
  114. ^ "Toyota starts sales of 4th generation Prius" Associated Press Mail Online 2015-12-09 Retrieved 2015-12-17 
  115. ^ U S Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Energy 2015-12-22 "Most Efficient EPA Certified Vehicles" fueleconomygov Retrieved 2015-12-26  The 2014–15 BMW i3 BEV is the most efficient EPA-certified vehicles considering all fuels and of all years As of March 2015update, the 2016 Toyota Prius Eco hybrid car is most efficient EPA-certified vehicle with a gasoline engine without plug-in capability
  116. ^ John Voelcker 2015-12-21 "2016 Toyota Prius: Most Fuel-Efficient Car Without A Plug, Ever" Green Car Reports Retrieved 2015-12-24 
  117. ^ U S Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Energy 2015-12-22 "Fueleconomygov's Top Fuel Sippers EPA Ratings, All Years" fueleconomygov Retrieved 2015-12-26  Excludes all-electric vehicles
  118. ^ Philippe Crowe 2014-09-05 "Toyota Has Now Sold 100,000 Hybrids In Canada" HybridCarscom Retrieved 2015-01-24  Since 2000, over 100,000 Lexus and Toyota hybrids have been sold in Canada by early September 2014, representing almost 75% of all hybrids sold in the country
  119. ^ a b "Toyota Is Global Hybrid Leader With Sales Of 7 Million" Press release Torrance, California: Toyota 2014-10-13 Retrieved 2015-01-24 
  120. ^ "Toyota Sells 50000 Hybrid Cars in Australia" Press release Melbourne: Toyota Australia 2014-03-27 Retrieved 2015-01-24 
  121. ^ a b "50,000 Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Sold in Europe by PSA Peugeot Citroën" Reuters 2014-01-10 Retrieved 2014-10-04 
  122. ^ Toyota News Release 2014-01-14 "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Top 6 Million Units" Toyota USA Retrieved 2014-01-15 
  123. ^ "Toyota sells three million Prius hybrids" Motoring Australia 2013-07-04 Retrieved 2013-09-29 
  124. ^ a b John Voelcker 2014-10-03 "Toyota Racks Up 7 Million Hybrids Sold Since 1997" Green Car Reports Retrieved 2014-10-03 
  125. ^ a b "Toyota tops 2 million hybrid sales worldwide" AutobloGreen 2009-09-04 Retrieved 2009-10-24 
  126. ^ "Toyota and Lexus Hybrids Top One Million Sales in the US" The Auto Channel 2009-03-11 Retrieved 2009-03-28 
  127. ^ Edward A Sanchez 2011-03-08 "Worldwide Sales of Toyota and Lexus Hybrids Tops 3 Million" Motor Trend Retrieved 2013-09-08 
  128. ^ Toyota Press Room 2013-04-17 "Toyota cumulative global hybrid sales pass 5M, nearly 2M in US" Green Car Congress Retrieved 2013-04-17  The breakdown by model is missing the Toyota Aqua, which is a rebadge version of the Prius c
  129. ^ "With 8 Million Units Sold, Toyota Proves Hybrids Have Staying Power" Press release Toyota City, Japan: Toyota 2015-08-21 Retrieved 2015-08-22 
  130. ^ a b c d e f "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Surpass 9 Million Units" Press release Toyota City, Japan: Toyota 2016-05-20 Retrieved 2016-05-22 
  131. ^ Craig Trudell 2013-12-30 "Ford Widens US Sales Lead Over Toyota on Hybrid Models" Bloomberg News Retrieved 2014-05-01 
  132. ^ PR Newswire 2013-07-23 "Ford Delivers Best Hybrid Sales Quarter Ever; Grows Its Market Share and Attracts New Customers to the Brand" Market Watch Retrieved 2013-08-30 
  133. ^ "Ford doubles electric drive market share in US from 2012 to 2013; surging with plug-in hybrids" Green Car Congress 2013-10-04 Retrieved 2013-10-06 
  134. ^ "Toyota sells One-Millionth Prius in the US" Green Car Congress 2011-04-06 Retrieved 2011-04-07 
  135. ^ a b Eric Loveday 2011-09-15 "Toyota sells 1 millionth Prius in Japan" Autoblog Green Retrieved 2012-03-08 
  136. ^ John Simpson 2012-12-21 "Lexus hybrid sales exceed half-million mark" The Green Car website Retrieved 2012-12-21 
  137. ^ a b c "February 2009 Hybrid Market Dashboard" PDF hybridCarscom 2009-03-13 Retrieved 2010-03-15 
  138. ^ a b "February 2008 Hybrid Market Dashboard" PDF hybridCarscom 2008-03-14 Retrieved 2010-03-15 
  139. ^ Toyota News 2014-01-15 トヨタ自動車、 ハイブリッド車のグローバル累計販売台数が600万台を突破 Toyota cumulative global sales of hybrid vehicles exceeded 6 million in Japanese Toyota Retrieved 2014-04-30 
  140. ^ a b c d Toyota Press Release 2013-04-17 "Worldwide Sales of TMC Hybrids Top 5 Million Units" Toyota Retrieved 2013-04-23 
  141. ^ a b c "Hybrids paving the way for electrics: SBI Energy" Canadian Driver 2010-02-22 Retrieved 2010-03-15  Domestic hybrid sales were 334,000 units in 2009
  142. ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff 2016-01-06 "December 2015 Dashboard" HybridCars and Baum & Associates Retrieved 2016-06-05  Hybrid car sales in the US totaled 384,404 units in 2015
  143. ^ a b c d e "December 2011 Dashboard: Sales Still Climbing" HybridCARScom 2012-01-09 Retrieved 2012-01-10 
  144. ^ a b c d e f g h "US HEV sales by Model 1999–2013" Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center US DoE Retrieved 2015-01-21  Total registered electric hybrids in the US is 1,888,971 vehicles until December 2010 Click on the graph to show sales by model and year total Source: HybridCarscom
  145. ^ a b c d e f g h European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA January 2016 "New Passenger Car Registrations by Alternative Fuel Type in the European Union – Quarter 4 2015" PDF ACEA Retrieved 2016-06-13  See table Hybrid electric vehicles: New Passenger Car Registrations by Market European Union page 4/5 A total of 234,170 new passenger hybrid electric cars were sold in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2015, and 192,664 in 2014
  146. ^ a b c d e AVERE-France 2014-01-08 "Baromètre Avere-France des ventes de véhicules électriques et hybrides – bilan 2013" Barometer AVERE-France Sales of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles – Balance Sheet 2013 in French France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France Retrieved 2015-01-25  A total of 32,799 petrol/electric and 13,986 diesel/electric hybrids were sold in France in 2013
  147. ^ a b c Michaël Torregrossa 2013-01-15 "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" Hybrid Cars – The balance of 2012 registrations in France in French Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen AVEM Retrieved 2013-04-23 
  148. ^ a b c d e Comité des Constructeurs Français d’Automobiles CCFA 2012-01-16 "Les ventes de véhicules électriques ont été quintuplées en 2011" Sales of electric vehicles multiplied by five in 2011 in French CCFA Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  149. ^ a b Association AVEM 2011-02-08 "Les ventes de voitures hybrides en France sous la barre des 10000 exemplaires en 2010" Sales of hybrid cars in France just below the 10,000 units barrier in 2010 in French AVEM Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  150. ^ a b c Moteur Nature 2010-01-13 "Les ventes d'électriques et d'hybrides en France en 2009" Sales of hybrid and electric cars in France in 2009 in French Moteur Nature Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  151. ^ a b Moteur Nature 2008-01-05 "L'européen résiste encore à l'hybride" The EU still resisting the hybrid in French Moteur Nature Retrieved 2012-02-08 
  152. ^ a b c Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders SMMT 2016-01-07 "December 2015 – EV registrations" SMT Retrieved 2016-06-14  A total of 40,707 petrol/electric and 3,873 diesel/electric hybrids were registered in the UK during 2015
  153. ^ a b c d Society of Motor Manufacturers and TradersSMMT 2015-01-07 "December 2014 – EV registrations" SMT Retrieved 2015-01-25  A total of 34,480 petrol/electric and 2,835 diesel/electric hybrids were registered in the UK during 2014
  154. ^ a b Society of Motor Manufacturers and TradersSMMT 2014-01-07 "December 2013 – EV registrations" SMT Retrieved 2014-05-26  A total of 23,616 petrol/electric and 1,284 diesel/electrics in 2012
  155. ^ a b Society of Motor Manufacturers and TradersSMMT 2013-01-07 "December 2012 – EV and AFV registrations" SMT Retrieved 2014-05-26  During 2011 a total of 23,366 petrol/electric hybrids and 25 diesel/electric hybrids were registered
  156. ^ a b Society of Motor Manufacturers and TradersSMMT 2012-01-06 "December 2011 – EV and AFV registrations" SMMT Retrieved 2014-05-26 
  157. ^ a b c d Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders SMMT 2010 "Motor Industry Facts 2010" PDF SMMT Retrieved 2012-02-05 Download the pdf report Data available by year in Table: AFV Registrations by fuel type, pp27
  158. ^ Moroni, Luca 2014-01-03 "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2013 in Italia" Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2013 in Italian Green Start Retrieved 2016-06-13 
  159. ^ Moroni, Luca 2013-01-03 "I dati di vendita di auto elettriche e ibride a dicembre 2012 in Italia" Sales figures of electric and hybrid cars in Italy through December 2012 in Italian Green Start Retrieved 2016-06-13 
  160. ^ a b BestSellingCarscom 2012-10-16 "2011 Full Year Car Sales by Fuel Type in European Countries" BestSellingCarscom Retrieved 2016-06-14 
  161. ^ a b Bekker, Henk 2013-01-03 "2015 Full Year Germany: Electric and Hybrid Car Sales" BestSellingCarscom Retrieved 2016-06-13  A total of 33,630 hybrids were registered in Germany during 2015, including 11,101 plug-in hybrids
  162. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes KBA January 2015 "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2014" New Registrations Barometer December 2014 in German KBA Retrieved 2016-06-13  A total of 27,435 hybrids were registered in Germany during 2014, including 4,527 plug-in hybrids
  163. ^ a b Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA January 2014 "Neuzulassungen – Jahresbilanz der Neuzulassungen 2013" New registrations – Balance Sheet of new registrations in 2013 in German KBA Retrieved 2016-06-13  A total of 26,348 hybrids were registered in Germany during 2013, including 1,385 plug-in hybrids
  164. ^ BestSellingCarscom 2013-01-03 "2012 Full Year Germany: Electric and Hybrid Car Sales" BestSellingCarscom Retrieved 2013-04-23 
  165. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA January 2012 "Monatliche Neuzulassungen – Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2011" Monthly registrations – new registrations barometer in December 2011 in German KBA Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  166. ^ a b c d Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA 2011 "Emissionen, Kraftstoffe – Zeitreihe 2005 bis 2010" Emissions, fuels – Time Series 2005–2010 in German KBA Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  167. ^ a b Sara Soria 2014-01-08 "Más vehículos híbridos y eléctricos en 2013" More hybrid and electric vehicles in 2013 in Spanish Cochesnet Retrieved 2014-05-31 
  168. ^ a b "Ventas en España de coches híbridos en 2012" Sales in Spain of hybrid cars in 2012 Motorpasion Futuro in Spanish 2013-01-13 Retrieved 2013-05-31  Toyota Prius sales include the Prius + and the plug-in version Hybrid sales also include 2 BYD F3DMs
  169. ^ a b Ibañez 2012-01-06 "Ventas en España de coches híbridos y eléctricos en 2011" Spain sales of hybrid and electric cars in 2011 in Spanish Motor Pasión Futuro Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  170. ^ a b c Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland RVO January 2016 "Special: Analyse over 2015" Special: Analysis over 2015 PDF in Dutch RVO Dutch National Office for Enterprising Retrieved 2016-06-13  A total of 13,752 conventional hybrids, 41,226 plug-in hybrids and 2,543 all-electric cars were registered in the Netherlands in 2015 Registrations of hybrids totaled 131,011 units at the end of 2015
  171. ^ a b Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland RVO January 2015 "Special: Analyse over 2014" Special: Analyse over 2014 PDF in Dutch RVO Dutch National Office for Enterprising Retrieved 2015-01-25  A total of 10,341 conventional hybrids, 12,425 plug-in hybrids and 2,664 all-electric cars were registered in the Netherlands in 2014
  172. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland RVO January 2014 "Special: Analyse over 2013" Special analysis of 2013 PDF in Dutch RVO Dutch National Office for Enterprising Retrieved 2014-04-29 
  173. ^ RAI "Verkoopstatistieken-nieuwverkoop personenautos" Sales Statistics – New passenger car sales in Dutch RAI Vereniging Archived from the original on 2014-03-28 Retrieved 2013-04-23  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2012 "Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212" The total of 23,850 units registered in 2012 includes E-REVs and PHEVs
  174. ^ Agentschap NL – Ministerie van Economische Zaken -RDW April 2014 "Cijfers elektrich vervoer – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland" Figures electric transport- Sales Statistics – Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands in Dutch Agentschap NL Retrieved 2014-05-01  A total of 4,331 plug-in hybrids E-REV, PHEV were registered in 2012
  175. ^ RAI "Verkoopstatistieken 2010 – nieuwverkoop personenautos" Sales Statistics 2010 – New passenger car sales in Dutch RAI Vereniging Retrieved 2013-04-23  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2010 "Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201012"
  176. ^ a b c RAI "Verkoopstatistieken 2007, 2008 and 2009 – nieuwverkoop personenautos" Sales Statistics 2007, 2008 and 2009 – New passenger car sales in Dutch RAI Vereniging Retrieved 2013-04-23  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2009 "Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 2009", the excel file for 2008 sales Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 2008 and the excel file for 2007 sales Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 2007
  177. ^ Jeremy Cato 2014-10-21 "Sorry Canada, it's Americans who have embraced hybrids" The Globe and Mail Retrieved 2015-01-25 
  178. ^ Flavelle, Dana 2015-06-19 "Why hybrid car sales are stalling" Toronto Star Retrieved 2016-06-14 
  179. ^ a b c d e "December 2009 Dashboard: Year-End Tally" hybridCarscom 2010-01-20 Retrieved 2010-09-13 
  180. ^ Sustainable Waterloo 2010-01-04 "Calculating GHG Emissions from Personal Vehicle Travel" PDF Sustainable Waterloo Region Retrieved 2012-02-05  See Appendix 4, pp 18
  181. ^ a b Margaret Zewatsky March 2010 "Asia Pacific Region Propels Growth of Hybrid Market" PDF RL Polk & Co Retrieved 2010-06-07 
  182. ^ a b Bekker, Henk 2017-01-11 "2016 Full Year Japan: 30 Best-Selling Car Models" Best-Selling Cars Retrieved 2017-02-23 
  183. ^ "Sales in Japan of TMC Hybrids Top 1 Million Units" Toyota News releases 2010-08-05 Retrieved 2010-08-07 
  184. ^ TMC Press Release 2012-11-08 "Cumulative Sales of TMC Hybrids Top 2 Million Units in Japan" Toyota Retrieved 2012-11-08 
  185. ^ "実績データ(ハイブリッド車グローバル販売)" Actual data global sales hybrid vehicles Press release in Japanese Toyota, Aichi: Toyota 2017-02-14 Retrieved 2017-02-26  Download the pdf file with sales by year for each model Source for 2016 sales only January 2017 sales were discounted from total
  186. ^ a b "Honda's Cumulative World-wide Hybrid Sales Pass 300,000 In January 2009" Green Car Congress 2009-02-19 Retrieved 2010-03-09  A total of 25,239 Honda hybrids sold in Japan and 35,149 sold in Europe until January 2009
  187. ^ "Sales of Honda Insight hybrid top 100,000 units since February 2009" 2010-03-04 Retrieved 2010-03-11 
  188. ^ a b "Japan Hybrid Sales Bypass US" hybridCarscom 2009-07-06 Retrieved 2010-03-15 
  189. ^ "Toyota Prius Tops Japan Sales Despite Recall Woes" The New York Times Associated Press 2010-03-10 Retrieved 2010-03-14 dead link
  190. ^ Kyodo News 2011-01-12 "Prius breaks 20-year record for annual car sales at 315,669 units" The Japan Times Retrieved 2012-02-02 
  191. ^ Kyodo News 2012-01-12 "Prius tops sales third straight year" The Japan Times Retrieved 2012-02-02 
  192. ^ "Toyota Prius No 1 in Japan again" Motor Trader 2012-01-14 Retrieved 2012-02-02 
  193. ^ Asahi Shimbun 2012-04-06 "Hybrids Now 16% of Market in Japan as Prius Wins Annual Sales Crown Again" Integrity Exports Retrieved 2012-04-08 
  194. ^ Nikkei 2012-06-08 "Hybrids 197% of New Cars Sold in May 2012 in Japan" Integrity Exports Retrieved 2012-06-10 
  195. ^ a b c KYODO 2014-01-09 "Nissan set to double Leaf sales: Ghosn" The Japan Times Retrieved 2015-01-24 
  196. ^ a b c Henk Bekker 2015-01-08 "2014 Full Year Japan: Best-Selling Car Models" Best Selling Cars Retrieved 2015-01-24 
  197. ^ a b c Bekker, Henk 2016-01-08 "2015 Full Year Japan: : 30 Best-Selling Car Models" Best Selling Cars Retrieved 2016-05-24 
  198. ^ "2012 Full Year Japan: Best-Selling Car Models" BestSellingCarscom 2013-01-10 Retrieved 2015-01-24 
  199. ^ Mat Gasnier 2013-01-12 "Japan Full Year 2012: All-new Toyota Aqua tickles Prius" Best Selling Cars Blog Retrieved 2013-03-30 
  200. ^ Bekker, Henk 2016-04-06 "2016 Q1 Japan: Best-Selling Car Brands and Models" Best Selling Cars Retrieved 2016-05-24 
  201. ^ Gasnier, Mat 2017-01-17 "Japan Full Year 2016: Toyota Prius returns to #1 spot after 3 year-hiatus" Best Selling Cars Blog Retrieved 2017-02-26 
  202. ^ Christie Schweinsberg 2011-06-07 "US Hybrid Sales Hit 2 Million Mark" Ward's Retrieved 2011-06-07 
  203. ^ Jeff Cobb 2013-11-04 "Americans Buy Their 3,000,000th Hybrid" HybridCarscom Retrieved 2013-11-04 
  204. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff 2016-06-05 "April 2016 Dashboard" HybridCarscom and Baum & Associates Retrieved 2016-05-23  During the first fourth months of 2016 hybrid sales totaled 103,082 units in the US
  205. ^ Sara Carothers and Alyson Hurt "Map: Hybrid And Electric Sales Across The Country" National Public Radiodate=2011-11-22 Retrieved 2012-02-02 
  206. ^ Jerry Hirsch 2013-01-22 "Toyota Prius topples Honda Civic as bestselling car in California" Los Angeles Times Retrieved 2013-01-22  The sales figure includes the Prius liftback, Prius v, Prius c and Prius PHV
  207. ^ Bloomberg 2014-02-13 "Toyota Prius keeps Calif sales crown; Tesla moves up" Automotive News Retrieved 2014-02-16 
  208. ^ California New Car Dealers Association CNCDA February 2014 "California Auto Outlook: Fourth Quarter 2013" CNCDA Archived from the original on 2014-02-17 Retrieved 2014-02-16 
  209. ^ a b International Council on Clean Transportation ICCT 2013 "European Vehicle Market Statistics – Pocketbook 2013" PDF ICCT Retrieved 2015-01-24  See Figure 13, pp 6 See also tables in pp 88–110 for HEV market by country from 2001 to 2012
  210. ^ Sandra Duffy 2011-12-01 "Hybrid Car Sales Figures" Hybridcarcom Retrieved 2012-02-03 
  211. ^ "Toyota Europe Hybrid Sales Up 18% in 2008, Driven by Prius" Green Car Congress 2009-01-15 Retrieved 2012-02-03 
  212. ^ Eric Loveday 2010-07-18 "Toyota Prius eclipses 200,000 total sales in Europe, doubling mark set in 2008" Autoblog Green Retrieved 2012-02-03 
  213. ^ Toyota Motor Europe 2012-01-09 "2010 Sales and Production Results for Toyota Motor Europe" Auto-MediaInfo Archived from the original on 2012-01-06 Retrieved 2012-02-03 
  214. ^ Toyota Motor Europe 2012-01-04 "Toyota leads industry with lowest fleet-wide CO2 average in Europe" Toyota Europe News Retrieved 2012-01-22 
  215. ^ Toyota Motor Europe 2012-01-09 "Toyota Motor Europe posts year-on-year sales increase despite supply disruptions" Auto-MediaInfo Archived from the original on 2013-06-04 Retrieved 2012-02-03 
  216. ^ Mathieu Rosemain 2013-12-20 "Toyota Europe Plans Profit Growth on Hybrid-Car Sales" The Washington Post Retrieved 2013-12-24 
  217. ^ Automotive Industry Data AID 2013-12-18 "Hybrid cars going nowhere fast in Europe" PDF AID Newsletter Retrieved 2013-12-24 
  218. ^ a b Gibbs, Nick 2016-03-15 "Hybrid sales expected to triple in Europe as tougher CO2 rules loom" Automotive News Europe Retrieved 2016-06-06  Plug-in hybrid sales are not included
  219. ^ European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA 2016-04-29 "New Passenger Car Registrations by Alternative Fuel Type in the European Union – Quarter 1 2016" PDF ACEA Retrieved 2016-06-17 
  220. ^ "German driver becomes Toyota's millionth hybrid customer in Europe, goes home with two Auris Hybrids" Press release Brussels, Belgium: Toyota Europe 2015-12-02 Retrieved 2015-12-04 
  221. ^ Society of Motor Manufacturers and TradersSMMT 2016-05-06 "April 2016 – EV registrations" SMT Retrieved 2016-06-07 
  222. ^ "Honda hybrid sales exceed 800,000" Green Car Congress 2014-05-20 Retrieved 2014-05-26 
  223. ^ "Honda hybrid sales exceed 800,000" The Green Car Website UK 2012-01-25 Retrieved 2012-02-03 
  224. ^ Chris Lilly 2015-11-13 "Toyota's hybrid sales pass 200,000 units" Next Green Car Retrieved 2015-11-15 
  225. ^ a b c d e f AVERE-France 2015-01-08 "Hybride : un marché en recul en 2014, l'hybride essence tient le coup" Hybrid: a declining market in 2014, the gasoline-electric hybrid holds up in French France Mobilité Électrique – AVERE France Retrieved 2015-01-25  A total of 33,295 gasoline-electric and 9,518 diesel-electric hybrids were sold in France in 2014
  226. ^ Philippe Schwoerer 2015-01-16 "Mitsubishi mise et gagne sur l'hybride rechargeable" Mitsubishi bets and wins with its plug-in hybrid in French Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen AVEM Retrieved 2015-01-25 
  227. ^ CBS Statistics Netherlands 2011-01-27 "More and more cars with hybrid technology on board" Web Magazine: Statistics Netherlands Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  228. ^ CBS Statistics Netherlands 2009-06-23 "Number of hybrid cars doubled" Web Magazine: Statistics Netherlands Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  229. ^ Henry Foy 2013-09-09 "Toyota enjoys surge in hybrid car sales in Europe" Financial Times Retrieved 2013-09-29 
  230. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA 2016-03-07 "Pressemitteilung Nr 08/2016 – Der Fahrzeugbestand am 1 Januar 2016" Press Release No 08/2016 – The number of vehicles on 1 January 2016 in German KBA Retrieved 2016-06-17  A total of 130,365 hybrid vehicles were registered in Germany on January 1, 2016
  231. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA 2014-03-07 "Pressemitteilung Nr 10/2014 – Der Fahrzeugbestand am 1 Januar 2014" Press Release No 10/2014 – The number of vehicles on 1 January 2014 in German KBA Retrieved 2015-01-25  A total of 85,575 hybrid vehicles were registered in Germany on January 1, 2014
  232. ^ Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt KBA 2012-01-24 "Pressemitteilung Nr 3/2012 – Der Fahrzeugbestand am 1 Januar 2012" Press Release No 3/2012 – The fleet of vehicles on 1 January 2012 in German KBA Retrieved 2012-02-07 
  233. ^ "Technology Review" Technology Review Retrieved 2010-06-26 
  234. ^ Dan Strong 2007-03-22 "Autoexpress on diesel-electric Peugeot 308" Autoexpresscouk Retrieved 2013-08-29 
  235. ^ "PSA Peugeot Citroën unveils Diesel Hybrid Technology" PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2006-03-11 
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Referencesedit

  • Cox, C 2008 "Rare earth innovation: the silent shift to china" Herndon VA: The Anchor House Inc Retrieved 2008-03-18 
  • Haxel, G; Hedrick J; Orris J 2006 "Rare earth elements critical resources for high technology" PDF Reston VA: United States Geological Survey USGS Fact Sheet: 087‐02 
  • Lunn, J 3 October 2006 "Great western minerals" PDF London: Insigner Beaufort Equity Research Archived from the original PDF on 2008-04-09 Retrieved 2008-03-18 
  • New York City Taxis to go all hybrid by 2012 2007-05-22
  • Mother Earth News article from 1978 on the original regenerative braking hybrid car
  • GM Announces Chevrolet Volt Series Hybrid Concept Vehicle 2007-01-07
  • Hybrid-Electric "Bus of the Future" Tested By Capital Metro
  • Israel Mulls Hybrid Taxis
  • FedEx to Launch Commercial Hybrid-Electric Vans from Iveco in Europe
  • About FedEx Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the USA
  • 2004 Toyota Prius – Motor Trend Car of the Year
  • "Looking for a hybrid Prepare for a long wait" to obtain onepermanent dead link Star Tribune
  • Doctors Orders: Buy a Hybrid

External linksedit

  • Fleet Test and Evaluation Project – Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • Electric and Gas Hybrids at DMOZ
  • Hybrid and Electric Vehicles – The Electric Drive Gains Traction, IA-HEV, International Energy Agency, May 2013
  • Report on how HEVs work

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