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Hunyadi family

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The Hunyadi family was one of the most powerful noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 15th century A member of the family, Matthias Corvinus, was King of Hungary from 1458 until 1490, King of Bohemia ruling in Moravia, Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia, and Silesia from 1469 until 1490, and Duke of Austria from 1487 until 1490 His illegitimate son, John Corvinus, ruled the Duchy of Troppau from 1485 until 1501, and five further Silesian duchies, including Bytom, Głubczyce, Loslau, Racibórz, and Tost, from 1485 until 1490 The Hunyadi coat-of-arms depicted a raven with a golden ring in its beak

The founder of the family, Voyk, received the eponymous Hunyad Castle in present-day Hunedoara, Romania from Sigismund, King of Hungary, in 1409 His ethnicity is the subject of scholarly debate Some modern historians describe him as a Vlach, or Romanian, knez or boyar, from either Wallachia or Transylvania Others describe him as a Cuman or Slav nobleman According to contemporaneous accounts, Voyk moved from Wallachia to Transylvania Voyk's oldest son, John Hunyadi, was often mentioned as a "Vlach" by his contemporaries

John Hunyadi, a talented military commander, became the first member of the family to acquire the status of "true baron of the realm" He was appointed Ban of Severin in 1439, and Voivode of Transylvania in 1441 He was also granted the title Perpetual Count of Beszterce in 1452, thus receiving the first hereditary title created in the Kingdom of Hungary At his death, John Hunyadi held many lands throughout the Kingdom John Hunyadi's fame and fortune led the election of his son, Matthias Corvinus, as King of Hungary in 1458 Matthias ruled Moravia, Silesia, Austria, and other neighbouring regions He attempted to secure hereditary line of succession for his son, John Corvinus This did not happen, however, and John was only able to retain the Duchy of Glogau, along with some other family domains in Hungary, after Matthias died in 1490 John's only son, Christopher Corvinus, was the last male member of the family He died at the age of six in 1505 His sister Elisabeth died during childhood

Contents

  • 1 Origins
  • 2 Notable members
    • 21 Voyk Hunyadi
    • 22 John Hunyadi, Sr
    • 23 John Hunyadi, Jr
    • 24 Ladislaus Hunyadi
    • 25 Matthias Corvinus
    • 26 John Corvinus
  • 3 Family tree
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 Sources
    • 61 Primary sources
    • 62 Secondary sources

Originsedit

King Sigismund of Hungary's grant of Hunyad Castle to Voyk, Magos and Radol the sons of Serbe, and their uncle or cousin, Radol, and Voyk's son, John The Gothic and Renaissance Hunyad Castle in present-day Hunedoara, Romania, built on the demesne that the family was named after

The family was given its land by Sigismund, King of Hungary, on 18 October 140912 On that day, Sigismund granted Hunyad Castle and its demesne to Voyk and four of his kinsmen2345 In addition to Voyk, the grant lists his two brothers, Magos and Radol, their cousin or uncle also named Radol, and Voyk's son, John, the future Regent of Hungary23 The granted said that Voyk's father was named "Serbe", but did not say anything further about the origins of the family23

Voyk's son, John Hunyadi, bore the nickname "Olah", meaning "Vlach", in his youth, which implied that he was of Romanian stock23 The court historian of Voyk's grandson King Matthias Corvinus, Antonio Bonfini, explicitly stated that John had been "born to a Vlach father"67 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III likewise knew that King Matthias had been "born to a Vlach father", and a Venetian man, Sebastiano Baduario, referred to the Romanians as King Matthias's people89

Historians of the 15th and 16th centuries, with perspectives that were either against or in favour of the family, wrote differing reports of the family's status before King Sigismund's grant1011 Jan Długosz described John Hunyadi as "a man of unknown origin",12 and he is likewise mentioned as "a Vlach by birth, not highly born"13 by Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini1011 On the other hand, Johannes de Thurocz said that John Hunyadi "was descended from a noble and renowned race of Wallachia"1014

Johannes de Thurocz also wrote that King Sigismund, fascinated by Voyk's fame, "took him away from Wallachia to his own realm and settled him there",14 suggesting that Voyk moved from his Wallachian homeland to the Kingdom of Hungary7 The late 15th century historian Philippe de Commines15 referred to Voyk's son John as the "White Knight of Wallachia"2 In accordance with these sources, Pál Engel, András Kubinyi, and other contemporary historians have written that the Hunyadi family descended from Wallachian boyars noblemen5711617

According to another view on the family's origins, which is championed by historians Camil Mureşanu and Ion-Aurel Pop, Voyk did not migrate from Wallachia, but was born in a family of Romanian noble knezes from the region of Hátszeg, or Hunyad318 They say that Voyk's grandfather could have been a man named "Costea", mentioned in a royal charter from 1360, and who fathered a son named Serbe the name of Voyk's father According to the charter, Costea and Serbe together established two villages in the region of Hátszeg319 Historian Dezső Dümmerth offers a third view of the Hunyadis' ancestry He said that Voyk was of Romanianized Cuman stock, one of the Wallachian boyars He attributes Cuman and Tatar ancestry to the Wallachian boyars Another historian, Miklós Molnár, accepts the Wallachian origin of the family, but also represents a fourth perspective on the origins of the family He said that they may well have been of Slavic descent20 Neither Paul Lendvai nor András Boros-Kazai excluded the possibility of the Hunyadis being of Slavic origin1721

John Hunyadi's rapid advance, which astonished his contemporaries, and gave rise to legends about his origins2223 According to one of these stories, recorded in detail by the 16th-century historian Gáspár Heltai, John Hunyadi was the illegitimate son of King Sigismund with a woman named Elizabeth, who was the daughter of a "rich boyar"24 from Morzsina in Hunyad County2223 Antonio Bonfini, on the other hand, wrote that John Hunyadi's mother was an unnamed Greek woman who was related to the Byzantine Emperors22

Further legends emerged about the purported Romanian origin of the family7 Antonio Bonfini wrote that John Hunyadi "traced his kin to the Roman family of the Corvini"6725 This story is connected to the Hunyadis' coat-of-arms, which depicts a raven, corvus in Latin, with a golden ring in its beak7 Coins minted for Prince Vladislav I of Wallachia in 1365 depict a raven-like bird2627 Based on this similarity, Zsuzsa Teke and some other historians did not exclude the possibility that the Hunyadis were related to the Basarabs, the ruling dynasty of Wallachia728 Another historian, Péter E Kovács, wrote that that theory needed further verification26

Notable membersedit

Voyk Hunyadiedit

Voyk was born in Wallachia, according to the nearly contemporaneous historians Johannes de Thurocz and Gáspár Heltai7 Voyk had been serving as a "court knight" in the royal court when he received the demesne of Hunyad from King Sigismund, suggesting that he was descended from a prominent Wallachian family7 Modern historian, Kubinyi, wrote that Voyk most probably joined Sigismund in 13957 In this year, Sigismund invaded Wallachia and restored his vassal, Mircea the Old to the princely throne29

He was last mentioned in a royal charter in 141430 Voyk died before 12 February 14192231 On this day, a charter confirming the grant of 1409 was issued for Voyk's brother, Radol, and for Voyk's three sons: John the Elder, John the Younger, and Voyk22

John Hunyadi, Sredit

Main article: John Hunyadi The cover of John Hunyadi's tomb in the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Gyulafehérvár present-day Alba Iulia, Romania

Voyk's oldest son, John Hunyadi was born between about 1405 and 140753233 In his youth, he served in the court of George Csáky, Filippo Scolari, and King Sigismund's other warlike barons53234 He married Elizabeth Szilágyi around 142935 Her father owned properties in Bodrog County35

John Hunyadi developed his military skills during his journeys in Italy and Bohemia in Sigismund's entourage in the early 1430s2134 He and his younger brother who was his namesake were jointly appointed Ban of Szörény present-day Dobreta-Turnu Severin, Romania in 1439 by Sigismund's successor, King Albert34 With this appointment, they acquired the status of "true barons"36

The senior John Hunyadi became Voivode of Transylvania and Count of the Székelys in 1441, with responsibility for the defense of the southern borders of Hungary against Ottoman raids537 He defeated the Ottomans in several battles during his "long campaign" in the Balkan Peninsula in 1443371 The Estates of the realm elected him governor for the period of King Ladislaus V of Hungary's minority in 14463839 King Ladislaus bestowed the title of Perpetual Count of Beszterce present-day Bistrița, Romania upon John Hunyadi after he resigned of the governorship in 14523540 This was the first example of a grant of a hereditary title in the Kingdom of Hungary3540 John Hunyadi had by that time become the richest landowner in the Kingdom of Hungary, who held about 25 fortresses, 30 towns and more than 1,000 villages41 He died on 11 August 1456, shortly after his greatest victory over the Ottomans at the Siege of Belgrade42

John Hunyadi, Jredit

Main article: John Hunyadi, Ban of Severin John Hunyadi the younger's tomb in the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Gyulafehérvár present-day Alba Iulia, Romania

John the Younger was the younger of Voyk's two sons that shared the name John, and was first mentioned in a charter issued to four members of his family on 12 February 141922 King Albert of Hungary appointed him Ban of Szörény together with his brother, John the Elder, in 143943 He died fighting against the Ottomans in 144143 His brother wrote of him as "the valiant of the valiant", showing that John the Younger was regarded a brave soldier43

Ladislaus Hunyadiedit

Main article: Ladislaus Hunyadi The mourning for Ladislaus Hunyadi—a painting by Viktor Madarász 1853

Ladislaus Hunyadi was the older of the two sons of John Hunyadi the elder by Elizabeth Szilágyi3 He was born around 143232 At the age of 20, he was appointed ispán, or count, of Pozsony County, which made him a "true baron"44 He became Ban of Croatia in 1453 and master of the horse in 145644

With his father's death, Ladislaus inherited an enormous domain in 145644 The ambitious Ladislaus had his father's main opponent, Ulrich II, Count of Celje, captured and murdered on 9 November4546 The King, who promised amnesty to Ladislaus under duress, had him arrested in next year47 Ladislaus was sentenced to death for high treason48 He was executed on 16 March 145747

Matthias Corvinusedit

Main article: Matthias Corvinus

Matthias, the younger son of John Hunyadi the elder and Elizabeth Szilágyi, was born on 23 February 144349 He was arrested upon the orders of King Ladislaus V of Hungary on 14 March 1457, together with his elder brother Ladislaus48 Matthias's brother was executed two days after having been arrested48 Fearing a revolt, the King fled to Prague and took Matthias with him4847

A contemporaneous sculpture of Matthias Corvinus The wars and conquests of Matthias Corvinus

The childless Ladislaus V died on 23 November 145748 A Diet was convened to elect the new monarch50 Matthias' maternal uncle, Michael Szilágyi, arrived with more than 10,000 armed noblemen under his command, and the Diet proclaimed Matthias king on 24 January 14585051 Matthias returned from Prague, but was only crowned with the Holy Crown of Hungary on 29 March 1464, because he had spent the previous years with fighting against his opponents5253

Urged by Pope Paul II, Matthias led a crusade against the Czech Hussites and occupied great parts of Moravia and Silesia in 14685455 The Catholic Estates of Moravia proclaimed him King of Bohemia on 3 May 146956 55 Matthias' reign was also recognized in Lusatia and Silesia, but Bohemia proper remained under the rule of his opponents, Kings George of Poděbrady till 1471 and Vladislaus II Jagiellon55 Through a series of wars, Matthias occupied Lower Austria and Styria between 1480 and 148757 He officially adopted the title of Duke of Austria in 148758

Matthias married his first wife, Catherine of Poděbrady, in 146159 She died in childbirth in 14646061 His second wife, Beatrice of Naples, whom he married in 1476, was infertile6263 In the last decade of his life, Matthias ensured the succession of his illegitimate son, John Corvinus, to the throne of Hungary64 Matthias died on 6 April 149065

John Corvinusedit

Main article: John Corvinus

John Corvinus was the illegitimate son of King Matthias and his mistress, Barbara Edelpöck66 John Corvinus was born on 2 April 147366 Matthias recognized in public that John is his son and granted him the title of Duke of Liptó present-day Liptov, Slovakia in 14816768 John Corvinus received a number of land grants from his father in the subsequent years6769 King Matthias granted him the Duchy of Troppau and five further Silesian duchies—Beuthen, Leobschütz, Loslau, Ratibor, and Tost—in 14857071

King Matthias' all attempts to secure his son's succession to the throne proved to be useless shortly after his death72 The prelates and the barons elected Vladislaus II Jagiellon king on 15 July 14907374 He retained his domains and the Duchy of Troppau The new monarch bestowed the title of Duke of Slavonia upon him, but he renounced of it in 149575 He also renounced of the Duchy of Troppau in 150176

John Corvinus married Beatrice de Frangepan in 149677 She gave birth to two children, Elizabeth and Christopher77 John Corvinus died on 12 October 150477 His son died at the age of six, his daughter at the age of twelve77

Family treeedit

The following family tree depicts the known members of the Hunyadi family:3777879

= born; † = died; ∞ = wife or husband; b = before; c = in about; m = mentioned

                    Costea note 1    
                                       
         
                    Serbe
† b 1409
  Radol note 2
m in 1409
                                         
                     
            Voyk
m 1409–1414
† b 1419
∞Elizabeth Morzsinai note 3
  Magos
m in 1409
  Radol
m 1409–1419
† b 1429
∞Ankó Branicskai
                                                   
                                                   
John Hunyadi, Sr note 4
c 1405
† 1456
∞Elizabeth Szilágyi
  John Hunyadi, Jr
m 1419–1441
† 1441
  Voyk
m in 1419
  Daughter
∞John Székely of Szentgyörgy
  Clara note 5
m 1450–1467
∞George Pongrác of Dengeleg
  Marina note 6
∞Manzilla of Argeș
 
                                       
           
Ladislaus Hunyadi
c 1432
† 1457
  Matthias Corvinus
1443
† 1490
1∞Catherine of Poděbrady
2∞Beatrice of Naples
               
                                 
        John Corvinus
illegitimate son
1473
† 1504
∞Beatrice de Frangepan
               
                                     
           
    Elisabeth Corvinus
1496
† 1508
  Christopher Corvinus
1499
† 1505
           

Notesedit

  1. ^ Costea was Serbe's father, according to historian Ion-Aurel Pop
  2. ^ Radol was either the brother or the nephew of Serbe
  3. ^ The chronicler Gáspár Heltai writes that John Hunyadi's mother was the unnamed daughter of a boyar of Morzsina On the other hand, the chronicler Antonio Bonfini says that John Hunyadi was born to a distinguished Greek woman
  4. ^ According to a popular legend, John Hunyadi the elder was King Sigismund of Hungary's illegitimate son
  5. ^ A charter from April 1456 source: Teleki József Hunyadiak kora Magyarországon p495 mentions Clara as John Hunyadi's maternal sister However, taking into account the uncertainty of medieval terminology, she may well have been his full sister, according to historian András Kubinyi Her second son, Andrew Pongrác of Dengeleg was King Matthias Corvinus's Master of the cupbearers, and his younger brother, John Pongrác of Dengeleg served the King as Voivode of Transylvania for eight years
  6. ^ Nicolaus Olahus writes, in his Hungaria, that his grandmother, Marina was John Hunyadi's sister who married a member of the Basarab dynasty According to Kubinyi and Mureşanu, she must have rather been a distant relative paternal aunt or niece of Hunyadi

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c Makkai 1994, p 227
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kubinyi 2008, p 7
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pop 2005, p 294
  4. ^ Bolovan et al 1997, p 111
  5. ^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p 283
  6. ^ a b Bonfini, Antonio 1995 "A magyar történelem tizedei =History of Hungary in Ten Volumes" Balassi Kiadó Retrieved 2014-04-20 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kubinyi 2008, p 9
  8. ^ Armbruster 1972, p 58
  9. ^ Pop 2012, p 14
  10. ^ a b c E Kovács 1990, p 7
  11. ^ a b Teke 1980, p 80
  12. ^ The Annals of Jan Długosz AD 1440, p 484
  13. ^ Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini: Europe ch 17, p 59
  14. ^ a b Thuróczy János: Magyar krónika ch 30, p 42
  15. ^ Scoble, Andrew Richard The Memoirs of Philippe De Commynes, Lord of Argenton Volume 2; Containing the Histories of Louis Xi and Charles Viii, Kings of France p 87 ISBN 978-1-150-90258-1 
  16. ^ Bak 1994, pp 63-64
  17. ^ a b Lendvai 2003, p 75
  18. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p 42
  19. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p 43
  20. ^ Molnár 2001, p 61
  21. ^ a b Boros-Kazai 2005, p 339
  22. ^ a b c d e f Kubinyi 2008, p 8
  23. ^ a b Dümmerth 1985, p 52
  24. ^ Heltai, Gáspár 2000 "Krónika a magyarok dolgairól =Chronicle of the Deeds of the Hungarians" Régi magyar irodalmi szöveggyűjtemény II szerkesztette Jankovics József, Kőszeghy Péter és Szentmártoni Szabó Géza Collection of Ancient Hungarian Literary Texts Edited by József Jankovics, Péter Kőszeghy and Géza Szentmártoni Szabó Balassi Kiadó Retrieved 2014-04-20 
  25. ^ Lendvai 2003, p 80
  26. ^ a b E Kovács 1990, p 8
  27. ^ Teke 1980, p 82
  28. ^ Teke 1980, pp 82-83
  29. ^ Engel 2001, p 203
  30. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp 8, 203
  31. ^ Pop 2005, p 295
  32. ^ a b Dümmerth 1985, p 51
  33. ^ Teke 1980, p 84
  34. ^ a b c Cartledge 2011, p 54
  35. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p 15
  36. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 13
  37. ^ a b Boros-Kazai 2005, p 340
  38. ^ Engel 2001, p 288
  39. ^ Fine 1994, p 551
  40. ^ a b Engel 2001, p 293
  41. ^ Bak 1994, p 64
  42. ^ Pop 2005, p 296
  43. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p 11
  44. ^ a b c Kubinyi 2008, p 25
  45. ^ Engel 2001, pp 292, 296-297
  46. ^ Molnár 2001, pp 66-67
  47. ^ a b c Bak 1994, p 70
  48. ^ a b c d e Engel 2001, p 297
  49. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 23
  50. ^ a b Engel 2001, p 298
  51. ^ Fine 1994, p 553
  52. ^ Bak 1994, pp 70-71
  53. ^ Engel 2001, pp 298-299
  54. ^ Engel 2001, pp 303-304
  55. ^ a b c Agnew 2004, p 52
  56. ^ Engel 2001, p 304
  57. ^ Engel 2001, p 306
  58. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 103
  59. ^ Engel 2001, p 303
  60. ^ Cartledge 2011, p 520
  61. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 67
  62. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp 136, 140
  63. ^ Molnár 2001, pp 73, 80
  64. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 140
  65. ^ Bak 1994, p 73
  66. ^ a b Kubinyi 2008, p 134
  67. ^ a b Engel 2001, p 317
  68. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 141
  69. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp 140-141
  70. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 143
  71. ^ Schönherr, Gyula 1894 "Hunyadi Corvin János, 1473–1504 =John Corvinus of Hunyadi, 1473–1504" Magyar Történelmi Társulat Retrieved 2014-04-22 
  72. ^ Bak 1994, p 76
  73. ^ Kubinyi 2008, p 155
  74. ^ Engel 2001, p 345
  75. ^ Markó 2000, pp 304-305
  76. ^ Markó 2000, p 305
  77. ^ a b c d e Markó 2000, p 304
  78. ^ Kubinyi 2008, pp 8-9, 10-12, 203
  79. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p 44

Sourcesedit

Primary sourcesedit

  • Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini: Europe c 1400–1458 Translated by Robert Brown, introduced and commented by Nancy Bisaha 2013 The Catholic University of America Press ISBN 978-0-8132-2182-3
  • The Annals of Jan Długosz An English abridgement by Maurice Michael, with commentary by Paul Smith 1997 IM Publications ISBN 1-901019-00-4
  • Thuróczy János: Magyar krónika Fordította Geréb László, a szöveget átnézte Kardos Tibor, a fordítást ellenőrizte Mezey László János Thuróczy: Chronicle of the Hungarians Translated by László Geréb, the text revised by Tibor Kardos, and the translation is supervised by László Mezey 1957 Magyar Helikon

Secondary sourcesedit

  • Agnew, Hugh 2004 The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown Hoover Institution Press ISBN 978-0-8179-4491-9 
  • Armbruster, Adolf 1972 Romanitatea românilor: Istoria unei idei The Romanity of the Romanians: The History of an Idea Romanian Academy Publishing House 
  • Bak, János 1994 "The Late Medieval Period, 1382–1526" In Sugar, Peter F; Hanák, Péter; Frank, Tibor A History of Hungary Indiana University Press pp 54–82 ISBN 963-7081-01-1 
  • Bolovan, Ioan; Constantiniu, Florin; Michelson, Paul E; Pop, Ioan Aurel; Popa, Cristian; Popa, Marcel; Scurtu, Ioan; Treptow, Kurt W; Vultur, Marcela; Watts, Larry L 1997 A History of Romania The Center for Romanian Studies ISBN 973-98091-0-3 
  • Boros-Kazai, András 2005 "Hungary" In Frucht, Richard Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture ABC Clio pp 329–412 ISBN 1-57607-801-9 
  • Cartledge, Bryan 2011 The Will to Survive: A History of Hungary C Hurst & Co ISBN 978-1-84904-112-6 
  • Dümmerth, Dezső 1985 A két Hunyadi The Two Hunyadis in Hungarian Panoráma ISBN 963-243-279-7 
  • E Kovács, Péter 1990 Matthias Corvinus in Hungarian Officina Nova ISBN 963-7835-49-0 
  • Engel, Pál 2001 The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 IB Tauris Publishers ISBN 1-86064-061-3 
  • Fine, John V A 1994 The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest The University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-472-08260-4 
  • Kubinyi, András 2008 Matthias Rex Balassi Kiadó ISBN 978-963-506-767-1 
  • Lendvai, Paul 2003 The Hungarians: A Thousand Years of Victory in Defeat Princeton University Press ISBN 978-0-691-11969-4 
  • Makkai, László 1994 "The Three Nations of Transylvania 1360–1526" In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit History of Transylvania Akadémiai Kiadó pp 178–243 ISBN 963-05-6703-2 
  • Markó, László 2000 A magyar állam főméltóságai Szent Istvántól napjainkig: Életrajzi lexikon Great Officers of the State of Hungary from St Stephen to Present Days: Biographical Enncyclopedia in Hungarian Magyar Könyvklub ISBN 963-547-085-1 
  • Molnár, Miklós 2001 A Concise History of Hungary Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-66736-4 
  • Mureşanu, Camil 2001 John Hunyadi: Defender of Christendom The Center for Romanian Studies ISBN 973-9432-18-2 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel 2005 "Transylvania in the 14th century and the first half of the 15th century 1300–1456" In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas The History of Transylvania, Vol I Until 1541 Romanian Cultural Institute Center for Transylvanian Studies pp 247–298 ISBN 973-7784-00-6 
  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel 2012 "The Names in the Family of King Matthias Corvinus: From Old Sources to Contemporary Historiography" PDF Ethnographica et folkloristica Carpathica Debreceni Egyetem Néprajzi Tanszék 17 / 35: 11–40 ISSN 0139-0600 
  • Teke, Zsuzsa 1980 Hunyadi János és kora John Hunyadi and his Times in Hungarian Gondolat ISBN 963-280-951-3 

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