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Huining Prefecture

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Huining Prefecture simplified Chinese: 会宁府; traditional Chinese: 會寧府; pinyin: Huìníng Fǔ, or Shangjing Huiningfu 上京會寧府, was a prefecture in the Shangjing region of Northeast China It served as the first superior capital of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty 1115-1234 from 1122 to 1153 and was a secondary capital after 1173 Its location was in present-day Acheng District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Modern state
  • 3 Sources
  • 4 References

History

During the early years of building up their empire, Jurchen rulers often moved people from elsewhere in China to their capital, Shangjing The first emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, Aguda Emperor Taizu r 1115-1123 resettled captives to the Shangjing area during his war against the Khitan-led Liao dynasty Aguda's successor, Wuqimai Emperor Taizong r 1123-1134 conquered most of northern China in the wars against the Han Chinese-led Northern Song dynasty He continued the policy, resulting in numerous wealthy people, skilled craftsmen from Yanjing present-day Beijing and the former Song capital, Bianjing present-day Kaifeng, being relocated to Shangjing Historical accounts report that, after the fall of Bianjing in 1127, the Jurchen generals brought to Shangjing and elsewhere in North China several thousand of people, including: "about 470 imperial clansmen; erudites and students of the imperial academy; eunuchs; medical doctors; artisans; prostitutes; imperial gardeners; artisans of imperial constructions; actors and actresses; astronomers; musicians" A variety of valuable goods captured in Bianjing was brought to the Jin capital as well

In Aguda's days, palaces were not much more than tents, but in 1123, the Jurchens built their first ancestral temples and tombs where the captured Song emperors Huizong and Qinzong were to venerate the Jin emperors' ancestors in 1128, and in 1124 the Jin dynasty's Emperor Taizong ordered a Han Chinese architect, Lu Yanlun, build a new city on uniform plan The city plan on Shangjing emulated major Chinese cities, in particular Bianjing, although the Jin capital was much smaller than its Northern Song prototype

The capital was moved to Yanjing present-day Beijing in 1153 by Wanyan Liang, the fourth emperor of the Jin dynasty Yanjing was more centrally located within the Jin Empire, and it was easier to supply it with food Wanyan Liang is said to have support of most of his officials in this move In 1157, Wanyan Liang even went so far as to destroy all palaces in his former capital

While Yanjing and later Bianjing were the Jin dynasty's principal capitals thereafter, Shangjing continued to sometimes play an important role in the Jin Empire Wanyan Liang's successor, Emperor Shizong, who strove to revive Jurchen language and culture, spent a year in Shangjing from 1184-85, greatly enjoying hunting, traditional dancing, and speaking in Jurchen

Modern state

Ruins of the city were discovered and excavated in present-day Acheng District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, about 2 km from Acheng District's central urban area The site of the ruins is a national historical heritage site, and includes a museum open to the public, renovated in the late 2005 Many of the artifacts found there are on display in Harbin

Sources

  • "Acheng City", Harbin government web site Retrieved September 25, 2006
  • "Huining, China" PlanetWare, 2006 Retrieved September 26, 2006
  • Jin Hongjui "The Setting of the Forbidden City and Its Protection" Chinese Association of Cultural Relics Protection Retrieved September 28, 2006
  • Lu Rucai "Beijing's 850th Anniversary as National Capital" China Today December 2003 Retrieved September 28, 2006
  • Theobald, Ulrich "Chinese History — Jin Dynasty 1115-1234 map and geography" ChinaKnowledge 2000 Retrieved September 28, 2006
  • Jing-shen Tao, "The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China" University of Washington Press, 1976, ISBN 0-295-95514-7

References

  1. ^ "A-ch'eng" 2006 In Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved December 4, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  2. ^ a b Tao 1976 Pages 28-32
  3. ^ a b Tao, p44
  4. ^ Tao 1976 Chapter 6 "The Jurchen Movement for Revival", Pages 78-79
  5. ^ The Remains of Huining in Shangjing of Jin Dynasty
  6. ^ a b 金上京历史博物馆 Jin Dynasty Shangjing History Museum in Chinese

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