Hubbard model
hubbard model, hubbard model reproductive systemThe Hubbard model is an approximate model used, especially in solidstate physics, to describe the transition between conducting and insulating systems The Hubbard model, named after John Hubbard, is the simplest model of interacting particles in a lattice, with only two terms in the Hamiltonian see example below: a kinetic term allowing for tunneling "hopping" of particles between sites of the lattice and a potential term consisting of an onsite interaction The particles can either be fermions, as in Hubbard's original work, or bosons, when the model is referred to as either the "Bose–Hubbard model" or the "boson Hubbard model"
The Hubbard model is a good approximation for particles in a periodic potential at sufficiently low temperatures that all the particles are in the lowest Bloch band, as long as any longrange interactions between the particles can be ignored If interactions between particles on different sites of the lattice are included, the model is often referred to as the "extended Hubbard model"
The model was originally proposed in 1963 to describe electrons in solids and has since been the focus of particular interest as a model for hightemperature superconductivity More recently, the Bose–Hubbard model has been used to describe the behavior of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices Recent ultracold atom experiments have also realised the original, fermionic Hubbard model in the hope that such experiments could yield its phase diagram
For electrons in a solid, the Hubbard model can be considered as an improvement on the tightbinding model, which includes only the hopping term For strong interactions, it can give qualitatively different behavior from the tightbinding model and correctly predicts the existence of socalled Mott insulators, which are prevented from becoming conducting by the strong repulsion between the particles
Contents
 1 Narrow energy band theory
 2 Example: 1D chain of hydrogen atoms
 3 More complex systems
 4 Numerical treatment
 5 See also
 6 References
 7 Further reading
Narrow energy band theory
The Hubbard model is based on the tightbinding approximation from solidstate physics In the tightbinding approximation, electrons are viewed as occupying the standard orbitals of their constituent atoms, and then "hopping" between atoms during conduction Mathematically, this is represented as a "hopping integral", or "transfer integral", between neighboring atoms, which can be viewed as the physical principle that creates electron bands in crystalline materials, due to overlapping between atomic orbitals The width of the band depends upon the overlapping amplitude However, the more general band theories do not consider interactions between electrons explicitly They consider the interaction of a single electron with the potential of nuclei and other electrons in an average way only By formulating conduction in terms of the hopping integral, however, the Hubbard model is able to include the socalled "onsite repulsion", which stems from the Coulomb repulsion between electrons at the same atomic orbitals This sets up a competition between the hopping integral, which is a function of the distance and angles between neighboring atoms, and the onsite Coulomb repulsion, which is not considered in the usual band theories The Hubbard model can therefore explain the transition from metal to insulator in certain metal oxides as they are heated by the increase in nearestneighbor spacing, which reduces the "hopping integral" to the point where the onsite potential is dominant Similarly, this can explain the transition from conductor to insulator in systems such as rareearth pyrochlores as the atomic number of the rareearth metal increases, because the lattice parameter increases or the angle between atoms can also change — see Crystal structure as the rareearth element atomic number increases, thus changing the relative importance of the hopping integral compared to the onsite repulsion
Example: 1D chain of hydrogen atoms
The hydrogen atom has only one electron, in the socalled s orbital, which can either be spin up ↑ or spin down ↓ This orbital can be occupied by at most two electrons, one with spin up and one down see Pauli exclusion principle
Now, consider a 1D chain of hydrogen atoms Under band theory, we would expect the 1s orbital to form a continuous band, which would be exactly halffull The 1D chain of hydrogen atoms is thus predicted to be a conductor under conventional band theory
But now consider the case where the spacing between the hydrogen atoms is gradually increased At some point we expect that the chain must become an insulator
Expressed in terms of the Hubbard model, on the other hand, the Hamiltonian is now made up of two components The first component is the hopping integral The hopping integral is typically represented by the letter t because it represents the kinetic energy of electrons hopping between atoms The second term in the Hubbard model is then the onsite repulsion U that represents the potential energy arising from the charges on the electrons Written out in second quantization notation, the Hubbard Hamiltonian then takes the form
H ^ = − t ∑ ⟨ i , j ⟩ , σ c ^ i , σ † c ^ j , σ + c ^ j , σ † c ^ i , σ + U ∑ i = 1 N n ^ i ↑ n ^ i ↓ , }=t\sum _}_^}_+}_^}_+U\sum _^}_}_,}where ⟨ i , j ⟩ represents summation over nearestneighbor lattice sites Note that both t and U are positive quantities n ^ i σ = c ^ i σ † c ^ i σ }_=}_^}_} is the spindensity operator for spin σ on i th site The total density operator is n ^ i = n ^ i ↑ + n ^ i ↓ }_=}_+}_} and occupation of i th site for the wavefunction Φ is n i = ⟨ Φ  n ^ i  Φ ⟩ =\langle \Phi \vert }_\vert \Phi \rangle }
If we consider the Hamiltonian without the contribution of the second term, we are simply left with the tight binding formula from regular band theory
When the second term is included, however, we end up with a more realistic model that also predicts a transition from conductor to insulator as the interatomic spacing is increased In the limit where the spacing is infinite or if we ignore the first term, the chain simply resolves into a set of isolated magnetic moments Additionally, when there are some contributions from the first term, but the material remains an insulator, the overlap integral provides for exchange interactions between neighboring magnetic moments, which may lead to a variety of interesting magnetic correlations, such as ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, etc depending on the exact solutions of the model The onedimensional Hubbard model was solved by Lieb and Wu using the Bethe ansatz Essential progress has been achieved in the 1990s: a hidden symmetry was discovered, and the scattering matrix, correlation functions, thermodynamic and quantum entanglement were evaluated
More complex systems
Although the Hubbard model is useful in describing systems such as a 1D chain of hydrogen atoms, it is important to note that in more complex systems there may be other effects that the Hubbard model does not consider In general, insulators can be divided into Mott–Hubbard type insulators see Mott insulator and chargetransfer insulators
Consider the following description of a Mott–Hubbard insulator:
N i 2 + O 2 − 2 ⟶ N i 3 + O 2 − + N i 1 + O 2 − ^\mathrm ^_\longrightarrow \mathrm ^\mathrm ^+\mathrm ^\mathrm ^}This can be seen as analogous to the Hubbard model for hydrogen chains, where conduction between unit cells can be described by a transfer integral
However, it is possible for the electrons to exhibit another kind of behavior:
N i 2 + O 2 − ⟶ N i 1 + O 1 − ^\mathrm ^\longrightarrow \mathrm ^\mathrm ^}This is known as charge transfer and results in chargetransfer insulators Note that this is quite different from the Mott–Hubbard insulator model because there is no electron transfer between unit cells, only within a unit cell
Both of these effects may be present and competing in complex ionic systems
Numerical treatment
The fact that the Hubbard model has not been solved analytically in arbitrary dimensions has led to intense research into numerical methods for these strongly correlated electron systems
Exact treatment of the Hubbard model at absolute zero is possible using the Lanczos algorithm, which produces static and dynamic properties of the system This method requires the storing of three vectors of the size of the number of states, which limits the number of sites in the lattice to about 20 on currently available hardware With projector and finitetemperature auxiliaryfield Monte Carlo, two statistical methods exist that also can provide an exact solution For low temperatures and large lattice sizes convergence problems appear that lead to an exponential growth of computational effort due to the socalled sign problem
The Hubbard model can also be studied within dynamical meanfield theory DMFT This scheme maps the Hubbard Hamiltonian onto a singlesite impurity model, a mapping that is formally exact only in infinite dimensions and in finite dimensions corresponds to the exact treatment of all purely local correlations only DMFT allows one to compute the local Green's function of the Hubbard model for a given U and a given temperature Within DMFT, one can compute the evolution of the spectral function and observe the appearance of the upper and lower Hubbard bands as correlations increase
See also
 Bloch wave
 Electronic band structure
 Solidstate physics
 Bose–Hubbard model
 tJ model
 Dynamical meanfield theory
 Stoner criterion
References
 ^ Altland, A; Simons, B 2006 "Interaction effects in the tightbinding system" Condensed Matter Field Theory Cambridge University Press pp 58 ff ISBN 9780521845083
 ^ Quintanilla, J; Hooley, C 2009 "The strongcorrelations puzzle" Physics World 22: 32–37 Bibcode:2009PhyW22f32Q doi:101088/20587058/22/06/38
 ^ Essler, F H L; Frahm, H; Göhmann, F; Klümper, A; Korepin, V E 2005 The OneDimensional Hubbard Model Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521802628
 ^ Scalapino, D J 2006 "Numerical Studies of the 2D Hubbard Model" arXiv:condmat/0610710
Further reading
 Hubbard, J 1963 "Electron Correlations in Narrow Energy Bands" Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 276 1365: 238–257 Bibcode:1963RSPSA276238H doi:101098/rspa19630204 JSTOR 2414761
 Bach, V; Lieb, E H; Solovej, J P 1994 "Generalized Hartree–Fock Theory and the Hubbard Model" Journal of Statistical Physics 76: 3 arXiv:condmat/9312044 Bibcode:1994JSP763B doi:101007/BF02188656
 Lieb, E H 1995 "The Hubbard Model: Some Rigorous Results and Open Problems" arXiv:condmat/9311033
 Gebhard, F 1997 "Metal–Insulator Transition" The Mott Metal–Insulator Transition: Models and Methods Springer Tracts in Modern Physics 137 Springer pp 1–48
 Lieb, E H; Wu, F Y 2003 "The onedimensional Hubbard model: A reminiscence" Physica A 321: 1–27 arXiv:condmat/0207529 Bibcode:2003PhyA3211L doi:101016/S0378437102017855





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