House of Wittelsbach


The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria

Members of the family reigned as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria 1180–1918, Counts Palatine of the Rhine 1214–1803 and 1816–1918, Margraves of Brandenburg 1323–1373, Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland 1345–1432, Elector-Archbishops of Cologne 1583–1761, Dukes of Jülich and Berg 1614–1794/1806, Kings of Sweden 1441–1448 and 1654–1720 and Dukes of Bremen-Verden 1654–1719

The family also provided two Holy Roman Emperors 1328–1347/1742–1745, one King of the Romans 1400–1410, two Anti-Kings of Bohemia 1619–20/1742–43, one King of Hungary 1305–1309, one King of Denmark and Norway 1440–1447 and one King of Greece 1832–1862

The family's head, since 1996, is Franz, Duke of Bavaria

Contents

  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Bavaria and Palatinate within the Holy Roman Empire
    • 21 Bavarian branch
    • 22 Palatinate branch
  • 3 Kingdom of Bavaria, 1806–1918
  • 4 Activities during Nazi regime, 1933–1945
  • 5 Reign outside the Holy Roman Empire
    • 51 Palatinate branch
      • 511 Kingdom of Sweden
      • 512 Kingdom of Greece
    • 52 Bavarian branch
  • 6 Major members of the family
    • 61 Patrilineal descent
    • 62 Bavarian branch
    • 63 Palatinate branch
    • 64 Scandinavian kings
  • 7 Family tree
  • 8 Castles and palaces
    • 81 Bavaria
    • 82 Palatinate branch
    • 83 Electorate of Cologne
  • 9 Coats of arms
    • 91 Palatinate branch senior line, issue of Rudolph I of the Palatine and Bavaria
    • 92 Bavarian branch junior branch, issue of Louis of Bavaria, extinct by 1777
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Originedit

Wittelsbach Coat of Arms: With the Palatinate the Wittelsbach acquired the lion as an heraldic symbol; the white-and-blue lozenges came to the family when Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria acquired the county of Bogen in 1240

Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria died 980, was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern died 1072, whose third son Otto II, Count of Scheyern acquired the castle of Wittelsbach near Aichach The Counts of Scheyern left Scheyern Castle constructed around 940 in 1119 for Wittelsbach Castle and the former was given to monks to establish Scheyern Abbey

Otto I's eldest son Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern was father of the Count palatine of Bavaria Otto IV died 1156, who was the first Count of Wittelsbach and whose son Otto was invested with the Duchy of Bavaria in 1180 after the fall of Henry the Lion and hence the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach Duke Otto's son Louis I, Duke of Bavaria acquired also the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1214

Bavaria and Palatinate within the Holy Roman Empireedit

The Wittelsbach dominions within the Holy Roman Empire Bavaria, The Netherlands and Palatinate AD 1373 are shown as      Wittelsbach, among the houses of      Luxembourg which acquired Brandenburg that year and      Habsburg which had acquired Tyrol in 1369

The Wittelsbach dynasty ruled the German territories of Bavaria from 1180 to 1918 and the Electorate of the Palatinate from 1214 until 1805; in 1815 the latter territory was partly incorporated as Rhine Palatinate into Bavaria, which Napoleon elevated to a kingdom in 1806

On Duke Otto II's death in 1253, his sons divided the Wittelsbach possessions between them: Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Louis II Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine When Henry's branch died out in 1340 the Emperor Louis IV, a son of Duke Louis II, reunited the duchy

The family provided two Holy Roman Emperors: Louis IV 1314–1347 and Charles VII 1742–1745, both members of the Bavarian branch of the family, and one German King with Rupert of the Palatinate 1400–1410, a member of the Palatinate branch

The House of Wittelsbach split into these two branches in 1329: Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV granted the Palatinate including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolf's descendants, Rudolf II, Rupert I and Rupert II Rudolf I in this way became the ancestor of the older Palatinate line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, which returned to power also in Bavaria in 1777 after the extinction of the younger Bavarian line, the descendants of Louis IV

Bavarian branchedit

The Bavarian branch kept the duchy of Bavaria until its extinction in 1777

The Electorate of Bavaria highlighted on a map of the Holy Roman Empire in 1648

The Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV acquired Brandenburg 1323, Tyrol 1342, Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut 1345 for his House but he had also released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329 His six sons succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut in 1347 The Wittelsbachs lost the Tyrol with the death of duke Meinhard and the following Peace of Schärding - the Tyrol was finally renounced to the Habsburgs in 1369 In 1373 Otto, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, released the country to the House of Luxembourg On Duke Albert's death in 1404, he was succeeded in the Netherlands by his eldest son, William A younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège However, on William's death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and William's daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut This last episode of the Hook and Cod wars finally left the counties in Burgundian hands in 1432 Emperor Louis IV had reunited Bavaria in 1340 but from 1349 onwards Bavaria was split among the descendants of Louis IV, who created the branches Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Straubing, Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Bavaria-Munich With the Landshut War of Succession Bavaria was reunited in 1505 against the claim of the Palatinate branch under the Bavarian branch Bavaria-Munich

From 1549 to 1567 the Wittelsbach owned the County of Kladsko in Bohemia

Strictly Catholic by upbringing, the Bavarian dukes became leaders of the German Counter-Reformation From 1583 to 1761, the Bavarian branch of the dynasty provided the Prince-electors and Archbishops of Cologne and many other Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire, namely Liège 1581–1763 Wittelsbach princes served for example as Bishops of Regensburg, Freising, Liège, Münster, Hildesheim, Paderborn and Osnabrück, and as Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order

In 1623 under Maximilian I the Bavarian dukes were invested with the electoral dignity and the duchy became the Electorate of Bavaria His grandson Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria served also as Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands 1692–1706 and as Duke of Luxembourg 1712–1714 His son Emperor Charles VII was also king of Bohemia 1741–1743 With the death of Charles' son Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria the Bavarian branch died out in 1777

Palatinate branchedit

The Electorate of the Palatinate red which lost the yellow territories in 1505, after the War of the Succession of Landshut Heidelberg Castle of the Electors of Palatinate

The Palatinate branch kept the Palatinate until 1918 and succeeded also in Bavaria in 1777 With the Golden Bull of 1356 the Counts Palatine were invested with the electoral dignity, their county became the Electorate of the Palatinate Princes of the Palatinate branch served as Bishops of the Empire and also as Elector-Archbishops of Mainz and Elector-Archbishops of Trier

After the death of the Wittelsbach king Rupert of Germany in 1410 the Palatinate lands began to split under numerous branches of the family such as Neumarkt, Simmern, Zweibrücken, Birkenfeld, Neuburg and Sulzbach When the senior branch of the Palatinate branch died out in 1559, the Electorate passed to Frederick III of Simmern, a staunch Calvinist, and the Palatinate became one of the major centers of Calvinism in Europe, supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the Netherlands and France

The Neuburg cadet branch of the Palatinate branch kept also the Duchy of Jülich and Berg from 1614 onwards: When the last duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died without direct heirs in 1609, the War of the Jülich succession broke out, ended by the 1614 Treaty of Xanten, which divided the separate duchies between Palatinate-Neuburg and the Margraviate of Brandenburg Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Count Palatine Wolfgang William of Neuburg

In 1619, the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine became King of Bohemia but was defeated by the Catholic Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, a member of the Bavarian branch As a result, the Upper Palatinate had to be ceded to the Bavarian branch in 1623 When the Thirty Years' War concluded with the Treaty of Münster also called the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, a new additional electorate was created for the Count Palatine of the Rhine During their exile Frederick's sons, especially Prince Rupert of the Rhine, gained fame in England

The house of Palatinate of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg as heir to the Swedish throne ruled simultaneously the duchy of Bremen-Verden 1654–1719

In 1685, the Simmern line died out, and the Catholic Philip William, Count Palatine of Neuburg inherited the Palatinate and also Duke of Jülich and Berg During the reign of Johann Wilhelm 1690–1716 the Electoral residence moved to Düsseldorf in Berg His brother and successor Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine moved the Palatinate's capital back to Heidelberg in 1718 and then to Mannheim in 1720 To strengthen the union of all lines of the Wittelsbach dynasty Charles Philip organized a wedding on 17 January 1742 when his granddaughters were married to Charles Theodore of Palatinate-Sulzbach and to the Bavarian prince Clement In the imperial election a few days later Charles III Philip voted for his Bavarian cousin Prince-Elector Charles Albert After extinction of the Neuburg branch in 1742, the Palatinate was inherited by Duke Charles Theodore of the branch Palatinate-Sulzbach

After the extinction of the Bavarian branch in 1777, a succession dispute and the brief War of the Bavarian Succession, the Palatinate-Sulzbach branch under Elector Charles Theodore succeeded also in Bavaria

With the death of Charles Theodore in 1799 all Wittelsbach land in Bavaria and the Palatinate was reunited under Maximilian IV Joseph, a member of the branch Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld At the time there were two surviving branches of the Wittelsbach family: Palatinate-Zweibrücken headed by Maximilian Joseph and Palatinate-Birkenfeld headed by Count Palatine William Maximilian Joseph inherited Charles Thedore's title of Elector of Bavaria, while William was compensated with the title of Duke in Bavaria The form Duke in Bavaria was selected because in 1506 primogeniture had been established in the House of Wittelsbach resulting in there being only one Reigning Duke of Bavaria at any given time Maximillian Joseph assumed the title of king as Maximilian I Joseph on January 1, 1806 The new king still served as an Prince-elector until the Kingdom of Bavaria left the Holy Roman Empire 1 August 1806

Kingdom of Bavaria, 1806–1918edit

Royal Bavarian coat of arms The Electorate of Bavaria 1778 and the Kingdom of Bavaria 1816

Under Maximilian's descendants, Bavaria became the third most powerful German state, behind only Prussia and Austria It was also far-and-away the most powerful secondary state When the German Empire was formed in 1871, Bavaria became the new empire's second most powerful state after Prussia The Wittelsbachs reigned as kings of Bavaria until 1918 On 12 November 1918 Ludwig III issued the Anif declaration German: Anifer Erklärung at Anif Palace, Austria,1 in which he released his soldiers and officials from their oath of loyalty to him and ended the 738-year rule of the House of Wittelsbach in Bavaria2 The republican movement thereupon declared a republic

Activities during Nazi regime, 1933–1945edit

During the Second World War, the Wittelsbachs were anti-Nazi The family initially left Germany for Hungary, but were eventually arrested Family members spent time in several Nazi concentration camps including Oranienburg and Dachau

Reign outside the Holy Roman Empireedit

With Duke Otto III of Lower Bavaria, who was a maternal grandson of Béla IV of Hungary and was elected anti-king of Hungary and Croatia as Bela V 1305–1308 the Wittelsbach dynasty came to power outside the Holy Roman Empire for the first time Otto had abdicated the Hungarian throne by 1308

Palatinate branchedit

Christopher III of the House of Palatinate-Neumarkt was king of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1440/1442–1448, but he left no descendants The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken contributed to the monarchy of Sweden again 1654–1720 under Charles X, Charles XI, Charles XII and Ulrika Eleonora The Wittelsbach princess Sophia of Hanover 1630–1714 was the mother of George I of Great Britain; she died as Heiress Presumptive of Great Britain a few weeks before the case of succession The line of Jacobite succession is currently within the House of Wittelsbach Franz, Hereditary Prince of Bavaria is recognised by the Jacobites as "Francis II" The Wittelsbach prince Otto of Bavaria was elected king of newly independent Greece in 1832 and was forced to abdicate in 1862

Kingdom of Swedenedit

The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658

Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated her throne on 5 June 1654 in favor of her cousin Charles X Gustavus, a member of the Wittelsbach branch Palatinate-Zweibrücken It was the second term for the rule of the House of Wittelsbach in Sweden since 1448 when Christopher III of the Palatinate branch was king of Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde in 1658 Charles' son, Charles XI, rebuilt the economy and refitted the army His legacy to his son, Charles XII, was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet Charles XII was a skilled military leader and tactician However, although he was also skilled as a politician, he was reluctant in making peace While Sweden achieved several large scale military successes early on, and won the most battles, the Great Northern War eventually ended in Sweden's defeat and the end of the Swedish Empire Charles was succeeded to the Swedish throne by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora Her abdication in 1720 marked the end of the Wittelsbach rule in Sweden

Kingdom of Greeceedit

Greece in 1843 after independence

King Otto I of the House of Wittelsbach was made the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire Throughout his reign, Otto faced political challenges concerning Greece's financial weakness and the role of the government in the affairs of the Church The politics of Greece of this era was based on affiliations with the three Great Powers, and Otto’s ability to maintain the support of the powers was key to his remaining in power To remain strong, Otto had to play the interests of each of the Great Powers’ Greek adherents against the others, while not aggravating the Great Powers When Greece was blockaded by the British Royal Navy in 1850 and again in 1853, to stop Greece from attacking the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War, Otto’s standing amongst Greeks suffered As a result, there was an assassination attempt on the Queen and finally, in 1862, Otto was deposed while in the countryside

The Old Royal Palace in Athens, built for King Otto I by Friedrich von Gärtner, 1841 Propylaea in Munich, monument for the secundogeniture of the Wittelsbach in Greece

The law of succession to the throne of Greece was defined by a supplementary article to the convention of 7 May 1832 awarding the Greek Throne to Otto I It instituted a semi-salic order with an important rule preventing the union of the crown on the same head with any other crown, especially that of Bavaria Under the terms of the succession law, a Wittelsbach claim to the throne would have passed on Otto's death in 1867 to his younger brother Luitpold, who was regent of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912; and after him to Ludwig who became king Ludwig III of Bavaria in 1913 At this point, tracing the claim becomes impossible as the same branch of the Wittelsbach became heir to both thrones, and a subsequent monarch or pretender should have issued a renunciation to one of the two thrones, which none did In the end, neither Luitpold nor his son Ludwig actively pursued a claim to the Greek throne inherited from Otto I, and the throne of Bavaria itself disappeared in 1918, leaving the future of the claim to be decided by a further arrangement that never occurred3

Bavarian branchedit

Joseph Ferdinand, a son of Maximilian II Emanuel, was the favored choice of England and the Netherlands to succeed as the ruler of Spain, and young Charles II of Spain chose him as his heir Due to the unexpected death of Joseph Ferdinand in 1699 the Wittelsbach did not come to power in Spain, leaving the Spanish Succession uncertain again

Major members of the familyedit

Patrilineal descentedit

Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor 1314–1347 Isabeau of Bavaria, Queen of France 1370–1435 Frederick V, Elector Palatine, King of Bohemia 1596–1632 Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria 1662–1726 Charles XII, King of Sweden 1682–1718 Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor 1742–1745 Otto, King of Greece 1815–1867 Ludwig II, King of Bavaria 1845–1886

Duke Franz's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations

  1. Otto I, Count of Scheyern, 1044–1072
  2. Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern, d before 1088
  3. Otto III, Count of Scheyern and Wittelsbach
  4. Otto IV, Count of Wittelsbach, 1083–1156
  5. Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria, 1117–1183
  6. Louis I, Duke of Bavaria, 1173–1231
  7. Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria, 1206–1253
  8. Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, 1229–1294
  9. Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1274–1319
  10. Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine, 1300–1327
  11. Rupert II, Elector Palatine, 1325–1398
  12. Rupert of Germany, 1352–1410
  13. Stefan, Count Palatine of Simmern-Zweibrücken, 1385–1459
  14. Louis I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1424–1489
  15. Alexander, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1462–1514
  16. Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1502–1532
  17. Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1526–1569
  18. Charles I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, 1560–1600
  19. Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld, 1598–1654
  20. Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1637–1717
  21. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, 1674–1735
  22. Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken, 1724–1767
  23. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, 1756–1825
  24. Ludwig I of Bavaria, 1786–1868
  25. Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, 1821–1912
  26. Ludwig III of Bavaria, 1845–1921
  27. Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, 1869–1955
  28. Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria, 1905–1996
  29. Franz, Duke of Bavaria, b 1933
  30. Ludwig, Prince of Bavaria, b 1961
  31. Ryse, Prince of Bavaria, b 1981

Bavarian branchedit

  • Louis V, Margrave of Brandenburg, Duke of Bavaria and Count of Tyrol 1323–1361
  • Albert I, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Holland and Hainaut 1347–1404
  • Isabeau de Bavière 1371–1435, queen-consort of France
  • Ernest, Duke of Bavaria 1397–1438 duke of Bavaria-Munich
  • Albert III, Duke of Bavaria 1438–1460 duke of Bavaria-Munich
  • Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland 1417–1432
  • Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria 1465–1508
  • William IV, Duke of Bavaria 1508–1550, co-regent Louis X from 1516–1545
  • Louis X, Duke of Bavaria 1516–1545
  • Albert V, Duke of Bavaria 1550–1579
  • Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria 1597–1651
  • Maria Anna, Dauphine of France 1660–1690
  • Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria 1662–1726
  • Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria 1673–1731, Hereditary Princess of Tuscany and Governess of Siena,
  • Clemens August of Bavaria 1700–1761
  • Maria Antonia of Bavaria 1724–1780

Palatinate branchedit

  • Frederick I, Elector Palatine 1451–1476
  • Frederick III, Elector Palatine 1559–1576
  • Frederick V, Elector Palatine 1610–1623, King of Bohemia the "Winter King"
  • Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine 1648–1680
  • Prince Rupert of the Rhine 1619–1682
  • Sophia of the Palatine 1630–1714, daughter of Frederick V, heiress of Great Britain, mother of King George I
  • Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine 1652–1722
  • Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine 1690–1718, his wife Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici being the last scion of the House of Medici
  • King Ludwig I of Bavaria 1825–1848
  • Princess Sophie of Bavaria 1805–1872, Archduchess of Austria
  • Elisabeth in Bavaria 1837–1898 "Sisi", Empress of Austria
  • Ludwig II of Bavaria 1864–1886
  • Marie Sophie 1841–1925, last queen of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  • Elizabeth of Bavaria 1876–1965, queen-consort of Albert I of Belgium
  • Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein, b 1967

Scandinavian kingsedit

  • Christopher of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, reigned 1440–1448
  • Charles X Gustav of Sweden, reigned 1654–1660
  • Charles XI of Sweden, reigned 1660–1697
  • Charles XII of Sweden, reigned 1697–1718
  • Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden, reigned 1718–1720

Several other women in the family are known as Elisabeth of Bavaria

Family treeedit

Castles and palacesedit

Bavariaedit

Some of the most important Bavarian castles and palaces that were built by Wittelsbach rulers, or served as seats of ruling branch lines, are the following:

Palatinate branchedit

Some of the most important castles and palaces of the Palatinate Wittelsbach were:

Electorate of Cologneedit

From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne, most of them belonging to the Bavarian branch of the House of Wittelsbach from 1583 to 1761

Coats of armsedit

A full armorial of the Wittelsbach family can be found on the French-language Wikipedia at Armorial of the House of Wittelsbach

Palatinate branch senior line, issue of Rudolph I of the Palatine and Bavariaedit

Figure Name of armiger and blazon

Electoral Palatinate, County Palatine of the Rhine from 1215 to 1623

Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent4

Heraldic augmentation for the Count Palatine of the Rhine, a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire: Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent, overall gules, an orb or encircled of the same5

Rupert of Germany 1352 † 1410, king of the Romans from 1400 to 1410

Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules; overall quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent6

Christopher of Bavaria 1416 † 1448, king of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Quarterly a cross paty argent, fimbriated gules, cantonned 1 and 4, azure three bars wavy argent, overall a lion crowned or, which is Sweden ancien, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise argent and azure, which is Bavaria Overall quarterly 1 or, nine hearts gules in three pallets, three lions passant guardant azure in pale, armed and langued gules, crowned of the field, brochant sur-le-tout, which is Denmark, 2 azure, three crowns or, which is Sweden moderne, 3 gules, a lion crowned or, holding in his paws a battle-axe argent, the handle of the second, which is Norway ancien and 4 gules, a dragon or, which is for the Kingdom of the Vandals78

Frederick V, Elector Palatine 1596 † 1632, elector palatine from 1610 to 1623 and king of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620

Quarterly of six, three rows of two, 1 gules, a lion argent, queue fourchée in saltire, crowned, armed and langued or Bohemia, 2 azure, an eagle chequy of argent and gules, beaked, langued, membered and crowned or Moravia, 3 or, an eagle sable, armed, beaked and langued gules, on its heart a crescent below a cross argent Silesia, 4 barry of six argent and azure, a lion gules, queue fourchée in saltire, armed, langued and crowned or Luxembourg, 5 per fess embattled azure and or Upper Lusace, 6 argent, a bull gules issuant from a terrace vert Lower Lusace Overall per pale sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules Palatinate and fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria; grafted in point gules, an orb or, which is the heraldic augmentation for the archsteward of the Holy Roman Empire9

Counts Palatine of the Rhine from 1648 to 1688

Quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules Palatinate, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria, overall gules, a crown of Charlemagne or, which is the heraldic augmentation for the archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire10

Counts palatine of Neuburg from 1574 to 1688
Counts palatine of Sulzbach from 1688 to 1795

Quarterly of eight, two rows of four, 1 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria, 2 or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules Juliers, 3 gules, an escutcheon argent surmounted by an escarbuncle with rays or Cleves, 4 argent, a lion gules, queue fourchée in saltire, armed, langued and crowned or Berg, 5 argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz, 6 or, a fess chequy argent and gules of three rows de la Marck, 7 argent, three chevrons gules Ravensberg, 8 argent, a fess sable Overall, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine11

Electors palatine of Neuburg from 1688 to 1742

Per pale, I quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules county palatine of the Rhine, 2 fusilly bendwise azure and argent Bavaria, 3 argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz, 4 or, a fess chequy of three rows argent and gules de la Marck, II per fess, the chief tierced in pale, the base per pale: 1, or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules Juliers, 2 gules, an escutcheon argent, surmounted by an escarbuncle with rays or Cleves, 3 argent, a lion gules, queue fourchée in saltire, armed, langued and crowned or Berg; 4 argent, three chevrons gules Ravensberg, 5 argent, a fess sable Overall gules, a crown of Charlemagne or Arch-treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire12

Counts palatine of Zweibrücken from 1569 to 1675

Per pale, I quarterly 1 and 4 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules county palatine of the Rhine, 2 and 3 fusilly bendwise, azure and argent Bavaria; overall argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz; II quarterly of six, two rows of three, 1 or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules Juliers, 2 gules, an escutcheon argent, surmounted by an escarbuncle with rays or Cleves, 3 argent, a lion gules, queue fourchée in saltire, armed, langued and crowned or Berg, 4 or, a fess chequy of three rows, argent and gules de la Marck, 5 argent, three chevrons gules Ravensberg, 6 argent, a fess sable13

Kings of Sweden from 1654 to 1720 from the Counts Palatine of Zweibrücken

Quarterly, a cross paty or, which is the cross of Saint Eric, cantonned 1 and 4, azure, three crowns or, two and one Sweden moderne, 2 and 3 azure, three bars wavy argent, a lion crowned or, armed and langued gules Sweden ancien Overall quarterly Bavaria, Juliers, Cleves and Berg, inescutcheon sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine1314

Counts palatine of Birkenfeld from 1569 to 1795

Per pale, I quarterly 1 and 4 County palatine of the Rhine, 2 and 3 Bavaria; II quarterly 1 Veldenz, 2 chequy gules and argent de Birkenfeld, 3 argent, three escutcheons gules, two and one Rappolstein, 4 argent, three heads of eagles sable, crowned or, two and one de Hohenach11

Kings of Bavaria from 1809 to 1835

Fusilly bendwise, azure and argent, an inescutcheon gules, a sword argent pommelled or and a scepter or in saltire, in chief a royal crown or515

Kings of Bavaria from 1835 to 1918

Quarterly 1 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules County palatine of the Rhine, 2 per fess indented gules and argent Franconia, 3 bendy sinister argent and gules, a pale or de Burgovie, 4 argent, a lion azure, armed, langued and crowned or Veldenz Overall, Bavaria515

Otto de Wittelsbach 1815 † 1867, king of Greece

Azure, a cross couped argent, inescutcheon Bavaria16

Dukes in Bavaria after 1834

Paly-bendy azure and argent

Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria 1884–1958, Infante of Spain
branch of «Wittelsbach-Bourbon»

Quarterly, County Palatine of the Rhine, Franconia, de Burgovie, de Veldenz Inescutcheon, Bavaria In chief, gules, a cross argent

Bavarian branch junior branch, issue of Louis of Bavaria, extinct by 1777edit

Figure Name of armiger and blazon
Dukes of Bavaria from 1180 to 1623

Fusilly in bend azure and argent517

Louis IV 1286 † 1347, king of the Romans in 1314, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1328

Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules, inescutcheon fusilly in bend azure and argent6

Dukes of Bavaria and Electors of Brandenburg : Louis V † 1361, Louis VI † 1365 and Otto V † 1379

Per pale fusilly in bend azure and argent, and argent, an eagle gules, armed, beaked and langued or18

Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, Counts of Hainaut and Holland from 1254 to 1433

Quarterly 1 and 4, fusilly in bend, azure and argent, 2 and 3, grand-quarterly I and IV or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules, II and III, or, a lion gules, armed and langued azure19

Electors of Bavaria from 1623 to 1777

In 1620, the Elector Palatine Frederick V, a Protestant, was defeated after trying to take the kingdom of Bohemia He was placed under the ban of the Empire and his lands, titles and electoral dignity were confiscated and given to his Roman Catholic cousin, the Duke of Bavaria, who takes:

Quarterly 1 and 4 fusilly in bend, azure and argent, 2 and 3 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, overall gules, an orb crucifer or6

Charles VII 1697 † 1745, Holy Roman Emperor from 1742 to 1745

Or, an eagle sable, membered, beaked and langued gules; inescutcheon quarterly 1 and 4 fusilly in bend, azure and argent, 2 and 3 sable, a lion or, armed, langued and crowned gules, sur le tout gules, an orb crucifer or6

See alsoedit

The Bavarian Crown Jewels at Munich Residenz
  • Kings of Germany family tree
  • List of rulers of Bavaria
  • List of rulers of the Palatinate
  • Asteroid 90712 Wittelsbach, named in the castle and dynasty's honour
  • Wittelsbach Diamond
  • Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918
  • List of coats of arms with the Palatine Lion

Notesedit

  1. ^ Germany: Bavaria: Heads of State: 1806-1918 archontologyorg, accessed: 14 June 2008
  2. ^ Manfred Berger 2003 "Rupprecht, Maria Luitpold Ferdinand, Kronprinz von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog von Bayern, Franken und in Schwaben usw" In Bautz, Traugott Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon BBKL in German 22 Nordhausen: Bautz cols 1173–1186 ISBN 3-88309-133-2 
  3. ^ François Velde 30 April 2005 "The Succession Laws of the Greek Monarchy" Heraldica Retrieved 31 May 2010 
  4. ^ BSB-CGM-1952
  5. ^ a b c d Héraldique Européenne : Baviève
  6. ^ a b c d Héraldique Européenne : empereurs
  7. ^ Héraldique Européenne : Dannemark
  8. ^ Louda 1981, p 46
  9. ^ Héraldique Européenne : Bohême
  10. ^ Par déduction En 1648, le fils de Frédéric V recupère une partie des terres paternelles, le titre d'électeur, confisquées en 1623, et la charge d'archi-trésorier du Saint-Empire Il paraît logique de penser qu'il ajoute l'écu de cette charge sur ses armes
  11. ^ a b Louda 1981, p 193
  12. ^ Louda 1981, p 165
  13. ^ a b Louda 1981, p 65
  14. ^ Héraldique Européenne : Suede
  15. ^ a b Louda 1981, p 191
  16. ^ Héraldique Européenne : Grèce
  17. ^ Louda 1981, p 190
  18. ^ Louda 1981, p 266
  19. ^ Héraldique Européenne : Hainaut

Referencesedit

  • Héraldique Européenne

External linksedit

  • Haus Bayern – webpage of the Royal House of Bavaria in German
  • Archived website about the Royal Family of Bavaria
  • Haus Bayern - Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds – Wittelsbach foundation in German
  • Die Genealogie der Wittelsbacher – Genealogy of the Wittelsbach family in German
  • Marek, Miroslav "Genealogy of the House of Wittelsbach from Genealogyeu" genealogyeuwebcz GenealogyEU 


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