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House of Farnese

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The Farnese family is an influential family in Renaissance Italy The titles of Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Duke of Castro were held by various members of the family

Its most important members included Pope Paul III, Alessandro Farnese a cardinal, Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma a military commander and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, and Elisabeth Farnese, who became Queen of Spain and whose legacy was brought to her Bourbon descendants

A number of important architectural works and antiquities are associated with the Farnese family, either through construction or acquisition Buildings include the Palazzo Farnese in Rome and the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, and ancient artifacts include the Farnese Marbles

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Origins
    • 12 Rise
    • 13 Rule on Castro and Emilia
  • 2 Family Tree
  • 3 Most notable members
  • 4 Armorial
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Historyedit

Originsedit

Arms as Dukes of Parma

The family could trace its origins back to around AD 984 and took its name from one of its oldest feudal possessions - Castrum Farneti There has been some debate as to the origins of the name Farnesi/Farnese Some suggest that it derives from the vernacular name for an oak found in the region, the Farnia Quercus robur, but others have held that the name owes its origins to the Fara, a term of Lombard origin used to denote a particular social group

In the 12th century, they are recorded as minor feudataries in the areas of Tuscania and Orvieto, several members holding political positions in the latter commune One Pietro defeated the Tuscan Ghibellines in 1110 and, most likely, fought against the Italo-Normans in 1134 His son Prudenzio was consul in Orvieto and defeated the Orvieto Ghibellines backed by Siena; another Pietro defended the town against Emperor Henry VI In 1254, one Ranuccio defeated Todi's troops and fought for Pope Urban IV against Manfred of Sicily His son Niccolò was in the Guelph army in the Battle of Benevento 1266

The Farnese returned to Tuscia southern Tuscany-northern Lazio in 1319, when they acquired Farnese, Ischia di Castro, and the castles of Sala and San Savino In 1354, Cardinal Albornoz, in return for the family's help in the war against the Papal riotous barons, gave them the territory of Valentano In this period they fought against the fierce Papal rivals, the Prefetti di Vico

In 1362, Pietro Farnese was commander-in-chief of the Florentine army against Pisa in the war for Volterra Six years later Niccolò Farnese saved Pope Urban V from the attack of Giovanni di Vico, first in the castle of Viterbo and then in that of Montefiascone The loyalty to the Papal cause meant that the Farnese were granted confirmation of their possessions in the northern Lazio and given a series of privileges which raised them to the same level as more ancient and powerful Roman barons of the time, such as the Savelli, Orsini, Monaldeschi and Sforza of Santa Fiora

Riseedit

Pope Paul III and his Grandsons by Titian shows Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Farnese left and his other grandson, Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma

The family substantially increased its power in the course of the 15th century, as their territories reached the southern shore of the Lake Bolsena and Montalto, largely due to Ranuccio the Elder He was commander-in-chief of the forces of neighbouring Siena against the Orsini of Pitigliano and, after his victory, received the title of Senator of Rome His son, Gabriele Francesco, also took up a military career, a line of employment which disappeared after three generations

Ranuccio's son, Pier Luigi, married a member of the ancient baronial family of the Caetani that of Pope Boniface VIII, thus giving the Farnese further importance in Rome His daughter, Giulia, who was a mistress of Pope Alexander VI, further expanded the Roman fortunes of her family by persuading the Pope to bestow on her brother Alessandro the title of cardinal Under Alexander's successor, Pope Julius II, he became governor of the Marca Anconetana and, in 1534, he was elected as pope and took the name of Paul III Notable features of his reign included the establishment of the Council of Trent and an unprecedented level of nepotism For example, two months after becoming pope in 1534, he made his 14-year-old grandson Alessandro a cardinal deacon

Paul III died in 1549 and his political role in the Curia passed to his grandson Alessandro, who remained an influential cardinal and patron of the arts until his death in 1589

Rule on Castro and Emiliaedit

The Farnese's Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma

Paul III used his position as pontiff to increase the power and possessions of his family He gave his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi, the title of gonfaloniere or Gonfalone of the Church He also gave him the town of Castro with the title of Duke of Castro, granting him possession of lands from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Lake of Bolsena, as well as the area of Ronciglione and many other smaller fiefdoms

In 1545, Paul handed over, from land once belonging to the Papal States, further territories in northern Italy to his son who took the additional title of the Duke of Parma Paul thus established his family as an Italian ducal dynasty, a project at which the Borgia Pope Alexander VI had failed Two years later Pier Luigi was assassinated by his new subjects under a Spanish mandate Despite intrigues by Charles V, the Pope reacted promptly and soon established Ottavio, Pier Luigi's son, on the ducal throne He secured this by marrying Ottavio 1547–86 to the eldest illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Margaret Ottavio was given the additional title of Duke of Piacenza and initially established his court there where work was begun on a huge Farnese palace on the banks of the River Po However, during construction, and probably in response to political intrigues by the Piacentine nobility, Ottavio Farnese moved his court to Parma where he had the Palazzo della Pilotta constructed in 1583

In 1580 Ranuccio I was the first in succession line to the Kingdom of Portugal His great-uncle Henry I of Portugal's death triggered the struggle for the throne of Portugal when Ranuccio was 11 years old As the son of the late elder daughter of Infante Edward, 4th Duke of Guimarães, the only son of King Manuel I whose legitimate descendants survived at that time, Ranuccio was according to the succession law the first heir to the throne of Portugal However his father was an ally and even a subject of the Spanish king, another contender, so Ranuccio's rights were not very forcibly claimed

The Farnese court in Parma and Piacenza under Duke Ranuccio II 1630–94 was one of the most splendid in Italy

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza continued to be ruled by the Farnese until the 17th century But the city of Castro was removed from the Farnese family holdings when the Farnese fell out with the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII sparking the Wars of Castro In 1649, the conflict ended when Pope Innocent X had the city razed1

The small dukedom eventually fell under the Spanish control and influence; the family lost Parma and Piacenza in 1731 when the last duke, Antonio Farnese, died without direct heirs and his collateral heir, his niece Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, passed a successful claim on to her sons, Don Carlos later King Carlos III of Spain and Filippo House of Bourbon-Parma

Family Treeedit

          Alessandro Farnese
Papa Paolo III
1468–1549
                   
                                     
                               
  Costanza
1500–1545
  Pier Luigi
1503–1547
  Ranuccio   Paolo
                                           
                                         
  Alessandro
1520–1589
  Vittoria
1521–1602
  Ottavio I
1524–1586
  Ranuccio
1530–1564
  Orazio
1531–1553
                               
           
              Alessandro
1545–1592
  Carlo
                                         
                     
      Margherita
1567–1643
  Ranuccio I
1569–1622
  Odoardo
1573–1626
                                                 
                                                 
  Alessandro   Odoardo I
1612–1646
  Maria
1615–1646
  Vittoria
1618–1649
  Francesco Maria
1619–1647
  Ottavio
1598–1643
                                           
                                         
  Ranuccio II
1630–1694
  Alessandro
1635–1689
  Orazio
1636–1656
  Caterina
1637–1684
  Pietro
1639–1677
                                         
                                       
  Margherita Maria
1664–1718
  Teresa
1665–1702
  Odoardo II
1666–1693
  Francesco
1678–1727
  Antonio
1679–1731
                       
                  Elisabetta
1692–1766

Most notable membersedit

Early arms of the family
  • Pietro Farnese dates unknown
  • Ranuccio Farnese 1390–1450
  • Pier Luigi Farnese 1435–87
  • Pope Paul III, born Alessandro Farnese 1468–1549
  • Giulia Farnese, mistress of Pope Alexander VI and sister of Pope Paul III
  • Pier Luigi Farnese, first Duke of Parma 1503–47
  • Alessandro Farnese, Cardinal 1520–89
  • Ottavio Farnese, second Duke of Parma 1524–86
  • Ranuccio Farnese, Cardinal 1530–65
  • Alessandro Farnese, third Duke of Parma 1545–92
  • Ranuccio I Farnese, fourth Duke of Parma 1569–1622
  • Odoardo Farnese, fifth Duke of Parma 1612–46
  • Ranuccio II Farnese, sixth Duke of Parma 1630–94
  • Francesco Farnese, seventh Duke of Parma 1678–1727
  • Antonio Farnese, eighth Duke of Parma 1679–1731
  • Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, wife of King Philip V, mother of Charles III 1692–1766

Armorialedit

Figure Date et blasonnement
famille Farnèse

d'or à six fleurs de lys d'azur posées 3, 2 et 12

de 1545 à 1586

d'or, à six fleurs de lys d'azur, en deux pals de part et d'autre au pal brochant de gueules, à l’ombrelle à galons d'or, la tige en forme de lance chargée de deux clefs en sautoir avec les pannetons tournés vers l'extérieur et vers le haut, l'une d’or et l'autre d’argent, liées d'azur qui est le Gonfalon de l'Eglise2

de 1586 à 1592

écartelé, en 1 et 4 d'or, à six fleurs de lys d'azur posées 3, 2 et 1, en 2 et 4 Habsburg parti de gueules à la fasce d'argent Austria et bandé d'or et d'azur de six pièces à la bordure de gueules Burgundy Ancient ; au pal brochant de gueules, à l’ombrelle à galons d'or, la tige en forme de lance chargée de deux clefs en sautoir avec les pannetons tournés vers l'extérieur et vers le haut, l'une d’or et l'autre d’argent, liées d'azur qui est le Gonfalon de l'Eglise2

de 1592 à 1731

écartelé, en 1 et 4 d'or, à six fleurs de lys d'azur posées 3, 2 et 1, en 2 et 4 parti de gueules à la fasce d'argent et bandé d'or et d'azur de six pièces à la bordure de gueules ; au pal brochant de gueules, à l’ombrelle à galons d'or, la tige en forme de lance chargée de deux clefs en sautoir avec les pannetons tournés vers l'extérieur et vers le haut, l'une d’or et l'autre d’argent, liées d'azur qui est le Gonfalon de l'Eglise ; sur le tout d'argent au cinq écus d'azur disposés en croix, chaque écu semé de besants d'argent, à la bordure de gueules chargée d'onze châteaux d'or2

Referencesedit

  1. ^ World History at KMLA: War over Parma
  2. ^ a b c d Héraldique Européenne : duché de Parme
  • Annibali, Flaminio Maria 1817–18 Notizie Storiche della Casa Farnese Montefiascone 
  • del Vecchio, Edoardo 1972 I Farnese Rome: Istituto di studi romani editore 
  • Drei, Giovanni 1954 I Farnese grandezza e decadenza di una dinastia italiana Rome: La Libreria dello Stato 
  • Nasalli Rocca, Emilio 1969 I Farnese dell’Oglio 

External linksedit

  • Farnese family tree from about 1390 to 1766

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