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House of Braganza

house of braganza, monarchs of the royal house of braganza

  • House of Lafões
  • House of Valença
  • House of Cadaval


  • House of Orléans-Braganza
  • House of Braganza-Coburg
  • House of Bourbon-Braganza

The Most Serene House of Braganza Portuguese: Sereníssima Casa de Bragança, or the Brigantine Dynasty Dinastia Brigantina, is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese origin, a branch of the House of Aviz

Founded by Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza, illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, the Braganzas were one of the wealthiest and most powerful noble houses of the Iberian Peninsula of the Renaissance period The house came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves following the successful deposition of the Philippine Dynasty by John IV of Portugal, in 1580 With the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, in 1815, and the subsequent independence of the Empire of Brazil, in 1822, the Braganzas came to rule as the monarchs of Brazil

The House of Braganza produced 15 Portuguese monarchs and 4 monarchs of Brazil, numerous consorts to various European kingdoms, such as Catherine of Braganza wife of Charles II of England and Maria Isabel of Braganza wife of Ferdinand VII of Spain, as well as sometime candidates for the thrones of Poland and Greece, Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém and Pedro, Duke of Braganza, respectively, and numerous other notable figures in the histories of Europe and the Americas The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889, and when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910

Following the reign of King John VI of Portugal, the Braganzas were split into three main branches of the family: the Brazilian branch, headed by King John VI's eldest son, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, the Constitutional branch, headed by Emperor Pedro I's eldest daughter, Queen Maria II of Portugal, and the Miguelist branch, headed by King John VI's second eldest son, King Miguel I of Portugal The Brazilian branch, following 1921, became the House of Orléans-Braganza, whose leadership is disputed by two branches of its own: the Vassouras branch, headed by Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, and the Petrópolis branch, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza The Constitutional branch died out with the death of King Manuel II in 1932, passing its claim to the Portuguese throne to the Miguelist Branch, by way of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza The claim to the Portuguese Crown, and thus to the leadership of the House of Braganza, passed to Duarte Nuno's son, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, who is currently the most recognized pretender to the Portuguese throne


  • 1 History
    • 11 Feudal establishment
    • 12 Princes of the Renaissance
    • 13 Throne of Portugal
    • 14 Realm in Brazil
    • 15 Warring branches
    • 16 Peace in Portugal
    • 17 Imperial Brazil
    • 18 Modern Braganzas
      • 181 Portuguese Braganzas
      • 182 Brazilian Braganzas
  • 2 Braganza dukes and monarchs
    • 21 Dukes of Braganza before ascension to throne
    • 22 Monarchs of Portugal
    • 23 Monarchs of Brazil
  • 3 Genealogy
    • 31 Ducal line: Afonso I to Teodósio II 1377-1630
    • 32 Royal line: João IV to João VI 1604-1826
    • 33 Constitutional line: Maria II to Manuel II 1819-1932
    • 34 Imperial line: Pedro I to Pedro II 1798-1891
      • 341 Orléans-Braganza line: Isabel to Luiz & Pedro Carlos 1846-Present
    • 35 Miguelist line: Miguel I to Duarte Pio 1802-Present
    • 36 Agnatic descendants of John IV
    • 37 Non-agnatic branches named after the dynasty
  • 4 Armorial
  • 5 Symbols
    • 51 Wyvern
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Endnotes
  • 8 Footnotes
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links


Feudal establishmentedit

Afonso I, first Duke of Braganza and founder of the House of Braganza

The House of Braganza originated with Afonso I, an illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz, and Inês Piresa Though Afonso was illegitimate, his father valued and cared for him a great deal, demonstrated by his arrangement of Afonso's marriage to Beatriz Pereira de Alvim, daughter of Nuno Álvares Pereira, Portugal's most important general and a personal friend of King John I As well as increasing his social status by his marriage into a well-established house, Afonso also became the eighth Count of Barcelos, an honour ceded to him by his father-in-law, who had been made the seventh count by John I

With his newly consolidated place in the nobility of Portugal, Afonso commenced what would be a highly successful political and social career In 1415 he took part in the Conquest of Ceuta, alongside his father, his brothers, and the leading members of the nobility and military By the time of his father's death in 1433, Afonso had won favour with his brother, King Duarte I and the rest of high Portuguese society With his brother's premature death in 1438, a regency was established for Afonso's nephew, the 6 year old King Afonso V, under the leadership of the king's mother, Leonor of Aragon, and later Afonso's brother, Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra The Duke of Coimbra's regency, however, soon proved unpopular and Afonso quickly became the King's preferred advisor On 30 December 1442, the Duke of Coimbra, still the King's regent and thus acting in his name, created Afonso as the Duke of Braganza, as a gesture of good will and reconciliation between the two brothers Afonso's elevation to the dukedom, the highest level of nobility, marked the foundation of the House of Braganza, which was to become a key family in Portuguese history

As a result of the hard work and success of Afonso I, his children all secured successful positions and lived privileged lives Afonso I's first son, Afonso of Braganza, was a prominent member of the nobility, having been ceded, by his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, the lucrative and powerful title of Count of Ourém, in 1422 He was an accomplished diplomat, and served as the king's representative at the Council of Basel in 1436, and the Council of Florence in 1439 In 1451, the Count of Ourém was made Marquis of Valença and escorted Infanta Leonor of Portugal to her husband Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor Later, in 1458, he participated in the capture and conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer The Marquis of Valença, however, died in 1460, one year before his father and therefore did not succeed him Afonso I's first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, thus relinking the House of Braganza to the Royal House of Portugal Isabel's strategic marriage proved successful, and produced four children, whose descendants would be some of the most important in Iberian history Afonso I's last child and successor, Fernando I, Duke of Braganza, continued his legacy of prominence in the military and society

When Fernando I was born, in 1403, his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, ceded him the title of Count of Arraiolos Fernando became an accomplished military man, participating in various Portuguese imperial campaigns Though Fernando I was a popular and powerful member of the nobility, he did not always find himself in the favour of the king, most notably exemplified when Fernando I openly declaimed King Duarte I, at the Portuguese Cortes, on the topic of the rescue and recovery of the King's brother, Infante Fernando, Lord of Salvaterra de Magos from the Moors However, Fernando I became a favourite of both the royal and imperial government and of King Afonso V, earning him the position of Governor of Ceuta and the titles of Marquis of Vila Viçosa and Count of Neiva

Fernando II, the duke whose supposed treason had the House stripped and exiled

Fernando I's children, by his wife, Joana de Castro, Lady of Cadaval, continued to enlarge the influence of the House of Braganza Of his nine children, all six who survived to adulthood established themselves either through positions or marriages, though the actions of King João II would seek to weaken their influence Fernando I's first son and successor, Fernando II, was initially a bright and popular nobleman, but his conflict with King João II would see his and the House's downfall His second son, João of Braganza, 1st Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo, was an accomplished military man and was made Constable of Portugal Fernando's third son, Afonso of Braganza, became a popular nobleman of society and was made 1st Count of Faro The Duke's fourth son, Álvaro of Braganza, inherited the fiefs of his mother, becoming the 5th Lord of Ferreira, 4th Lord of Cadaval, and 1st Lord of Tentúgal Fernando's eldest surviving daughter, Beatriz of Braganza, married Pedro de Meneses, 1st Marquis of Vila Real Fernando's last surviving child, Guiomar of Braganza, married Henrique de Meneses, 4th Count of Viana do Alentejo Ultimately, however, Fernando I's children and grandchildren would suffer great difficulty under the reign of King João II

By the tenure of the third duke, Fernando II, the House of Braganza was undoubtedly one of the greatest noble houses of Portugal and Iberia as a whole Fernando II continued the House's legacy of acquisition and gained the title of Duke of Guimarães To the Duke and the House's downfall, however, King João II's reign concerned itself with the royal consolidation of power and the diminishment of the nobility In his mission to centralize power, the King executed many nobleman of the great houses of Portugal, alongside confiscating their properties and exiling their families Fernando II, having been a prominent and powerful nobleman, was accused of treason and executed by King João II; the House's titles and properties were merged into the crown and its members exiled to Castile

Due to their father's misfortunes, Fernando II's children, from his marriage to Isabel of Viseu, daughter of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu and Beja, initially had a tumultuous childhood; but King João II's successor, King Manuel I, who had previously himself been the Duke of Beja, chose to forgive the House and re-grant them all their properties in exchange for their loyalty Fernando II's oldest surviving son and successor, Jaime I, returned to Portugal and reestablished himself at Vila Viçosa, the former seat of the Dukes Fernando II's only other surviving son, Dinis of Braganza, married Beatriz de Castro Osório, Countess of Lemos, and had four children with her

Princes of the Renaissanceedit

Jaime I, the Duke who restored the House's prestige after the João II affair

Jaime I's tenure as Duke of Braganza was one of restoration and grandness Upon his return to Portugal from exile, Jaime took possession of the House's formerly confiscated properties In order to establish a new image for the House, he ordered the construction of a new seat for the House, which would become one of the largest palaces in Iberia, the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa Jaime I's restoration also continued with the House's relations with the King, Jaime I having becoming a favourite of King Manuel I and even once his temporary heir The Duke also had his share of scandal, having funded the conquest of the city of Azamor, for the royal crown as, as punishment for his ordering the murder of his first wife, Leonor Pérez de Guzman, daughter of Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia

The children of Jaime I, both the two first children by his first wife, Leonor of Pérez de Guzman, and the later eight children by his second wife, Joana of Mendoça, all saw successful lives under the restored House of Braganza Jaime I's first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, and had three children, while his first son and successor, Teodósio I, was a successful prince of the renaissance Five of Jaime I's children, Jaime, Maria, Fulgêncio, Teotónio, and Vicência, all entered into religious orders The Duke's second daughter, Joana of Braganza, married Bernardino de Cardenas, 3rd Marquis of Elche, and his third daughter, Eugénia of Braganza, married Francisco de Melo, 2nd Marquis of Ferreira Jaime I's only other son, other than Teodósio I, to not enter into the church, Constantino of Braganza, married Maria de Melo, daughter of D Rodrigo de Melo, 1st Marquis of Ferreira, but had no children Constantino was famed as a great officer of the Portuguese Empire, having served as the Viceroy of Portuguese India and Captain of Ribeira Grande, among other positions

The fifth Duke, Teodósio I, is remembered for being the personification of the Portuguese Renaissance A patron of the arts and scholarly noble, Teodósio I maintained the prestige of the House of Braganza, although not leaving a significant mark on the House's history The Duke notably ceded the Dukedom of Guimarães to Infante Duarte of Portugal as the dowry of his sister, Isabel of Braganza

Teodósio I's first son, Jaime of Braganza, died before he could inherit his father's titles, fighting alongside King Sebastião I at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir The Duke's only daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Miguel Luis de Meneses, 1st Duke of Caminha, though their union had no issue Teodósio I's last child and successor, João I, lived a very different life from Teodósio I's calm and relatively peaceful tenure, having been involved in the controversies of the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 and the subsequent War of the Portuguese Succession

Teodósio I, the Duke who personified the prince of the Portuguese Renaissance

João I's tenure as Duke was one intertwined with controversy and intrigue Having been married to Infanta Catarina, daughter of Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães, and thus a grandchild of King Manuel I, during the succession crisis of 1580, the couple pressed their claims to the Portuguese throne Though Infanta Catarina was a popular claimant, her Habsburg cousin was eventually crowned Philip I of Portugal and the Iberian Union was established In an attempt at reconciliation with the Brigantine House, King Philip I renewed the title of Constable of Portugal, which João I had held previously, to the Duke's first son, Teodósio II, alongside other title and land grants to the Duke and the House

João I's daughters, Maria, Serefina, Querubina, and Angélica, were some of the most eligible ladies of Portugal and all Iberia, though the only one to marry was Serefina of Braganza, who married Castilian Juan Fernandez Pacheco, 5th Duke of Escalona The Duke's oldest son and successor, Teodósio II, famously fought in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir at the age of ten and later became an accomplished general João I's second son, Duarte of Braganza, was made 1st Marquis of Frechilla, and the Duke's third son, Alexandre of Braganza, became Archbishop of Évora, both receiving their titles and many concessions from King Philip I when the monarch was making amends with the House of Braganza Unlike his other sons, João I's last son, Filipe of Braganza, died without marriage, children, or titles

The seventh Duke, Teodósio II, became famous at a young age, having been made page to King Sebastião I and having marched into the Battle of Alcácer Quibir, alongside the King and his uncle, Jaime of Braganza, at the age of ten Teodósio II later pledged his allegiance and became a faithful countryman to the Philippine Dynasty, having even defended Lisbon against King Philip I's rival claimant to the throne, António, Prior of Crato, who had been acclaimed, by his supporters, as King António I of Portugal In recognition for his military prowess, Teodósio II was made Constable of Portugal The Duke's support and service to the Philippine Dynasty, earned the Braganzas more lands and titles and, by 1640, the House had amassed around 80,000 vassals, alongside numerous churches, orders, and institutions under its patronage1

In 1603, Teodósio II married Ana de Velasco y Girón, daughter of Castilian Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frías, and had four children with her The Duke's first son and successor, João II, raise the House of Braganza to new heights of power, having launched the Portuguese Restoration War and been acclaimed King João IV of Portugal, thus installing the House as the ruling dynasty of Portugal Teodósio II's second son, Duarte of Braganza, was made Lord of Vila do Conde and became a diplomat, serving at the court of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, but later died a prisoner as a cost of the Restoration War Teodósio II's two other children, Alexandre and Catarina, both died without children, titles, or marriage

Throne of Portugaledit

João II raised the noble house to the ruling dynasty as King João IV of Portugal Afonso VI of Portugal, the king during whose reign the Restoration War ended

By 1640 the wise policies of D Philip I in respect of Portugal were long past The country was overtaxed, Portuguese colonies were left unprotected, and the King Philip III of Portugal no longer had the trust or support of most Portuguese nobility He was especially loathed by the powerful Portuguese guild of merchants Portugal, like the rest of Philip's kingdoms, was on the verge of rebellion

The eighth Duke of Braganza, D João II of Braganza, had inherited the claim of his grandmother, Infanta Catarina of Portugal, and the remoter claim through of his grandfather João I of Braganza Because of his claims, the discontent Portuguese nobility asked João II to lead their restoration as their king

According to court historians, D João II was a modest man without particular ambitions to the crown Legend says that his wife, Dona Luisa de Guzmán, daughter of the duke of Medina-Sidonia, urged him to accept the offer, saying "I'd rather be queen for one day than duchess for a lifetime" He accepted the leadership of the rebellion, which was successful, and was acclaimed João IV of Portugal on 1 December 1640

File:Portugal 1729 8 Escudosjpg Braganza coat of arms on the reverse of a 1729 eight gold escudo coin depicting João V on the front

After the accession of the Braganzas to the throne, the duchy was linked to the Crown "Duke of Braganza" became the traditional title of the heir to the throne, together with Prince of Brazil and, later, Prince Royal of Portugal, much as Prince of Wales is in the United Kingdom or Prince of Asturias in Spain

Under D João's sons D Afonso VI and D Pedro II, the Portuguese colonial empire, part of which was lost during the Spanish occupation, was restored and expanded, bringing new wealth to Portugal

The zenith of the Braganza dynasty came with the long reign of D João V 1706–1750, who ruled with grandeur and piety The reign of D José I, son of D João V, was marked by the great earthquake, which struck Lisbon in 1755 The political genius of his reign was the 1st Marquis of Pombal The end of the 18th century was characterized by stability, under the rule of Dona Maria I 1777–1816, who discharged Pombal at her accession Unfortunately Dona Maria became psychologically unstable, displaying similar symptoms to George III of the United Kingdom in his later years

Realm in Braziledit

In 1808, faced with impending Napoleonic invasion, the Braganzas transferred their royal court to the State of Brazil, Portugal's largest colony Some time after they had crossed the Atlantic, a royal decree changed the status of Brazil from a Portuguese colony into kingdom alongside Portugal, and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed In 1821, D João VI, who succeeded in 1816, returned to Portugal

King João VI of Portugal's children split the Brigantine House into three branches

D Pedro, Prince Royal of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, the eldest son of D João VI and also regent in Brazil, sided with the Brazilian rebels in January 1822 He was acclaimed Emperor D Pedro I of an independent Brazil in 1822, founding the Empire of Brazil D Pedro I ruled Brazil until 1831, when he abdicated in favor of his young son D Pedro II, and returned to Portugal to aid his daughter D Maria II see below

D Pedro II, being only 6 years old at the time of his coronation, had a regency established The regency would rule until 1840, when the Emperor turned 14 years old His reign would last until 1889, when the Brazilian monarchy was abolished His reign would see the abolition of slavery in Brazil, economic growth, and very long periods of tranquility and development in his empire

Warring branchesedit

In Portugal, D Pedro I of Brazil became King as D Pedro IV 1826, but no one wanted to re-establish the union of Portugal and Brazil Pedro abdicated the Portuguese throne in favor of his daughter Princess Maria da Glória, then seven years old D Pedro's brother D Miguel was to act as Regent, and to marry Maria when she came of age In 1828, Miguel instead proclaimed himself King of Portugal and repudiated the liberal constitution granted by D João VI, trying to establish an absolute monarchy

In 1828, Maria II was forced into exile by her uncle, the new King Miguel I Her father D Pedro IV of Portugal returned from Brazil, launched a successful military campaign, from the Azores, against Miguel I He finally defeated and exiled Miguel I in 1834 Though exiled, Miguel would not give up his claim to the throne and would establish the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza The strategic marriages of his children to the various royal houses of Europe would earn him the nickname the "Grandfather of Europe" see Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal

Peace in Portugaledit

Manuel II, the last King of Portugal and the last Braganza monarch

Maria II married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Maria II was succeeded in 1853 by her son D Pedro V, a hard-working reformer who died prematurely in 1861 due to cholera D Pedro V was succeeded by his brother D Luís, as D Pedro V had no children

D Luís I was succeeded in 1889 by his son D Carlos Carlos was assassinated in 1908 together with his eldest son, D Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal and Duke of Braganza, by republicans His younger son, D Manuel, Duke of Beja, survived the attack on his father and elder brother and became King as Manuel II, but was toppled two years later in the 1910 republican revolution After the revolution, Manuel was forced into exile in England by the Portuguese First Republic, but he would continue to support his fatherland until his death

Imperial Braziledit

Pedro I, the first monarch of the independent Brazil Pedro II, the last Emperor of Brazil

On 7 September 1822, Dom Pedro of Braganza, Prince Royal of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, member of the House of Braganza, heir apparent to the Portuguese throne and Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil, declared the country's independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and was acclaimed Emperor of Brazil On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy In 1825, signing the treaty of Rio de Janeiro of this date, his father, King Dom João VI, recognized the independence of the new state, the former Portuguese dominion, now Empire of Brazil

Pedro I encountered a number of crises during his reign A secessionist rebellion in the Cisplatine Province in early 1825 and the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata later Argentina to annex Cisplatina led the Empire into the failed Cisplatine War In March 1826, João VI died and Pedro I inherited the Portuguese crown, briefly becoming King Pedro IV of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Maria II The situation worsened in 1828 when the war in the south ended with Brazil's loss of Cisplatina, which would become the independent republic of Uruguay During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother

Other difficulties arose when the Empire's parliament opened in 1826 Pedro I, along with a significant percentage of the legislature, argued for an independent judiciary, a popularly elected legislature and a government which would be led by the emperor who held broad executive powers and prerogatives Others in parliament argued for a similar structure, only with a less influential role for the monarch and the legislative branch being dominant in policy and governance The struggle over whether the government would be dominated by the emperor or by the parliament was carried over into debates from 1826 to 1831 on the establishment of the governmental and political structure Unable to deal with the problems in both Brazil and Portugal simultaneously, the Emperor abdicated on behalf of his son, Pedro II, on 7 April 1831 and immediately sailed for Europe to restore his daughter to her throne

Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II As the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age in 1840, with 14 years old, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which eventually became an emerging international power Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Paraguayan War under Pedro II's rule, and the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained mostly Catholic Slavery, which had initially been widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888 by Princess Isabel

Even though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government, republicans began pressuring army officers to overthrow the monarchy After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic Throughout the coup Pedro II showed no emotion, as if unconcerned about the outcome He dismissed all suggestions put forward by politicians and military leaders for quelling the rebellion The Emperor and his family were sent into exile in Portugal and France Although there was significant monarchist reaction after the fall of the Empire, this was thoroughly suppressed, and neither Pedro II nor his daughter and heiress supported a forced restoration

Modern Braganzasedit

Portuguese Braganzasedit

Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, head of the House of Braganza and principal pretender to the Portuguese throne since 1976

In 1835, Queen Maria II of Portugal married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, later King Ferdinand II of Portugal Despite the tradition of following the custom of patrilineal descent of royal houses, common throughout Europe, the children of the marriage between Queen Maria II and King Fernando II were members of the House of Braganza and ruled Portugal as Brigantine monarchs, not as Saxe-Coburg-Gotha monarchs Some foreign genealogists have classified the descendants of Maria II and Fernando II into a separate house, usually named the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha however, Article 5 of the Portuguese constitution of 1826 clearly states that "Continues the Reigning Dynasty of the Most Serene House of Braganza in the Person of Lady Princess Maria da Glória, by the Abdication and Cession of Her August Father Lord Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, Legitimate Heir and Successor of Lord João VI"2

After the revolution of 1910, King D Manuel II settled in England until his death in 1932 He was childless, and descendants of D Miguel the usurper of 1826 claimed the throne In 1920–22, the two of the now four branches of the House of Braganza negotiated a pact under which D Manuel named as his heir D Duarte Nuno of Braganza, grandson of D Miguel D Duarte Nuno, now Duke of Braganza, remained the Braganza pretender until his death in 1976 In 1942, he married a great-granddaughter of Emperor D Pedro II of Brazil, uniting the two lines of the House

In 1950 Portugal repealed the law of exile against the Braganzas, and D Duarte Nuno moved to the country in 1952

Dom Duarte Nuno was succeeded as pretender by his son, D Duarte Pio of Braganza born 1945 D Duarte Pio served in the Portuguese Armed Forces and took the customary oath of allegiance to the Republic, but Portuguese monarchists still recognize him as the pretender to the Portuguese throne In 1995 he married Dona Isabel de Herédia, a Portuguese businesswoman and descendent of the Viscount of Ribeira Brava He worked actively in support of the independence of East Timor from Indonesia

Duarte Pio and Isabel have three children, each bearing the traditional stylings of the Braganzas Duarte Pio's oldest son is Afonso de Santa Maria, who bears the traditional titles of Prince of Beira as heir apparent to the heir apparent to the King of Portugal and Duke of Barcelos as heir apparent to the Duke of Braganza He has a brother, Dinis, Duke of Porto, and a sister, Infanta Maria Francisca

Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança, who claimed she was an illegitimate daughter of King D Carlos I of Portugal, began asserting that she was the heir to the throne from 1957 Allegedly, she adopted the Italian Rosario Poidimani, transferring her claimed rights to the Portuguese throne to him

Brazilian Braganzasedit

Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, Head of the Brazilian Imperial House and de jure Emperor of Brazil since 1981

After the military coup of 1889, Emperor D Pedro II settled in France until his death in 1891 His eldest daughter and family goes to live in the Chateau d'Eu in french Normandy She was recognized by the very brazilian monarchists as Empress-in-Exile as D Isabel I of Brazil, until her death in 1921 She was succeded by her grandson, Prince Pedro Henrique of Orléans-Braganza, as Head of the Imperial House of Brazil, and he by his son and current Head, Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza

With the fall of the banishment of the Imperial Family in 1920, some Princes returned to live in the fatherland, while another remains in Europe After the end of the World War II, Prince Pedro Henrique, then Head of the Imperial House and married to Princess Maria Elisabeth of Bavaria, finally came to Brazil with his big family, althrought the Imperial House of Brazil was divided in two branches because of the rennounce of Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará in 1908

Today, some members of the two branches of the Imperial Family live in the Grão-Pará Palace, some married to european royals and nobles live in Europe, and the most live like commom people in their houses or apartments Very active, the Vassouras Branch of the Imperial Family, most recognized nationally and internationally, led a growing movement to the restoration across the brazilian biggest streets

Braganza dukes and monarchsedit

Main articles: List of Dukes of Braganza, List of Portuguese monarchs, and List of monarchs of Brazil D João II of Braganza - The first Braganza King of Portugal D Pedro I of Braganza -
The first Emperor of Brazil

Dukes of Braganza before ascension to throneedit

Name Became duke Notes
Afonso I of Braganza 1443 Duke of Braganza; Count of Barcelos
Fernando I of Braganza 1461 Duke of Braganza; Marquis of Vila Viçosa
Fernando II of Braganza 1478 Duke of Braganza; Duke of Guimarães
Jaime I of Braganza 1498 Duke of Braganza
Teodósio I of Braganza 1532 Duke of Braganza;
ceded Dukedom of Guimarães
João I of Braganza 1563 Duke of Braganza; Duke of Barcelos
Teodósio II of Braganza 1583 Duke of Braganza
João II of Braganza 1630 Duke of Braganza; Duke of Guimarães;
first Braganza monarch of Portugal

Monarchs of Portugaledit

Name Became monarch Notes
João IV of Portugal 1640 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
first Braganza monarch of Portugal
Afonso VI of Portugal 1656 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
died without heir
Pedro II of Portugal 1683 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
brother of Afonso VI
João V of Portugal 1706 King of Portugal and the Algarves
José I of Portugal 1750 King of Portugal and the Algarves
Maria I of Portugal &
Pedro III of Portugal
1777 Queen and King of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
João VI of Portugal 1816 King of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves;
Titular Emperor of Brazil
Pedro IV of Portugal 1826 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
Emperor of Brazil
Maria II of Portugal 1826 Queen of Portugal and the Algarves;
lost throne to Miguel I in 1828;
regained throne in 1834
Miguel I of Portugal 1828 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
reigned for 6 years; succeeded by Maria II
Pedro V of Portugal 1853 King of Portugal and the Algarves
Luís I of Portugal 1861 King of Portugal and the Algarves
Carlos I of Portugal 1889 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
assassinated by radical republicans
Manuel II of Portugal 1908 King of Portugal and the Algarves;
last monarch of Portugal

Monarchs of Braziledit

Name Became monarch Notes
Maria I of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves 1815 Queen and founder of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
John VI of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves 1816 King of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves;
Titular Emperor of Brazil; last King of Brazil
Pedro I of Brazil 1822 Emperor of Brazil; declarer of Brazilian Independence
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Pedro II of Brazil 1831 Emperor of Brazil; last Emperor of Brazil


See also: Genealogical tree of the monarchs of Portugal

Ducal line: Afonso I to Teodósio II 1377-1630edit

Genealogical tree of the House of Braganza, during its ducal period, from origins of its founder, Afonso I, Duke of Braganza, to the issue of its last noble duke, Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza:

                King Pedro I
King of Portugal and the Algarve

Member of the Portuguese House of Burgundy
                King João I
King of Portugal and the Algarve

Founder of the House of Aviz
                Afonso I
1st Duke of Braganza, 8th Count of Barcelos

Founder of the House of Braganza
Afonso of Braganza
1st Marquis of Valença
          Fernando I
2nd Duke of Braganza, 1st Marquis of Vila Viçosa
  Isabel of Braganza
Infanta of Portugal
          Infante John
Constable of Portugal
From his issue
descend the lines of the
Counts of Vimioso and
the Marquises of Valença
  João of Braganza
1st Montemor-o-Novo
  Fernando II
3rd Duke of Braganza, 1st Duke of Guimarães
  Álvaro of Braganza
Lord of Cadaval
  Afonso of Braganza
1st Count of Faro
  Infanta Beatriz
Duchess of Viseu
        Dinis of Braganza
6th Count of Lemos
  Jaime I
4th Duke of Braganza, 2nd Duke of Guimarães
  From his issue
descend the lines of
the Dukes of Aveiro and
the Houses of Cadaval
and Melo de Portugal
  From his issue
descend the lines of
the Counts of Faro and
the Counts of Odemira
  King Manuel I
King of Portugal and the Algarves

From his issue
descend the lines of
the Counts of Lemos,
the Dukes of Berwick,
and the Dukes of Veragua
  Isabel of Lencastre
Duchess of Braganza
  Teodósio I
5th Duke of Braganza, 3rd Duke of Guimarães
  Constantino of Braganza
Viceroy of India
  Isabel of Braganza
Duchess of Guimarães
  Infante Duarte
4th Duke of Guimarães
                João I
6th Duke of Braganza, 1st Duke of Barcelos
          Infanta Catarina
Duchess of Braganza
              Teodósio II
7th Duke of Braganza, 3rd Duke of Guimarães
  Duarte of Braganza
1st Marquis of Frechilla
        Duarte of Braganza
Lord of Vila do Conde
  King João IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
8th Duke of Braganza

  From him descend
the lines of the Dukes
of Frías and Escalona and
the Marquises of Jarandilla
and Villar de Grajanejos

Royal line: João IV to João VI 1604-1826edit

Genealogical tree of the House of Braganza, from its first monarch, João IV, King of Portugal, to the fracture of the house into its three main branches, in the issue of João VI, King of United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves:

                      King João IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
8th Duke of Braganza

        Prince Teodósio
1st Prince of Brazil
  King Afonso VI
King of Portugal and the Algarves

  King Pedro II
King of Portugal and the Algarves

  Princess Joana
1st Princess of Beira
  Queen Catarina
Queen Consort of England

Infante Francisco
Duke of Beja

  Infante António
Infante of Portugal

  Infanta Francisca Josefa
Infanta of Portugal

  King João V
King of Portugal and the Algarves

  Infante Manuel
Count of Ourém

  Princess Isabel Luísa
Princess of Beira
  Luísa of Braganza
Duchess of Cadaval

  José of Braganza
Archbishop of Braga

  Miguel of Braganza
Duke of Lafões

João of Braganza
Duke of Abrantes

  Infante Carlos
Infante of Portugal

            King José I
King of Portugal and the Algarves

  Queen Barbara
Queen Consort of Spain
  José of Braganza
High-Inquisitor of Portugal

  Gaspar of Braganza
Archbishop of Braga

          From his issue
descend the lines of the
Dukes of Lafões, the
Marquises of Marialva
and of Arronches
                King Peter III
King of Portugal and the Algarves
3rd Lord of the Infantado

  Queen Maria I
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
Queen of Brazil

  Infanta Maria Ana
Infanta of Portugal

  Infanta Doroteia
Infanta of Portugal

Infanta Mariana
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta of Spain
                  King João VI
King of Portugal and the Algarves
King and Emperor of Brazil
  Prince José
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Beira
          Princess Benedita
Princess of Brazil
Princess of Beira
Infante Pedro
Infante of Portugal
Infante of Spain

  Princess Teresa
Princess of Beira
Countess of Molina
  King Miguel I
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Duke of Braganza

  Emperor-King Pedro I/IV
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Emperor of Brazil
  Queen Maria Isabel
Queen Consort of Spain
Infanta of Portugal
  Infanta Assunção
Infanta of Portugal

  Infanta Francisca
Infanta of Portugal
Infanta of Spain

  Infanta Isabel
Regent of Portugal
Infanta of Portugal

  Infanta Ana de Jesus
Infanta of Portugal
Marquise of Loulé

From their marriage
descends the
House of
          From him descends
the Miguelist branch of the
House of Braganza
  Queen Maria II
Queen of Portugal and the Algarves

  Emperor Pedro II
Emperor of Brazil
                          From her marriage
descends the
House of Loulé
                        From her descends
the Constitutional branch of the
House of Braganza
  From him descends
the Brazilian branch of the
House of Braganza

Constitutional line: Maria II to Manuel II 1819-1932edit

Imperial line: Pedro I to Pedro II 1798-1891edit

Orléans-Braganza line: Isabel to Luiz & Pedro Carlos 1846-Presentedit

Miguelist line: Miguel I to Duarte Pio 1802-Presentedit

Agnatic descendants of John IVedit

  • John IV of Portugal
    • Teodósio, Prince of Brazil
    • Afonso VI of Portugal
    • Peter II of Portugal
      • João, Prince of Brazil
      • John V of Portugal
        • Pedro, Prince of Brazil
        • Joseph I of Portugal
        • Infante Carlos of Portugal
        • Peter III of Portugal
          • José, Prince of Brazil
          • John VI of Portugal
            • Francisco António, Prince of Beira
            • Pedro I of Brazil
              • Miguel, Prince of Beira
              • João Carlos, Prince of Beira
              • Pedro II of Brazil
                • Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil
                • Pedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil
            • Miguel I of Portugal
              • Miguel, Duke of Braganza
                • Prince Miguel, Duke of Viseu renounced his succession rights
                  • John de Bragança 1912–1991
                    • Miguel de Bragança 1951-
                      • Miguel de Bragança 1986-
                  • Miguel de Bragança 1915–1996
                • Prince Francis Joseph of Braganza
                • Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza
                  • Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
                    • Afonso, Prince of Beira
                    • Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto
                  • Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu
                  • Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra
        • Infante Alexandre of Portugal
      • Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja
      • Infante António of Portugal
      • Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém
      • Miguel de Bragança illegitimate
        • Dukes of Lafões

Non-agnatic branches named after the dynastyedit

  • Peter III of Portugal
    • John VI of Portugal
      • Pedro I of Brazil
        • Maria II of Portugal
          • House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
        • Pedro II of Brazil
          • Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil
            • House of Orléans-Braganza
    • Infanta Maria Ana Vitória of Portugal
      • House of Bourbon-Braganza


See also: List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown
Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure Coat of arms Title Tenure
Emperor of Brazil 1822–1889 King of the United Kingdom of
Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves
1815–1825 King of Portugal 1640–1910
King of the Algarves 1640–1910 Prince of Portugal
Prince of Brazil
Prince Royal of Portugal
1481–present b Prince of Beira 1734–present c
Prince Imperial of Brazil 1822–1921 Duke of Braganza
Duke of Guimarães
Duke of Barcelos
Marquis of Vila Viçosa
1442–present d Duke of Porto 1833–presente
Duke of Viseu 1909–presentf Duke of Coimbra 1847–present g Count of Ourém
Count of Neiva
Count of Faria


The Sceptre of the Dragon


The traditional symbol and crest of the House of Braganza is a green wyvern, commonly taken to be a dragon,345 representing Saint George,6 patron saint of Portugal This symbol can be found in many different monuments in Portugal and Brazil, such as the Monument to the Independence of Brazil in São Paulo and in the palaces of the Imperial family in Rio de Janeiro and Petrópolis It is famously found atop the Portuguese Crown Sceptre, the Sceptre of the Dragon and the Sceptre of the Emperor of Brazil The wyvern is also sometimes used as a supporter in the coat of arms of both the Brazilian and Portuguese branches of the family Because of its use in heraldry by the Braganza as the ruling house, and given Pedro IV's link with Porto, a dragon was added to the old coat of arms of the municipality of Porto3 and is still a part of FC Porto's coat of arms, who are nicknamed "the dragons"

See alsoedit

  • Line of succession to the Portuguese throne
  • Line of succession to the Brazilian throne
  • Descendants of John VI of Portugal
  • Descendants of Miguel I of Portugal
  • List of Portuguese monarchs
  • List of Brazilian monarchs


  1. ^ There is some controversy regarding the ancestry of Inês Pires born in Borba, c 1350 She was the daughter of Pedro Esteves for that she is sometimes called Inês Pires Esteves and Maria Anes "Grande Enciclopédia Portuguesa e Brasileira", Editorial Enciclopédia, Lisboa, vol 4, pp 172; António Caetano de Sousa, "História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa", Atlântida Ed, Coimbra, 1946, vol 2, pp 25 Some historians and genealogist claim that her father was a converso - a Jew converted to Catholicism Augusto Soares d' Azevedo Barbosa de Pinho Leal, "Portugal Antigo e Moderno", Cota d' Armas, Lisboa, 1990; Isabel Violante Pereira, "De Mendo da Guarda a D Manuel I", Livros Horizonte, Lisboa, 2001, while the majority of sources give her a long and well attested noble Christian ancestry Felgueiras Gayo, "Nobiliário das Famílias de Portugal", Carvalhos de Basto, Braga, 1989
  2. ^ a b Title currently held by Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
  3. ^ Title currently held by Afonso, Prince of Beira
  4. ^ Titles currently held by Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza and Afonso, Prince of Beira
  5. ^ Title currently held Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto
  6. ^ Title currently held by Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu
  7. ^ Title currently held by Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra


  1. ^ McMurdo 1889, p 363
  2. ^ Portuguese Constitution of 1826 p Title 1, Article 5
  3. ^ a b Barbosa 1860, p 167
  4. ^ Berry 1828, article: America, Independent States of Note: English translation of a decree of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil
  5. ^ Brazil 1890, p 3 Portuguese Royal decree signed by Prince Regent Dom João on 20 January 1813
  6. ^ Sousa 1736, p 28


  • Barbosa, Ignacio de Vilhena 1860 As cidades e villas da Monarchia portugueza que teem brasão d'armas: Volume I Lisboa: Typographia do Panorama 
  • Berry, William 1828 Encyclopaedia Heraldica or Complete Dictionary of Heraldry: Volume I London: Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper 
  • Brazil 1890 Collecção das leis do Brazil de 1812 Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional 
  • Leal, Augusto Soares de Azevedo Barbosa de Pinho 1882 Portugal Antigo e Moderno; Diccionario: Volume X Lisboa: Mattos Moreira 
  • McMurdo, Edward 1889 History of Portugal: Volume 3 London: S Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington 
  • Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris 1841 History of the orders of knighthood of the British Empire; of the order of the Guelphs of Hanover; and of the medals, clasps and crosses, conferred for naval and military services; Volume I London: Pickering, Rodwell 
  • Sousa, D Antonio Caetano de 1736 Historia Genealogica da Casa Real Portugueza: Tomo II Lisboa: Joseph Antonio da Sylva 

External linksedit

  • Geneall - Genealogy of the House of Braganza
  • CoinsHome - Family Tree of the House of Braganza
Royal House House of Braganza Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Regnal titles
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruling House of the
Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves

Monarchy Abolished
See Portuguese First Republic

House of Braganza-Saxe
-Coburg and Gotha
New title Ruling House of the
Empire of Brazil

Monarchy Abolished
See República Velha
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
as the reigning house
House of Braganza-Saxe
-Coburg and Gotha
Claimant House of the
Portuguese monarchy

Reason for succession failure:
Portuguese monarchy abolished
Preceded by
as the reigning house
Claimant House of the
Brazilian monarchy

Reason for succession failure:
Brazilian monarchy abolished
Succeeded by
House of Orléans-Braganza

house of braganza, house of braganza kommetjie, house of braganza portugal, house of braganza-saxe-coburg and gotha, monarchs of the royal house of braganza, royal house of braganza, royal pantheon of the house of braganza, the house of braganza

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House of Braganza

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