Horn Island Chemical Warfare Service Quarantine Stationhorn island chemical warfare service quarantine station australia, horn island chemical warfare service quarantine station is high risk
Horn Island Chemical Warfare Service Quarantine Station, also known as the Horn Island Testing Station, was a US biological weapons testing site during World War II It was located on Mississippi's Horn Island and opened in 1943 When the war ended, the facility was closed
- 1 History
- 2 Mission and facilities
- 3 Research and testing
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Horn Island Chemical Warfare Service Quarantine Station1 was acquired in March 1943 by the US Army for use as a biological weapons testing site2 The site was located on Horn Island, about 10 miles 16 km south of Pascagoula, Mississippi,2 and opened on October 29, 19431 The 2,000-acre 81 km2 site3 on Horn Island was managed and built by the Chemical Warfare Service's CWS Special Projects Division SPD4 By May 1944 the US bio-weapons program employed 1,500 people between its Horn Island facility and the facilities at Camp Detrick5 The work at Horn Island, like all of the work done at SPD facilities during World War II was highly classified and precautions were taken to ensure the work remained secret;5 during the Army's occupation of Horn Island the public was barred from the island6
Soon after construction at the facility was complete it was found that the area was unsuitable for large-scale testing of biological agents3 At the time, shipping traffic on the Mississippi River, near the island, was rising2 It was determined that bio-weapons trials in close proximity to human population was undesirable and testing on the island was limited2 Shortly before the end of World War II, on August 11, 1945, an order from the CWS declared that the Special Projects Division was to cease its activities5 The facility at Horn Island was closed in 19464
Mission and facilitiesedit
Horn Island was acquired for the sole purpose of becoming a biological weapons test site for the US military The site was established as one of several designed to assist the newly formed US biological weapons program at Camp Detrick2 Horn Island Testing Station was initially established to focus its studies on insects as biological weapons5 When conceived and constructed the testing station at Horn Island was meant to be the primary bio-weapons field testing site for the United States7
The US Army built facilities on the island for these purposes which included several buildings, roads, and a narrow gauge railroad68 The Army also constructed an incinerator with a tall brick chimney on the island6 After the Army abandoned the site, a hurricane destroyed most of the structures,8 including the incinerator and chimney6 The foundations of some of the military buildings are still visible on the island, which is now part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore6 Additionally, the remnants of the incinerator chimney were still visible into at least the 1980s6
Research and testingedit
Because of its proximity to human populations only two lethal agents, both toxins, were ever tested on the island, botulin and ricin2 The US Navy used the site during the war to study mosquitoes and flies that were native to the Pacific Islands5 In addition, an anthrax simulant, Bacillus globigii was used in aerosol dispersion tests at the station5
Testing at Horn Island with the toxin botulin showed that the agent was not a viable aerosol biological weapon9 Tests were undertaken using four pound bombs filled with botulin These bombs were detonated over confined guinea pigs, just one of the animals died from inhaled botulin and another died after licking the toxin from its fur1
- Fort Terry
- Granite Peak Installation
- Gruinard Island
- Plum Island
- ^ a b c America's Bio-Weapons Program , "The Living Weapon", American Experience, PBS, click on yellow icon in Mississippi to view relevant text, accessed January 15, 2009
- ^ a b c d e f Harris, Sheldon H Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-Up, Google Books, Routledge, 1994, pp 155-56, ISBN 0415091055
- ^ a b Whitby, Simon M Biological Warfare Against Crops, Google Books, Macmillan, 2002, pp 73-74, ISBN 0333920856
- ^ a b Lindler, Luther E et al Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism, Google Books, Humana Press, 2005, p 156, ISBN 1588291847
- ^ a b c d e f Guillemin, Jeanne Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism, Google Books, Columbia University Press, 2005, pp 64-72, ISBN 0231129424
- ^ a b c d e f McGinnis, Helen Hiking Mississippi: A Guide to Trails and Natural Areas, Google Books, University Press of Mississippi , 1995, pp 101-02, ISBN 0878056645
- ^ Regis, Ed The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project, Google Books, Macmillan, 2000, pp 63-77, ISBN 080505765X
- ^ a b Falls, Sr, Robert P Exploring Gulf Islands National Seashore, Google Books, Globe Pequot, 2001, p 122, ISBN 1585920363
- ^ Pike, John E webmaster "Botulinum Toxins", Globalsecurityorg, accessed January 15, 2009
|Operations and testing||
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