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Holy Spirit in Christianity

holy spirit in christianity, what is the holy spirit in christianity
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person hypostasis of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; each person itself being God123

Some Christian theologians identify the Holy Spirit with the Ruach Hakodesh Holy Breath in Jewish scripture, and with many similar names including: the Ruach Elohim Spirit of God, Ruach YHWH Spirit of Yahweh, Ruach Hakmah Spirit of Wisdom;45 In the New Testament it is identified, among others, with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit678

The New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry9 The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary"10 The Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, and in his Farewell Discourse after the Last Supper Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure1112

The theology of the Holy Spirit is called pneumatology The Holy Spirit is referred to as "the Lord, the Giver of Life" in the Nicene Creed, which summarises several key beliefs held by many Christian denominations The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-Resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew 28:19: "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," and "For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them"13 Since the first century, Christians have also called upon God with the trinitarian formula "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" in prayer, absolution and benediction1415


  • 1 Etymology and usage
  • 2 Names
    • 21 Jewish Scriptures - Old Testament
    • 22 New Testament
  • 3 Biblical portrayal
    • 31 Old Testament
    • 32 Synoptic Gospels
    • 33 Johannine literature
    • 34 Pauline Epistles
    • 35 Acts of the Apostles
    • 36 Jesus and the Holy Spirit
  • 4 Mainstream doctrines
    • 41 God the Holy Spirit
    • 42 Fruit and Gifts of the Spirit
  • 5 Denominational variations
    • 51 Jehovah's Witnesses
    • 52 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
  • 6 Symbolism and art
    • 61 Symbolism
    • 62 Art and architecture
    • 63 Gallery
      • 631 Visual arts
      • 632 Holy Spirit Cathedrals
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Etymology and usageedit

The Koine Greek word pneûma πνεῦμα, pneuma is found around 385 times in the New Testament, with some scholars differing by three to nine occurrences16 Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels, 69 times in the Acts of the Apostles, 161 times in the Pauline epistles, and 50 times elsewhere16 These usages vary: in 133 cases, it refers to "spirit" in a general sense and in 153 cases to "spiritual"clarification needed Around 93 times, the reference to the Holy Spirit,16 sometimes under the name pneuma and sometimes explicitly as the pneûma tò Hagion Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον In a few cases it is also simply used generically to mean wind or life16 It was generally translated into the Vulgate as Spiritus and Spiritus Sanctus

The English terms "Holy Ghost" and "Holy Spirit" are complete synonyms: one derives from the Old English gast and the other from the Latin loanword spiritus Like pneuma, they both refer to the breath, to its animating power, and to the soul The Old English term is shared by all other Germanic languages compare, eg, the German Geist and is older, but the King James Bible used both interchangeably, and 20th-century translations of the Bible overwhelmingly prefer "Holy Spirit", probably because the general English term "ghost" has increasingly come to refer only to the spirit of a dead person171819


Jewish Scriptures - Old Testamentedit


  • וְר֣וּחַ קָדְשׁ֑וֹ Ruah qadesow - Holy Spirit Is 63,1020
  • וְר֣וּחַ קָ֝דְשְׁךָ֗ Ruah qadseḵa - Holy Spirit Ps 51,1120
  • וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים Ruah Elohim - Spirit of God Gen 1,221
  • נִשְׁמַת־ר֨וּחַ חַיִּ֜ים Nismat Ruah hayyim - The Breath of the Spirit of Life Gen 7, 2222
  • ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֑ה Ruah YHWH - Spirit of YHWH Is 11-223
  • ר֧וּחַ חָכְמָ֣ה וּבִינָ֗ה Ruach hakmah ubinah - Spirit of Wisdom Is 11-2
  • ר֤וּחַ עֵצָה֙ וּגְבוּרָ֔ה Ruah esah ugeburah - Spirit of Counsel and Might Is 11-2
  • ר֥וּחַ דַּ֖עַת וְיִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָֽה Ruah daat weyirat YHWH - Spirit of Understanding and Fear of YHWH Is 11-2

New Testamentedit

  • πνεύματος ἁγίου Pneumatos Hagiou - Holy Spirit Mt 1, 1824
  • πνεύματι θεοῦ Pneumati Theou - Spirit of God Mt 12,28 25
  • ὁ παράκλητος O Paracletos - The Intercesor Jn 16,726
  • πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας Pneuma tis Haletheias - Spirit of Truth Jn 16, 1327
  • Πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ Pneuma Christou - Spirit of Christ 1 Pt, 1128

Depending on context:

  • πνεῦμα Pneuma - Spirit Jn 3,829
  • Πνεύματος Pneumatos - Spirit Jn 3,8

Biblical portrayaledit

The term Holy Spirit appears at least 90 times in the New Testament6 The sacredness of the Holy Spirit is affirmed in all three Synoptic Gospels Matthew 12:30–32, Mark 3:28–30 and Luke 12:8–10 which proclaim that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is the unforgivable sin30 The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-Resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew 28:19:31 "Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit"13

Old Testamentedit

What the Hebrew Bible calls "Spirit of God" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit" ruacḥ ha-kodesh Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps 51:11 and in Isa 63:10–11, it had not yet acquired quite the same meaning which was attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to the expression "Spirit of the Lord" In Gen1:2 God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible32 Although the ruach ha-kodesh may be named instead of God, it was conceived of as being something distinct; and, like everything earthly that comes from heaven, the ruach ha-kodesh is composed of light and fire32 The most characteristic sign of the presence of the ruach ha-kodesh is the gift of prophecy The use of the word "ruach" Hebrew: "breath," or "wind" in the phrase ruach ha-kodesh seems to suggest that Judaic authorities believed the Holy Spirit was a kind of communication medium like the wind The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice; the word ruacḥ is both masculine and feminine32

Synoptic Gospelsedit

The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Annunciation, by Philippe de Champaigne, 1644

The Holy Spirit does not simply appear for the first time at Pentecost after the resurrection of Jesus, but is present in the Gospel of Luke in 1–2 prior to the birth of Jesus6 In Luke 1:15, John the Baptist was said to be "filled with the Holy Spirit" prior to birth, and the Holy Spirit came upon the Virgin Mary in Luke 1:356 In Luke 3:16 John the Baptist stated that Jesus baptized not with water but with the Holy Spirit; and the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus during his baptism in the Jordan River6 In Luke 11:13 Jesus provided assurances that God the Father would "give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him"6

Mark 13:11 specifically refers to the power of the Holy Spirit to act and speak through the disciples of Jesus in time of need: "be not anxious beforehand what ye shall speak: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye; for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit" Matthew 10:20 refers to the same act of speaking through the disciples, but uses the term "Spirit of your Father"33

The sacredness of the Holy Spirit is affirmed in all three Synoptic Gospels Matthew 12:30–32, Mark 3:28–30 and Luke 12:8–10 which proclaim that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is the unforgivable sin30

Johannine literatureedit

Main article: Holy Spirit in Johannine literature

Three separate terms, namely Holy Spirit, Spirit of Truth and Paraclete are used in the Johannine writings8 The "Spirit of Truth" in used in John 14:17, 15:26 and 16:136 The First Epistle of John then contrasts this with the "spirit of error" in 1 John 4:66 1 John 4:1–6 provides the separation between spirits "that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God" and those who in error refuse it—an indication of their being evil spirits34

In John 14:26 Jesus states: "But the Comforter, even the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things" The identity of the "Comforter" has been the subject of debate among theologians, who have proposed multiple theories on the matter35

Pauline Epistlesedit

Main article: Holy Spirit in the Pauline epistles Stained glass representation of the Holy Spirit as a dove, c 1660

The Holy Spirit plays a key role in the Pauline epistles; and the Apostle Paul's pneumatology is closely connected to his theology and Christology, to the point of being almost inseparable from them7

The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, which was likely the first of Paul's letters, introduces a characterization of the Holy Spirit in 1:6 and 4:8 which is found throughout his epistles36 In 1 Thessalonians 1:6 Paul refers to the imitation of Christ and himself and states: "And ye became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit", whose source is identified in 1 Thessalonians 4:8 as "God, who giveth his Holy Spirit unto you"363738

These two themes of receiving the Spirit "like Christ" and God being the source of the Spirit persist in Pauline letters as the characterization of the relationship of Christians with God36 For Paul the imitation of Christ involves readiness to be shaped by the Holy Spirit, as in Romans 8:4 and 8:11: "But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwelleth in you, he that raised up Christ Jesus from the dead shall give life also to your mortal bodies through his Spirit that dwelleth in you"37

The First Epistle to the Thessalonians also refers to the power of the Holy Spirit in 1:5, a theme also found in other Pauline letters39

Acts of the Apostlesedit

Main article: Holy Spirit in the Acts of the Apostles

The Acts of the Apostles has sometimes been called the "Book of the Holy Spirit" or the "Acts of the Holy Spirit"4041 Of the seventy or so occurrences of the word Pneuma in Acts, fifty-five refer to the Holy Spirit41

From the start, in Acts 1:2, the reader is reminded that the ministry of Jesus, while he was on earth, was carried out through the power of the Holy Spirit and that the "acts of the apostles" continue the acts of Jesus and are also facilitated by the Holy Spirit41 Acts presents the Holy Spirit as the "life principle" of the early Church and provides five separate and dramatic instances of its outpouring on believers in 2:1–4, 4:28–31, 8:15–17, 10:44 and 19:640

References to the Holy Spirit appear throughout Acts, for example Acts 1:5 and 8 stating towards the beginning: "For John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit  ye shall receive power, when the Holy Spirit is come upon you" referring to the fulfillment of the prophecy of John the Baptist in Luke 3:16: "he shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit"42

Jesus and the Holy Spiritedit

In the Farewell Discourse Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure,12 depiction from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308–1311

The New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry9 The Apostles' Creed echoes the statements in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew, stating that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of Mary10

Specific New Testament references to the interaction of Jesus and the Holy Spirit during his earthly life, and the enabling power of the Holy Spirit during his ministry include:91043

  • "Spirit without measure" having been given to Jesus in John 3:34, referring to the word spoken by Jesus Rhema being the words of God44
  • Baptism of Jesus, with the Holy Spirit descending on him as a dove in Matthew 3:13–17, Mark 1:9–11 and Luke 3:21–23
  • Temptation of Jesus, in Matthew 4:1 the Holy Spirit led Jesus to the desert to be tempted
  • The Spirit casting out demons Matthew 12:28, in Exorcising the blind and mute man miracle
  • Rejoice the Spirit in Luke 10:21 where seventy disciples are sent out by Jesus
  • In Matthew 26:41 during the Agony in the Garden before his crucifixion, Jesus tells his disciples to watch and pray, in order not to fall into temptation for "the Spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak"
  • Acts 1:2 states that until his death and resurrection, Jesus "had given commandment through the Holy Spirit unto the apostles"
  • Referring to the sacrifice of Jesus to be crucified out of obedience to the father, the Epistle of Paul to the Hebrews 9:14 states that Jesus "through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish unto God"

In his Farewell Discourse to his disciples, Jesus promised that he would "send the Holy Spirit" to them after his departure, in John 15:26 stating: "whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth  shall bear witness of me"1112

Mainstream doctrinesedit

See also: Pneumatology Christianity Part of a series on

The theology of spirits is called pneumatology The Holy Spirit is referred to as the Lord and Giver of Life in the Nicene creed45 He is The Creator Spirit, present before the creation of the universe and through his power everything was made in Jesus Christ, by God the Father45 Christian hymns such as Veni Creator Spiritus reflects this belief45

In early Christianity, the concept of salvation was closely related to the invocation of the "Father, Son and Holy Spirit"1415 and since the first century, Christians have called upon God with the name "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" in prayer, baptism, communion, exorcism, hymn-singing, preaching, confession, absolution and benediction1415 This is reflected in the saying: "Before there was a 'doctrine' of the Trinity, Christian prayer invoked the Holy Trinity"14

For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit is the third Person of the Holy Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and is Almighty God1246 The Holy Spirit is understood to be one of the three persons of the Trinity As such he is personal and also fully God, co-equal and co-eternal with God the Father and Son of God1246 He is different from the Father and the Son in that he proceeds from the Father and, according to Roman Catholics, Old Catholics, Anglicans, and Protestants, from the Father and the Son as described in the Nicene Creed247 The Triune God is thus manifested as three Persons Greek hypostases,48 in One Divine Being Greek: Ousia,3 called the Godhead from Old English: Godhood, the Divine Essence of God49

In the New Testament, by the power of the Holy Spirit Jesus was conceived in the womb of the Virgin Mary, while maintaining her virginity50 The Holy Spirit descended over Jesus in a corporeal way, as a dove, at the time of his baptism, and a voice from Heaven was heard: "This is my beloved Son with whom I am well pleased"515152 He is the Sanctifier of souls, the Helper,53 Comforter,54 the Giver of graces, he who leads souls to the Father and the Son45

The Holy Spirit is credited inspiring believers and allowing for them to interpret all the sacred scripture and leads prophets, both in Old Testament and New Testament55 Christians receive the Fruits of the Holy Spirit by means of his mercy and grace56

God the Holy Spiritedit

Main article: God in Christianity A depiction of the Trinity consisting of God the Holy Spirit along with God the Father and God the Son Jesus

The belief in the Holy Trinity among many Christians includes the concept of God the Holy Spirit, along with God the Son and God the Father5758 Theologian Vladimir Lossky has argued that while in the act of the Incarnation, God the Son became manifest as the Son of God, the same did not take place for God the Holy Spirit which remained unrevealed59 Yet, as in 1 Corinthians 6:19 God the Spirit continues to dwell in bodies of the faithful58

In Christian theology the Holy Spirit is believed to perform specific divine functions in the life of the Christian or the church The action of the Holy Spirit is seen as an essential part of the bringing of the person to the Christian faith60 The new believer is "born again of the Spirit"61 The Holy Spirit enables Christian life by dwelling in the individual believers and enables them to live a righteous and faithful life60 The Holy Spirit also acts as comforter or Paraclete, one who intercedes, or supports or acts as an advocate, particularly in times of trial And he acts to convince the unredeemed person both of the sinfulness of their actions, and of their moral standing as sinners before God62 Another faculty of the Holy Spirit is the inspiration and interpretation of scripture The Holy Spirit both inspires the writing of the scriptures and interprets them to the Christian and/or church63 The Holy Spirit also empowers the believers to act on Jesus behalf today here on earth operating in signs, wonders, and miracles like Jesus did and released his disciples to do in the Gospels; Luke 10, Matthew 10, and Mark 6 John 14:12 are the words of Jesus encouraging his disciples that they can do as he did John 14–17 you can read the words Jesus spoke regarding sending his Spirit the Holy Spirit to live in those who believe in him empowering us to carry forth his commission given in Matthew 28:18–20

Fruit and Gifts of the Spiritedit

Main articles: Fruit of the Holy Spirit, Gifts of the Holy Spirit, and Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit St Josaphat Cathedral in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada is shaped as a cross with seven copper domes representing the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit

The "fruit of the Holy Spirit"64 consists of "permanent dispositions"64 in this similar to the permanent character of the sacraments, virtuous characteristics engendered in the Christian by the action of the Holy Spirit65 Galatians 5:22–23 names 9 aspects and states:65

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, self-control; against such there is no law

In the Epistle to the Galatians these nine characteristics are in contrast to the "works of the flesh" and highlight the positive manifestations of the work of the Holy Spirit in believers65

The "gifts of the Holy Spirit"64 are distinct from the Fruit of the Spirit, and consist of specific abilities granted to the individual Christian60 They are frequently known by the Greek word for gift, charisma, in English charism, from which the term charismatic derives There is no generally agreed upon exhaustive list of the gifts, and various Christian denominations use different lists, often drawing upon 1 Corinthians 12, Romans 12 and Ephesians 466 Pentecostal denominations and the charismatic movement teach that the absence of the supernatural gifts was due to the neglect of the Holy Spirit and his work by the major denominations66 Believers in the relevance of the supernatural gifts sometimes speak of a Baptism with the Holy Spirit or Filling with the Holy Spirit which the Christian needs to experience in order to receive those gifts However, many Christian denominations hold that the Baptism with the Holy Spirit is identical with conversion, and that all Christians are by definition baptized in the Holy Spirit66

The "seven gifts of the Holy Spirit"64 pour out on a believer at baptism, and are traditionally derived from Isaiah 11:1–2, although the New Testament does not refer to Isaiah 11:1–2 regarding these gifts6667 These 7 gifts are: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude strength, knowledge, piety and fear of the Lord6667 This is the view of the Catholic Church6467 and many other mainstream Christian groups66

Denominational variationsedit

Main article: Holy Spirit Christian denominational variations Icon of the Fathers of the Council holding the Nicene Creed

Christian denominations have doctrinal variations in their beliefs regarding the Holy Spirit A well-known example is the Filioque controversy regarding the Holy Spirit – one of the key differences between the teachings of the Western Church and Eastern Orthodox beliefs, ranking at the level of the disagreement about the papal primacy6869

The Filioque debate centers around whether the Nicene Creed should state that the Spirit "proceeds from the Father" and then have a stop, as the creed was initially adopted in Greek and followed thereafter by the Eastern Church, or should say "from the Father and the Son" as was later adopted in Latin and followed by the Western Church, filioque being "and the Son" in Latin70

Towards the end of the 20th century, discussions took place about the removal of Filioque in the Nicene Creed from Anglican prayer books along the lines of the Eastern Orthodox approach, but these still have not reached a state of final implementation71

The majority of mainstream Protestantism hold similar views on the theology of the Holy Spirit as the Roman Catholic Church, but there are significant differences in belief between Pentecostalism and the rest of Protestantism172 Pentecostalism has a focus on "Baptism with the Spirit", relying on Acts 1:5 which refers to "now you will baptize with the Holy Spirit"73 The more recent Charismatic movements have a focus on the "gifts of the Spirit" such as healing, prophecy, etc and rely on 1 Corinthians 12 as a scriptural basis, but often differ from Pentecostal movements74

Non-trinitarian views about the Holy Spirit differ significantly from mainstream Christian doctrine

Jehovah's Witnessesedit

Jehovah's Witnesses view the Holy Spirit, not as an actual person separate from God the Father, but as God's eternal "energy" or "active force", that he uses to accomplish his will in creation and redemption75

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saintsedit

Mormons believe that the Holy Ghost is the third member of the Godhead He is a personage of spirit, without a body of flesh and bones76 He is often referred to as the Spirit, the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of God, the Spirit of the Lord, or the Comforter77

Joseph Smith taught that the Holy Ghost was in a state of probation that which if he should perform in righteousness he may pass through the same or a similar course of things that the Son has78

Symbolism and artedit


The Holy Spirit as a dove on a stamp from Faroe Islands

The Holy Spirit is frequently referred to by metaphor and symbol, both doctrinally and biblically Theologically speaking these symbols are a key to understanding of the Holy Spirit and his actions, and are not mere artistic representations4679

  • Water – signifies the Holy Spirit's action in Baptism, such that in the manner that "by one Spirit believers were all baptized", so they are "made to drink of one Spirit"1Cor 12:13 Thus the Spirit is also personally the living water welling up from Christ crucifiedJn 19:34 1 Jn 5:8 as its source and welling up in Christians to eternal life7980 The Catechism of the Catholic Church, item 1137, considers the Water of Life reference in the Book of Revelation 21:6 and 22:1 "one of most beautiful symbols of the Holy Spirit"81
  • Anointing – The symbolism of bless with oil also signifies the Holy Spirit, to the point of becoming a synonym for the Holy Spirit The coming of the Spirit is referred to as his "anointing"2Cor 1:21 In some denominations anointing is practiced in Confirmation; "chrismation" in the Eastern Churches Its full force can be grasped only in relation to the primary anointing accomplished by the Holy Spirit, that of Jesus The title "Christ" in Hebrew, messiah means the one "anointed" by God's Spirit7980
  • Fire – symbolizes the transforming energy of the Holy Spirit's actions In the form of tongues "as of fire", the Holy Spirit rested on the disciples on the morning of Pentecost7980
  • Cloud and light – The Spirit comes upon the Virgin Mary and "overshadows" her, so that she might conceive and give birth to Jesus On the mountain of transfiguration, the Spirit in the "cloud came and overshadowed" Jesus, Moses and Elijah, Peter, James and John, and "a voice came out of the cloud, saying, 'This is my Son, my Chosen; listen to him!'"80Lk 9:34–35
  • The dove – When Christ comes up from the water of his baptism, the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, comes down upon him and remains with him7980Mt 3:16
  • Wind – The Spirit is likened to the "wind that blows where it will,"Jn 3:8 and described as "a sound from heaven like the rush of a mighty wind"Acts 2:24 79

Art and architectureedit

Main article: Holy Spirit in Christian art The Holy Spirit as a dove in the Annunciation by Rubens, 1628

The Holy Spirit has been represented in Christian art both in the Eastern and Western Churches using a variety of depictions828384 The depictions have ranged from nearly identical figures that represent the three persons of the Holy Trinity to a dove to a flame

The Holy Spirit is often depicted as a dove, based on the account of the Holy Spirit descending on Jesus like a dove when he was baptized in the Jordan85 In many paintings of the Annunciation, the Holy Spirit is shown in the form of a dove, coming down towards Mary on beams of light, as the Archangel Gabriel announces Jesus Christ's coming to Mary A dove may also be seen at the ear of Saint Gregory the Great─as recorded by his secretary or other church father authors, dictating their works to them The dove also parallels the one that brought the olive branch to Noah after the deluge, as a symbol of peace85

The book of Acts describes the Holy Spirit descending on the apostles at Pentecost in the form of a wind and tongues of fire resting over the apostles' heads Based on the imagery in that account, the Holy Spirit is sometimes symbolized by a flame of fire86


Visual artsedit

Holy Spirit Cathedralsedit

See alsoedit

  • Christianity portal
  • Cult of the Holy Spirit
  • Enlil
  • Holy Spirit
  • Holy Spirit Islam
  • Holy Spirit Judaism
  • Intercession of the Spirit
  • Miracle
  • Seven Spirits of God

Further readingedit

  • Charles Williams, The descent of the Dove: a short history of the Holy Spirit in the church 1950 Faber, London


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  44. ^ The Gospel According to John: An Introduction and Commentary by Colin G Kruse Jun 2004 ISBN 0-8028-2771-3, page 123
  45. ^ a b c d The Cambridge Companion to Christian Doctrine by Colin E Gunton Jun 28, 1997 ISBN 0-521-47695-X, pages 280–285
  46. ^ a b c "Catholic Encyclopedia:Holy Spirit" 
  47. ^ Pope Pius XII 1943 Mystici Corporis Christi 
  48. ^ See discussion in  Herbermann, Charles, ed 1913 "Person" Catholic Encyclopedia New York: Robert Appleton Company 
  49. ^ CCC: The Dogma of the Holy trinity
  50. ^ Luke 1:35
  51. ^ a b Harrington, Daniel J, SJ "Jesus Goes Public" America, Jan 7–14, 2008, p 38
  52. ^ Mt 3:17 Mk 1:11 Lk 3:21–22
  53. ^ John 15:26
  54. ^ John 14:16
  55. ^ Theology for the Community of God by Stanley J Grenz Jan 31, 2000 ISBN 0-8028-4755-2 page 380
  56. ^ Baptism in the Early Church: History, Theology, and Liturgy in the First Five Centuries by Everett Ferguson Mar 29, 2009 ISBN 0-8028-2748-9, page 776
  57. ^ Systematic Theology by Lewis Sperry Chafer 1993 ISBN 0-8254-2340-6, page 25
  58. ^ a b The Wiersbe Bible Commentary: The Complete New Testament by Warren W Wiersbe 2007 ISBN 978-0-7814-4539-9, page 471
  59. ^ The mystery of the Triune God by John Joseph O'Donnell 1988 ISBN 0-7220-5760-1 page 75
  60. ^ a b c Millard J Erickson 1992 Introducing Christian Doctrine Baker Book House pp 265–270 
  61. ^ Though the term "born again" is most frequently used by evangelical Christians, most denominations do consider that the new Christian is a "new creation" and "born again" See for example the Catholic Encyclopedia 11
  62. ^ The Holy Spirit and His Gifts J Oswald Sanders Inter-Varsity Press chapter 5
  63. ^ T C Hammond, Revised and edited by David F Wright 1968 In Understanding be Men:A Handbook of Christian Doctrine sixth ed Inter-Varsity Press p 134 
  64. ^ a b c d e CCC nos 1830–32
  65. ^ a b c The Epistle to the Galatians The New International Commentary on the New Testament by Ronald Y K Fung Jul 22, 1988 Wm B Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0-8028-2509-5, pages 262–263
  66. ^ a b c d e f Erickson, Millard J 1992 Introducing Christian Doctrine Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Publishing Group ISBN 978-0-8010-3215-8  2nd ed 2001 Chapter Thirty – "The work of the Holy Spirit" pp 275ff ISBN 978-0-8010-2250-0
  67. ^ a b c Shaw, Russell; Stravinskas, Peter M J 1998 Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing p 457 ISBN 978-0-87973-669-9 
  68. ^ Kasper, Walter The Petrine ministry Catholics and Orthodox in Dialogue: Academic Symposium Neld at the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity Paulist Press p 188 ISBN 978-0-8091-4334-4 
  69. ^ Kinnamon, Michael; Cope, Brian E 1997 The Ecumenical Movement: An Anthology of Key Texts and Voices Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 172 ISBN 978-0-8028-4263-3 
  70. ^ The Holy Spirit: Classic and Contemporary Readings by Eugene F Rogers Jr May 19, 2009 Wiley ISBN 1-4051-3623-5, page 81
  71. ^ Introduction to Theology by Owen C Thomas and Ellen K Wondra Jul 1, 2002 ISBN 0-8192-1897-9, page 221
  72. ^ David Watson 1973 One in the Spirit Hodder and Stoughton pp 39–64 
  73. ^ Encyclopedia of Protestantism by J Gordon Melton 2008 ISBN 0-8160-7746-0, page 69
  74. ^ Encyclopedia of Protestantism by J Gordon Melton 2008 ISBN 0-8160-7746-0, page 134
  75. ^ "Is the Holy Spirit a Person" Awake!: 14–15 July 2006 In the Bible, God's Holy Spirit is identified as God's power in action Hence, an accurate translation of the Bible's Hebrew text refers to God's spirit as "God's active force" 
  76. ^ http://wwwldsorg/scriptures/dc-testament/dc/13022
  77. ^ "True to the Faith", p 81 http://wwwldsorg/bc/content/shared/content/english/pdf/language-materials/36863_engpdf
  78. ^ Selected Teachings on The Holy Ghost Will Eventually Receive a Body
  79. ^ a b c d e f David Watson 1973 One in the Spirit Hodder and Stoughton pp 20–25 
  80. ^ a b c d e CCC: Symbols of the Holy Spirit nos 694–701
  81. ^ Vatican website: Catechism item 1137
  82. ^ Renaissance Art: A Topical Dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0-313-24658-0, page 70
  83. ^ Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective by Fred S Kleiner ISBN 0-495-57355-8, page 349
  84. ^ Vladimir Lossky, 1999 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 0-913836-99-0, page 17
  85. ^ a b We Believe in the Holy Spirit Ancient Christian Doctrine, No 4 by Joel C Elowsky Jul 13, 2009 InterVarsity ISBN 0-8308-2534-7, page 14
  86. ^ The Holy Spirit: Classic and Contemporary Readings by Eugene F Rogers Jr May 19, 2009 Wiley ISBN 1-4051-3623-5, pages 121–123

External linksedit

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church: CHAPTER THREE I BELIEVE IN THE HOLY SPIRIT nos 683–686; ARTICLE 8 "I BELIEVE IN THE HOLY SPIRIT" nos 687–747

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