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History of deaf education in the United States

history of deaf education in the united states
The history of deaf education in the United States began in the early 1800s when the Braidwood Academy for the Deaf at Cobbs of Chesterfield, Virginia,1 a residential Deaf school, was established by William Bolling and John Braidwood, and the Connecticut Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, a manual school, was established by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc1 When the Cobbs School closed in 1816, which American Sign Language was spoken here, became commonplace in deaf schools for most of the remainder of the century In the late 1800s, schools began to use the oral method, which only allowed the use of speech without sign language, as opposed to the manual method previously in place Students caught using sign language in oral programs were often punished The oral method was used for many years until sign language instruction gradually began to come back into deaf education

Contents

  • 1 Early history
    • 11 Early Deaf education in the United States
    • 12 Early manual education in the United States
  • 2 Change from predominantly manual education to oral education
  • 3 Early 20th century
  • 4 Late 20th century
    • 41 Deaf President Now
  • 5 Today
    • 51 Bilingual-bicultural education
      • 511 Residential programs
    • 52 Auditory-oral and auditory-verbal education
    • 53 Mainstreaming and inclusion
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading

Early historyedit

Before the 1800s, few, if any, educational opportunities existed for deaf children in America Some wealthy families sent their children to Europe's schools, but many non-high class children had no access to education2

Early Deaf education in the United Statesedit

In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, many wealthy colonists sent their deaf children to Europe to receive schooling3 The best known deaf educational institution was the Braidwood Academy in Edinburgh, Scotland, established in 1760 by Thomas Braidwood as the "Academy for the Deaf and Dumb"4 The Braidwood Academy was a private school that was very secretive about its methods, only sharing their methodology with a few select people4 The primary language was British Sign Language BSL manual alphabet according to Harlan Lane's book, "When the Mind Hears"

The Bolling family, who lived in Virginia, were the most prominent colonists to send their deaf children to the Braidwood Academy3 Thomas Bolling and his wife Elizabeth Gay who was also his first cousin had three deaf children, John, Mary, and Thomas Jr, as well as at least two hearing children56 John was the first of the three children to go to the Braidwood Academy in 1771, with Mary and Thomas Jr arriving later4 The three Bolling children arrived back in the United States in 1783; however, they became ill shortly after arriving home, and John died on October 11, 17837 Mary and Thomas Jr lived for at least another four decades, and comments about Thomas Jr noted that he was a "miracle of accomplishments"7 Later, Thomas Jr was a BSL speaking instructor with John Braidwood in America from 1812 to 1816 according to Colonel William Bunn Bolling's written diaries

The next generation of hearing Bollings had deaf children, and they wanted their children to be educated in the United States6 William, the last child of Thomas and Elizabeth, married his first cousin Mary, who bore five children, two of whom were deaf6 The couple's first deaf child, William Albert, drove his father's desire to create a school for the deaf in America6 William Bolling met John Braidwood, a descendant of Thomas Braidwood, after he arrived in America in 181268 Bolling invited Braidwood to stay in his home as Braidwood sorted out a more permanent living arrangement8 Braidwood discussed with Bolling his desire to open a school similar to the Braidwood Academy in America8 During the renovations of Cobbs property converting into a residential Deaf School, the private tutoring in spoken BSL was at Bolling's private residence, "Bolling Hall" in Goochland, Virginia, the Cobbs School was established in 1815910 It closed about a year and a half later, in the fall of 1816, after Thomas Jefferson turned down to move its School onto the University of Virginia's property and caused Braidwood to fall in personal habits and depression, then disappeared Bolling could no longer financially maintain it A year later, Braidwood returned and started another public school with Reverend John Kirkpatrick in Manchester, Chesterfield County, Virginia in June 1817 That public school in Manchester was a mainstreamed program, which Kirkpatrick already had hearing students in the "Old Masonic Hall," owned by Masonic Lodge No 14 of Manchester, Virginia Braidwood left in spring 1818 after disagreements with Kirkpatrick was noted Kirkpatrick resumed teaching the Deaf students in the mainstreamed program until late 1818 Kirkpatrick then was called to serve at the Cumberland Church in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia in October 1818 according to the Cumberland Church documents Deaf students then moved there in 1819 according to Colonel William Bunn Bolling's diaries documented June 1819 naming some of the Deaf students included Albert Bolling, John Hancock, Jane C Davenport, Marcus Flournoy, and others Cumberland Church documents showed the "daily school" ended in 1821 signed by Reverend John Kirkpatrick

Early manual education in the United Statesedit

A sculpture of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Alice Cogswell located on the Gallaudet University campus

In 1812 in New England, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet met a little girl named Alice Cogswell, who inspired him to create a school for the deaf in the United States In 1815, he traveled to Europe to gain insight on their methods of teaching deaf students11 He attempted to learn from the Braidwood system, but the administrators wanted him to sign a contract, remain at the school for several years to be trained in oralism, and agree to keep the teaching methods of the school a secret; Gallaudet refused this11 He attended a lecture in France by Abbé Sicard showcasing two successful pupils of Paris' National Institution for Deaf-Mutes, Jean Massieu and Laurent Clerc Gallaudet spent several months at the school, and he convinced Clerc, a thirty-year-old assistant teacher, to return with him to Hartford, Connecticut Back in America, they established the Connecticut Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, which was later named the American School for the Deaf, in 1817 Gallaudet was the director, and Clerc was the first deaf teacher in America Alice Cogswell was one of the first seven students12

For most of the remainder of the century, education of deaf children speaking sign language, a practice known as manualism, continued to grow Approximately forty percent of all teachers were deaf13 More than thirty schools for the deaf were opened, the majority of which were manual William Willard was the first deaf superintendent in America and founded Indiana School for the Deaf in 18431314 Gallaudet College now Gallaudet University was founded in Washington, DC in 1864 with Thomas Gallaudet's son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, as the school's superintendent1516 Edward Miner Gallaudet strongly believed in speaking sign language and had a number of arguments with Alexander Graham Bell, an oralist17

Before the 1860s and before the American Civil War, manual language was very popular among the Deaf community and also supported by the hearing community18 The hearing community viewed deafness as “isolating the individual from the Christian community”18 At the time, the people of the United States were fairly religious notably Christian, and the hearing-advantaged believed that sign language opened deaf individuals' minds and souls to God18 Through this, the hearing community believed that manualism brought deaf people closer to God and opened deaf people to the gospel, which brought manualism general acceptance

Prior to the 1860s, the American hearing community viewed manualism, sign language, as an art, and naturally beautiful18 They also thought of deaf people who signed as being like the Romans because of the pantomimes that are a part of the language18

Change from predominantly manual education to oral educationedit

By the end of the American Civil War in the late 1860s, the argument for “Survival of the Fittest” was applied to the issue of education for the deaf as a result of a Darwinist perspective of Evolution18 This movement brought manualists arguing their view that signs were closer to nature because the first thing babies learn to do is gesture, which is akin to sign language18 To the Deaf community, manualism was at the time considered a gift from God18 During this particular time in the United States, oralism was coming about which gave some a negative view of manualism because, it was argued, it was not a natural language18

Support for oralism gained momentum in the late 1860s and the use of manualism started to decrease Many in the hearing community were now in favor of the evolutionary perspective, which depicted deaf people who used manual language akin to “lower animals”18 Some hearing people viewed speech as what separated humans from animals, which in turn caused manual language to be viewed as unhumanlike18 The first schools for oralism opened in the 1860s were called The New York Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes and The Clarke Institution for Deaf-Mutes now the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech

At that time the teaching of manual language was restricted because the American Hearing Society saw deaf people who used it as different, as foreigners, or as a group with a separate language that was a threat to the hearing society18 Members of the hearing community who were in favor of oralism took offense to deaf people having their own group identity and refusing to integrate within the greater community17

Oralists believed that the manual language made deaf people different, which in turn led them to believe that deaf people were abnormal Oralists believed that the teaching of oralism allowed deaf children to be more normal17 Oralists strongly believed that deaf children should put as much effort as possible into learning how to live in spite of their disabilities, thus promoting the teaching of lip reading, mouth movements, and use of hearing technology17 Oralists also argued that if deaf people continued the use of manual language as their form of communication, they would never integrate within the rest of society17

Alexander Graham Bell with a group of deaf students from the Scott Circle School, 1883

A model figure for oralism and against the usage of sign language was Alexander Graham Bell, who created the Volta Bureau in Washington, DC to pursue the studies of deafness Two other Americans who encouraged the founding of oralist schools in the United States were Horace Mann and Samuel Gridley Howe, who travelled to Germany to see their oral schools and who wished to model them17

In 1880, an event called the Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf which, despite the name, was actually the first took place The Second International Congress was an international meeting of deaf educators from at least seven countries There were five delegates from America and around 164 delegates total in attendance The Congress was planned and organized by a committee created by the Pereire Society, a group that was against sign language More than half of the people invited were known oralists; therefore, the Congress was biased and most, if not all, of the resolutions that were voted on by the delegates gave results in favor of the oral method Many of the resolutions were worded in ways that supported the oral method, such as "Considering the incontestable superiority of speech over signs in restoring the deaf-mute to society, and in giving him a more perfect knowledge of language,/Declares –/That the Oral method ought to be preferred that of signs for the education and instruction of the deaf and dumb"19

Early 20th centuryedit

After the Congress, deaf education in America changed Manualists, those who advocated for sign language usage, were effectively "kicked out" and replaced with teachers who used the pure oral method Deaf teachers were removed from the profession and replaced with hearing ones Most schools switched to the oral method or were created as oral schools in the first place, and few manual schools remained in existence The work of deaf educators in the oralist schools, who were mostly women, was to prepare the deaf children for life in the hearing world, which required them to learn English, speech, and lipreading17 All students that were sent to the oral schools were forced to use the oral method, and oralist schools restricted the deaf students' use of American Sign Language ASL in class and in public Students in pure oral programs were not allowed to sign in class and were also forbidden to sign in dormitories Students caught signing were punished, but students continued to learn sign from each other anyway2021 One type of punishment used on deaf students was to force them to wear white gloves that were tied together to prevent them from using signs20 Those who were not successful under the oral method after several years were transferred to manual classes and considered "oral failures" who would never know anything or be able to make it in the world21 Some consider this the "Dark Age of Oralism"21

Edith Mansford Fitzgerald opposed these views, as a deaf woman who felt that the oralist methods had stunted her learning22 In 1926, she published a book, entitled Straight Language for the Deaf: A System of Instruction for Deaf Children was published in 1926 and was widely influential in the field of deaf education23 Her Fitzgerald Key at one point was used in around 75% of the institutes teaching the deaf24

Late 20th centuryedit

The almost exclusive use of the pure oral method in deaf education continued well into the twentieth century Then, during the late 1960s, Roy Kay Holcomb coined the term "Total Communication"2125 This term described an educational philosophy he popularized where the child could use the communication method that worked best for them given their needs If a child learned better with American Sign Language or an English sign system, they were taught using that method If a different method worked better with another child, they received their instruction that way2125 Some schools using the oral method changed to Total Communication; others just added sign into their existing program or simply allowed children to sign amongst themselves without punishment Often, the "sign languages" used in oral programs were constructed Manually Coded English MCE systems such as Seeing Essential English or Signing Exact English or were ASL signs in English word order The programs used these systems in order to use them with speech in a practice known as Sign Supported Speech or Simultaneous Communication

Deaf President Nowedit

Main article: Deaf President Now

In 1988, Gallaudet University students decided that they would take matters of their education into their own hands The sixth president of Gallaudet had announced in late 1987 that he would be resigning his position as president26 By early 1988, the committee that selected the candidates had narrowed it down to three finalists, two of which, Dr Harvey Corson and Dr I King Jordan, were deaf, and one of which, Dr Elisabeth Zinser, was hearing27 On March 6, it was announced hastily through press release even though the selection committee was supposed to come on campus that Zinser, the only hearing candidate, had become the seventh president of the university28 There had been rallies beforehand for a deaf president most notably on March 1, but on the 6th, the rallying changed into protest Students and faculty went on marches, made signs, and gave demonstrations28 The students locked the gates to the university and refused let the school open until Zinser resigned29 Under intense pressure from the students protesting, Zinser resigned on the fifth day of the protest, March 1028 Many students decided to stay on campus instead of going on Spring Break, which was scheduled to begin on March 1128 Two days later, on March 13 Jane Spilman resigned and was replaced by Phil Bravin as chair of the Board of Trustees, a taskforce was created to figure out how to achieve a 51% majority of deaf people on the Board of Trustees, and no one received any punishment for being in the protest28 I King Jordan was named eighth president—and first deaf president—of Gallaudet University

Deaf President Now changed deaf education Before the protest, a select few deaf people held doctorates; however, since the protest, the number of deaf people pursuing and earning advanced degrees has steadily increased30 Also, schools for the deaf across America have had “mini DPNs” where students demanded deaf superintendents and senior administrators30 In addition, collegiate programs were created in other countries that did not previously have them such as Japan, Sweden, and South Africa30 Deaf President Now not only affected deaf education in America, but it also affected deaf education worldwide

In 1990, cochlear implants were approved for children two years of age and up31 This drastically changed education for deaf children More children than ever were migrated out of bilingual-bicultural residential schools and into oral schools and mainstream programs with no extra supports Parents were not encouraged to sign with their children because it was feared that it would slow down their speech, even though research has shown that the opposite is truecitation needed This move from residential schools to day schools and mainstreaming has caused many residential programs to downsize

Todayedit

See also: Deaf education

Today, there are a few different methods used in the education of deaf children in the United States

All deaf students, regardless of placement, receive an Individualized Education Program IEP that outlines how the school will meet the student’s individual needs The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA requires that students with special needs be provided with a Free Appropriate Public Education in the Least Restrictive Environment that is appropriate to the student's needs Government-run schools provide deaf education in varying degrees of settings ranging from full inclusion to schools for the deaf32

Bilingual-bicultural educationedit

Main article: Bilingual-bicultural education The Alumni Hall, the middle and high school at Indiana School for the Deaf, a bilingual-bicultural school

In this educational method, deafness is not seen as a medical issue; it is instead seen as a cultural issue33 In the bilingual-bicultural program, it is advocated that children who are deaf be taught ASL as a first language, then be taught written and/or spoken English as a second language3334 Bilingual-bicultural programs emphasize that English and ASL are equal languages, and they work to help children develop age-appropriate levels of fluency in both languages34 The bilingual-bicultural approach holds the belief that deaf children are visual learners as opposed to auditory learners,33 and therefore, academic content should be fully accessible to all deaf students ie not contingent on spoken receptive/expressive skills, which may vary across students, so academic content is delivered in ASL and/or written Englishcitation needed Since it is not possible to simultaneously produce grammatically correct, fluent American Sign Language and spoken English, only one language is used at a time Because there is no risk in learning sign language, the bilingual-bicultural approach mitigates the risk of language deprivation a condition that arises when children have limited access to both spoken and sign languagecitation needed Many bilingual-bicultural schools have dormitories, and deaf children can either commute to the school daily or stay in a dormitory as part of the residential program and visit their families on weekends and/or holidays and school vacations

Residential programsedit

A residential program is an educational program in which a student lives at a school for the deaf during the week and goes home on weekends or holidays instead of commuting to the school daily In residential programs, deaf children are fully immersed in Deaf culture At a residential school, all students are deaf or hard of hearing, so deaf students are not looked at as different They have "a common heritage,… a common language,… and a set of customs and values"35 People at deaf schools help pass on "Deaf folklore and folklife jokes, legends, games, riddles, etc" from one generation to the next35 Deaf parents of deaf children often send their children to residential schools so that they may participate in the Deaf community and culture Hearing parents are often a bit more reluctant because they do not want to be separated from their children35 The first deaf woman to hold the position of superintendent of a residential school for the deaf in the US was Gertrude Galloway36

Auditory-oral and auditory-verbal educationedit

Main articles: Auditory-verbal therapy and Oralism Hubbard Hall is the main schoolbuilding at the Northampton campus of Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech, an oral school

The auditory-oral and auditory-verbal methods, sometimes referred to collectively as listening and spoken language, are forms of oral education37 These methods are based on the belief that a deaf child can learn to listen and speak and that families do not need to learn sign language or cued speech3839 These methods are presented as communication options, and they rely on a large amount of parental involvement3839 Children who use this option may be placed in a continuum of educational placements including oral schools, such as Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech, self-contained classrooms for deaf students in public schools, or mainstream classrooms with hearing students383940 Though some deaf children can learn to use hearing devices to speak and understand language, that is not the case for all deaf children41 Therefore auditory-oral only education puts children at risk of language deprivation: a condition that arises when children have limited access to both spoken and sign language Unlike children who receive auditory-oral-only education, deaf children who use both signed and spoken language speak as well as their hearing counterparts4243

Mainstreaming and inclusionedit

Two interpreters working for a school Main articles: Mainstreaming education and Inclusion education

This educational method is what occurs when a deaf child attends public school in regular classes for at least part of the school day44 Students may receive accommodations such as itinerant teachers, interpreters, assistive technology, notetakers, and aides4546 Inclusion can have benefits including daily interaction with hearing students and the opportunity to live at home, but it can also have drawbacks such as isolation and limited availability of support45

See alsoedit

  • Deaf culture
  • Education of the deaf
  • History of deaf education
  • History of sign language
  • Schools for the deaf in the United States
  • Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b Van, Cleve J V; Crouch, Barry A 1989 A Place of Their Own : Creating the Deaf Community in America Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 26 ISBN 0930323491 
  2. ^ Marschark, Marc; Lang, Harry G; Albertini, John A 2002 Educating Deaf Students New York: Oxford University Press p 26 
  3. ^ a b Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 25 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  4. ^ a b c Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 26 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  5. ^ Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press pp 25–26 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  6. ^ a b c d e Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 29 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  7. ^ a b Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 27 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  8. ^ a b c Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press pp 30–31 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  9. ^ Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press pp 33–36 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  10. ^ Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 37 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  11. ^ a b Crouch, Barry A; Greenwald, Brian H 2007 "Hearing with the Eye: The Rise of Deaf Education in the United States" In Van Cleve, John Vickrey The Deaf History Reader Anthology Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 39 ISBN 978-1-56368-359-6 
  12. ^ Marschark, Marc; Lang, Harry G; Albertini, John A 2002 Educating Deaf Students New York: Oxford University Press pp 27–28 
  13. ^ a b "Deaf Time-Line" ASLinfocom 2011 Retrieved 23 January 2011 
  14. ^ "School History" DeafHoosiers Indiana School for the Deaf Retrieved 23 January 2011 
  15. ^ "Fast Facts" Gallaudet University 2012 Retrieved 8 January 2012 
  16. ^ "History of Gallaudet University" Gallaudet University 2012 Retrieved 8 January 2012 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Winefield, Richard 1987 Never the Twain Shall Meet: The Communications Debate Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 4 ISBN 0-913580-99-6 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Baynton, Douglas Forbidden Signs Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996 15
  19. ^ Sturley, Nick 2010 "Eight Resolutions" Milan 1880 Retrieved 8 January 2012 
  20. ^ a b Through Deaf Eyes Diane Garey, Lawrence R Hott DVD, Pbs Direct, 2007
  21. ^ a b c d e "Opposing Appoaches" Cochlear War MSM Productions 2010 Retrieved 8 January 2012 
  22. ^ "Education of the Deaf" Oshkosh, Wisconsin: Oshkosh Daily Northwestern 29 December 1905 p 7 Retrieved 21 December 2015 – via Newspaperscom 
  23. ^ Panara, Robert F 1970 "The Deaf Writer in America from Colonial Times to 1970, Part ii" PDF Rochester, New York: Rochester Institute of Technology Digital Media Library p 2 Retrieved 22 December 2015 
  24. ^ Nasukiewicz, Jennifer Fall 1998 "Deaf Inventors" PDF Washington, DC: Gallaudet University p 6 Retrieved 21 December 2015 
  25. ^ a b Hawkins, Larry; Brawner, Judy August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Total Communication ERIC Digest #559" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Retrieved 24 January 2011 
  26. ^ Chistiansen, John B; Barnartt, Sharon N 1995 Deaf President Now! Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press p 1 
  27. ^ "The History Behind DPN: What Happened" Deaf President Now Protest Gallaudet University 2011 Retrieved 25 January 2011 
  28. ^ a b c d e "The Week of DPN" Deaf President Now Protest Gallaudet University 2011 Archived from the original on 2011-10-02 Retrieved 25 January 2011 
  29. ^ Chistiansen, John B; Barnartt, Sharon N 1995 Deaf President Now! Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press pp 68–69 
  30. ^ a b c "The Impact" Deaf President Now Protest Gallaudet University 2011 Retrieved 28 April 2011 
  31. ^ Laughton, Joan August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Cochlear Implants ERIC Digest #E554" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Retrieved 25 January 2011 
  32. ^ Zittleman, Karen; Sadker, David Miller 2006 Teachers, Schools and Society: A Brief Introduction to Education with Bind-in Online Learning Center Card with free Student Reader CD-ROM McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages pp 48, 49, 108, G–12 ISBN 0-07-323007-3 
  33. ^ a b c Baker, Sharon; Baker, Keith August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Bilingual-Bicultural Education ERIC Digest #E553" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children Retrieved 23 January 2011 
  34. ^ a b Marschark, Marc; Lang, Harry G; Albertini, John A 2002 Educating Deaf Students New York: Oxford University Press p 145 
  35. ^ a b c Gilliam, Judith; Easterbrooks, Susan August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Residential Life, ASL, and Deaf Culture ERIC Digest #558" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Retrieved 23 January 2011 
  36. ^ Lang, Harry G and Bonnie Meath-Lang 1995 Deaf Persons in the Arts and Sciences--A Biographical Dictionary Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, p 140
  37. ^ Cole, Elizabeth B; Flexer, Carol 2011 Children with Hearing Loss: Developing Listening and Talking Second ed San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing p 348 ISBN 978-1-59756-379-6 The two main Listening and Spoken Language approaches, historically, have been the Auditory-Verbal Approach AV and the Auditory-Oral Approach A-O 
  38. ^ a b c Stone, Patrick August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Auditory-Oral ERIC Digest #E551" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Retrieved 4 February 2012 
  39. ^ a b c Goldberg, Donald August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Auditory-Verbal ERIC Digest #E552" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Retrieved 4 February 2012 
  40. ^ There's a new kid in school mov Oral Deaf Education Retrieved 4 February 2012 
  41. ^ Lund, Emily 2016-04-01 "Vocabulary Knowledge of Children With Cochlear Implants: A Meta-Analysis" Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 21 2: 107–121 ISSN 1081-4159 PMID 26712811 doi:101093/deafed/env060 
  42. ^ Davidson, K; Lillo-Martin, D; Pichler, D Chen 2014-04-01 "Spoken English Language Development Among Native Signing Children With Cochlear Implants" Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 19 2: 238–250 ISSN 1081-4159 PMC 3952677  PMID 24150489 doi:101093/deafed/ent045 
  43. ^ Hassanzadeh, S 2012-10-01 "Outcomes of cochlear implantation in deaf children of deaf parents: comparative study" The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 126 10: 989–994 ISSN 0022-2151 doi:101017/S0022215112001909 
  44. ^ Marschark, Marc; Lang, Harry G; Albertini, John A 2002 Educating Deaf Students New York: Oxford University Press p 143 
  45. ^ a b Nowell, Richard; Innes, Joseph August 1997 "Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Inclusion ERIC Digest #E557" Education Resources Information Center ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Retrieved 25 January 2011 
  46. ^ "School Placement Considerations for Students Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing" Hands and Voices 2005 Retrieved 23 January 2011 

Further readingedit

  • AAPTSD The Association Review: 1906, Philadelphia, Penn: American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf Retrieved from the Internet Archive, June 7, 2012 Note: this annual review contains extensive material on deaf education worldwide It has been inadvertently listed on the Internet Archive as The Association Review: 1899, although some metadata correctly identifies it as from the year 1906
  • Edwards, R A R 2012 Words Made Flesh: Nineteenth-Century Deaf Education and the Growth of Deaf Culture New York: New York University Press ISBN 978-0-8147-2402-6 

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