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Historiography in the Soviet Union

Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union USSR In the USSR, the study of history was marked by restrictions imposed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU Soviet historiography is itself the subject of modern studies


  • 1 Theoretical approaches
  • 2 Characteristics of Soviet historiography
  • 3 Marxist influence
  • 4 Soviet views of history
  • 5 Reliability of statistical data
  • 6 Credibility
  • 7 Life experiences of individual Soviet historians
  • 8 Underground historiography
  • 9 Influence of Soviet historiography in modern Russia
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 Further reading

Theoretical approachesedit

George M Enteen identifies two approaches to the study of Soviet historiography A totalitarian approach associated with the Western analysis of the Soviet Union as a totalitarian society, controlled by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, this school "thought that signs of dissent merely represented a misreading of commands from above"1363 For Enteen the other school of writing on Soviet historiography is the social-history school which draws attention to "important initiative from historians at odds with the dominant powers in the field"1363 Enteen is unable to decide between these different approaches based on current literature

In Markwick's view there are a number of important post war historiographical movements, which have antecedents in the 1920s and 1930s Surprisingly these include culturally and psychologically focused history In the late 1920s Stalinists began limiting individualist approaches to history, culminating in the publication of Stalin and other's "Short Course" History of the Soviet Communist Party2 This crystallised the piatichlenka or five acceptable moments of history in terms of vulgar dialectical materialism: primitive-communism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism and socialism3284

While the triumph of Stalinist history was being imposed, different modes of history began to emerge These included BA Romanov's People and Morals in Ancient Rus' 1947, a study of mentalités at the height of the Zhdanovshchina However, it was not until the 20th Congress of the CPSU that different schools of history emerged from the Stalinist freeze Firstly, a "new direction" within Leninist materialism emerged, as an effectively loyal opposition to Stalinist dialectical materialism, secondly a social psychology of history emerged through a reading of Leninist psychology, thirdly a "culturological" tendendency emerged3284–285

Characteristics of Soviet historiographyedit

The original photo top shows Nikolai Yezhov strolling with Joseph Stalin Yezhov was shot in 1940 and in a later publication he was edited out of the photo4

Soviet-era historiography has been influenced by Marxism Marxism believes that the moving forces of history are determined by material production and the rise of different socioeconomic formations Applying this perspective to socioeconomic formations such as slavery and feudalism is a major methodological principle of Marxist historiography Based on this principle, historiography predicts that history there will be an abolition of capitalism by a socialist revolution made by the working-class Soviet historians believed that Marxist–Leninist theory allows for applying categories of dialectical and historical materialism for studying historical events5

Marx and Engels' ideas of the importance of class struggle in history, the destiny of the working class, and the role of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the revolutionary party are of major importance in Marxist methodology5

Marxist–Leninist historiography has several aspects It explains the social basis of historical knowledge, determines the social functions of historical knowledge and the means by which these functions are carried out, and emphasizes the need to study concepts in connection with the social and political life of the period in which these concepts were developed5

It studies the theoretical and methodological features in every school of historical thought Marxist–Leninist historiography analyzes the source-study basis of a historical work, the nature of the use of sources, and specific research methods It analyzes problems of historical research as the most important sign of the progress and historical knowledge and as the expression of the socioeconomic and political needs of a historical period5

Soviet historiography had been severely criticized by scholars, chiefly — but not only — outside the Soviet Union and Russia Its status as "scholarly" at all has been questioned, and it has often been dismissed as ideology and pseudoscience6 Robert Conquest concluded that "All in all, unprecedented terror must seem necessary to ideologically motivated attempts to transform society massively and speedily, against its natural possibilities The accompanying falsifications took place, and on a barely credible scale, in every sphere Real facts, real statistics, disappeared into the realm of fantasy History, including the history of the Communist Party, or rather especially the history of the Communist Party, was rewritten Unpersons disappeared from the official record A new past, as well as new present, was imposed on the captive minds of the Soviet population, as was, of course, admitted when truth emerged in the late 1980s"7

That criticism stems from the fact that in the Soviet Union, science was far from independent Since the late 1930s, Soviet historiography treated the party line and reality as one and the same8 As such, if it was a science, it was a science in service of a specific political and ideological agenda, commonly employing historical revisionism9 In the 1930s, historic archives were closed and original research was severely restricted Historians were required to pepper their works with references — appropriate or not — to Stalin and other "Marxist-Leninist classics", and to pass judgment — as prescribed by the Party — on pre-revolution historic Russian figures10 Nikita Khrushchev commented that "Historians are dangerous and capable of turning everything upside down They have to be watched"11

The state-approved history was openly subjected to politics and propaganda, similar to philosophy, art, and many fields of scientific research11 The Party could not be proven wrong, it was infallible and reality was to conform to this line Any non-conformist history had to be erased, and questioning of the official history was illegal11

Many works of Western historians were forbidden or censored, many areas of history were also forbidden for research as, officially, they never happened11 As such, it remained mostly outside the international historiography of the period6 Translations of foreign historiography were often produced in a truncated form, accompanied with extensive censorship and corrective footnotes For example, in the Russian 1976 translation of Basil Liddell Hart's History of the Second World War pre-war purges of Red Army officers, the secret protocol to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, many details of the Winter War, the occupation of the Baltic states, the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Allied assistance to the Soviet Union during the war, many other Western Allies' efforts, the Soviet leadership's mistakes and failures, criticism of the Soviet Union and other content were censored out12

The official version of Soviet history has been dramatically changed after every major governmental shake-up Previous leaders were always denounced as "enemies", whereas current leaders were usually a subject of a personality cult Textbooks were rewritten periodically, with figures - such as Leon Trotsky or Joseph Stalin - disappearing from their pages or being turned from great figures to great villains1113

Certain regions and periods of history were made unreliable for political reasons Entire historical events could be erased, if they did not fit the party line For example, until 1989 the Soviet leadership and historians, unlike their Western colleagues, had denied the existence of a secret protocol to the Soviet-German Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 1939, and as a result the Soviet approach to the study of the Soviet-German relations before 1941 and the origins of World War II were remarkably flawed14 In another example, the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 as well as the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920 were censored out or minimized from most publications, and research suppressed, in order to enforce the policy of 'Polish-Soviet friendship'11 Similarly, the enforced collectivisation, the wholesale deportations or massacres of small nationalities in the Caucasus or the disappearance of the Crimean Tatars are not recognized as facts worth of mention11 Soviet historians also engaged in producing false claims and falsification of history, for example Soviet historiography falsely claimed that Katyn massacre was carried out by Germans rather than by Soviets as was the case15 Yet another example is related to the case of Soviet reprisals against former Soviet POWs returning from Germany; some of them were treated as traitors and imprisoned in Gulags for many years, yet that policy was denied or minimized by Soviet historians for decades and modern Western scholars have noted that "In the past, Soviet historians engaged for the most part in a disinformation campaign about the extent of the prisoner-of-war problem"16

Marxist influenceedit

For more details on this topic, see Marxist historiography

The Soviet interpretation of Marxism predetermined much of the research done by historians Research by scholars in the USSR was limited to a large extent due to this predetermination Some Soviet historians could not offer non-Marxist theoretical explanations for their interpretation of sources This was true even when alternate theories had a greater explanatory power in relation to a historian's reading of source material611

The Marxist theory of historical materialism identified means of production as chief determinants of the historical process They led to the creation of social classes, and class struggle was the motor of history The sociocultural evolution of societies was considered to progress inevitably from slavery, through feudalism and capitalism to socialism and finally communism In addition, Leninism argued that a vanguard party was required to lead the working class in the revolution that would overthrow capitalism and replace it with socialism

Soviet historiography interpreted this theory to mean that the creation of the Soviet Union was the most important turning event in human history, since the USSR was considered to be the first socialist society Furthermore, the Communist Party - considered to be the vanguard of the working class - was given the role of permanent leading force in society, rather than a temporary revolutionary organization As such, it became the protagonist of history, which could not be wrong Hence the unlimited powers of the Communist Party leaders were claimed to be as infallible and inevitable as the history itself17 It also followed that a world-wide victory of communist countries is inevitable All research had to be based on those assumptions and could not diverge in its findings11

Soviet historians have also been criticized for a Marxist bias in the interpretation of other historical events, unrelated to the Soviet Union Thus, for example, they assigned to the rebellions in the Roman Empire the characteristics of the social revolution611

Often, the Marxist bias and propaganda demands came into conflict: hence the peasant rebellions against the early Soviet rule, such as the Tambov Rebellion of 1920–21, were simply ignored as inconvenient politically and contradicting the official interpretation of the Marxist theories8

Soviet views of historyedit

Soviet historians emphasize the Slavic roots of the foundation of the Russian state This is in contrast to the Normanic theory of the Varangians being the conquerors of the Slavs and founders of Russia They accused proponents of this Normanic theory of distorting the historical facts by depicting the Slavs as primitive peoples with a low level of historical development Soviet historians state that the Slavs in Russia laid the foundations of their statehood long before the Norman raids, and that the Norman invasions only served to hinder the development of the Slavs They argue that the state of Rus started as Slavic and not Varangian, and that the success of Riurik and Oleg was because of the support they had from the local Slavic aristocracy18

Soviet historians trace the origin of feudalism in Russia to the 11th century, after the founding of the Russian state The class struggle in medieval is emphasized because of the hardships of feudal relations For example, Soviet historians argue that uprisings in Kiev in 1068-69 was a reflection of the class struggle There was a constant struggle between the powers of the princes and those of the feudal aristocracy, known as the boyars In regions like Novgorod, the boyar aristocracy was able to limit the prince’s power by making the office and the head of church elective18

The Mongol conquests of the 13th had significant consequences for Russia Soviet historians emphasize the cruelty of Genghis Khan and the suffering and devastation that Russia endured Soviet historians attribute the success of Genghis Khan to the fact that feudalism among his people had not developed, which would have involved with feudal and political strife By contrast, the peoples opposed to the Mongols were in a mature state of feudalism and the political disunity that went with it Soviet historians conclude that the Mongol domination had disastrous consequences for Russia’s historical progress and development It is also argued that by bearing the full weight of the Mongolian invasions, Russia helped to save Western Europe from outside domination18

The struggle against foreign domination and the heroism of its participants is a recurring theme in Soviet historiography Soviet historians have an upbeat assessment of Alexander Nevsky, characterized as one of the greatest military leaders of his time for defeating the German knights’ invasions of Russia in the 13th century Much importance is attached to the Battle of Kulikovo 1380, which marked the beginning of the end of the Mongol domination of Russia Dmitry Donskoi for his leadership of the anti-Mongol struggle is credited for being an outstanding military commander and contributing significantly to the unity of the Russian lands18

Reliability of statistical dataedit

Various Sovietologists have raised the issue of the quality accuracy and reliability of data published in the Soviet Union and used in historical research7202122 The Marxist theoreticians of the Party regarded statistics as a social science; hence many applications of statistical mathematics were curtailed, particularly during the Stalin era23 Under central planning, nothing could occur by accident23 The law of large numbers or the idea of random deviation were decried as "false theories"23 Statistical journals were closed; world-renowned statisticians like Andrey Kolmogorov or Eugen Slutsky abandoned statistical research23

As with all Soviet historiography, the reliability of Soviet statistical data varied from period to period22 The first revolutionary decade and the period of Stalin's dictatorship both appear highly problematic with regard to statistical reliability; very few statistical data were published from 1936 to 195622 Notably, the 1937 census' organizers were executed and results destroyed altogether, and no further censuses were conducted until 195924 The reliability of data improved after 1956 when some missing data was published and Soviet experts themselves published some adjusted data for the Stalin era;22 however the quality of documentation has deteriorated21

Some researchers say that on occasion the Soviet authorities may have completely "invented" statistical data potentially useful in historical research such as economic data invented to prove the successes of the Soviet industrialization, or some published numbers of Gulag prisoners and terror victims - as Conquest claims7 Data was falsified both during collection - by local authorities who would be judged by the central authorities based on whether their figures reflected the central economy prescriptions - and by internal propaganda, with its goal of portraying the Soviet state in the most positive light to its own citizens2022 Nonetheless the policy of not publishing - or simply not collecting - data that was deemed unsuitable for various reasons was much more common than simple falsification; hence the many gaps in Soviet statistical data21 Inadequate or missing documentation for much of Soviet statistical data is also a significant problem202122


Not all areas of Soviet historiography were equally affected by the ideological demands of the government; additionally, the intensity of these demands varied over time22 The impact of ideological demands also varied based on the field of history The areas most affected by ideological demands were 19th and 20th century history, especially Russian and Soviet history25 Part of the Soviet historiography was affected by extreme ideological bias, and potentially compromised by the deliberate distortions and omissions Yet part of Soviet historiography produced a large body of significant scholarship which continues to be used in the modern research26

Life experiences of individual Soviet historiansedit

Mikhail Pokrovsky 1862–1932 was held in the highest regard as a historian in the Soviet Union and was elected to the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1929 He emphasized Marxist theory, downplaying the role of personality in favour of economics as the driving force of history However, posthumouslywhen, Pokrovsky was accused of "vulgar sociologism", and his books were banned After Stalin's death, and the subsequent renouncement of his policies during the Khrushchev Thaw, Pokrovsky's work regained some influence

When Burdzhalov, then the deputy editor of the foremost Soviet journal on history, in spring of 1956 published a bold article examining the rôle of Bolsheviks in 1917 and demonstrated that Stalin had been an ally of Kamenev — who had been executed as a traitor in 1936 — and that Lenin had been a close associate of Zinoviev — who had been executed as a traitor in 1936 —, Burdzhalov was moved to an uninfluential post

Underground historiographyedit

The Brezhnev Era was the time of samizdat circulating unofficial manuscripts within the USSR and tamizdat illegal publication of work abroad The three most prominent Soviet dissidents of that era were Alexandr Solzhenitsyn, Andrei Sakharov and Roy Medvedev27 Of the tamizdat authors, Solzhenitsyn was the most famous, publishing The Gulag Archipelago in the West in 1973 Medvedev's Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism was published in 1971 in the West28 Neither could publish in the Soviet Union until the advent of Perestroika and Glasnost

Influence of Soviet historiography in modern Russiaedit

The 2006 Russian book, A Modern History of Russia: 1945-2006: A Manual for History Teachers29 has received significant attention as it was publicly endorsed by Russian President Vladimir Putin Putin said that "we can't allow anyone to impose a sense of guilt on us," and that the new manual helps present a more balanced view of Russian history than that promoted by the West The book says that repressions, carried out by Stalin and others, were "a necessary evil in response to a cold war started by America against the Soviet Union" It cites a recent opinion poll in Russia that gave Stalin an approval rating of 47%, and states that "The Soviet Union was not a democracy, but it was an example for millions of people around the world of the best and fairest society"

The Economist contends that the book is inspired by Soviet historiography in its treatment of the Cold War, as it claims that the Cold War was started by the United States, that the Soviet Union was acting in self-defense, and that the USSR did not lose the Cold War but rather voluntarily ended it According to The Economist, "rabid anti-Westernism is the leitmotif of the book's ideology"30 However, this single book is only one out of many approved by the Ministry of Education and Science, many promoting opposite viewscitation needed

In 2009 president Dmitri Medvedev created the Historical Truth Commission, against the perceived anti-Soviet and anti-Russian slander Officially, the Commission's mission is to "defend Russia against falsifiers of history and those who would deny Soviet contribution to the victory in World War II"31 Also, United Russia has proposed a draft law, that would mandate jail terms of three to five years "for anyone in the former Soviet Union convicted of rehabilitating Nazism"32

See alsoedit

  • Historiography of World War II#USSR
  • Agitprop Soviet propaganda
  • Propaganda in the Soviet Union
  • Censorship in the Soviet Union
    • Censorship of images in the Soviet Union
  • Criticisms of Communist party rule
  • Samizdat illegal underground publications in Soviet Union
  • Suppressed research in the Soviet Union


  1. ^ a b Enteen, George M "Recent Writings about Soviet Historiography," Slavic Review 61 2 2002: 357-363 jstor stable link
  2. ^ Joseph Stalin and others "Short Course" History of the Soviet Communist Party", Moscow, 1938
  3. ^ a b Roger D Markwick, "Cultural History under Khrushchev and Brezhnev: from Social Psychology to Mentalités," The Russian Review 65 2006: 283-301
  4. ^ The Commissar vanishes The Newseum
  5. ^ a b c d Historiography
  6. ^ a b c d Gwidon Zalejko, Soviet historiography as "normal science", in Historiography Between Modernism and Postmodernism, Jerzy Topolski ed, Rodopi, 1994, ISBN 90-5183-721-6, Google Print, p179-191
  7. ^ a b c Robert Conquest Reflections on a Ravaged Century 2000 ISBN 0-393-04818-7, page 101
  8. ^ a b Taisia Osipova, Peasant rebellions: Origin, Scope, Design and Consequences, in Vladimir N Brovkin ed, The Bolsheviks in Russian Society: The Revolution and the Civil Wars, Yale University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-300-06706-2 Google Print, p154-176
  9. ^ a b Roger D Markwick, Donald J Raleigh, Rewriting History in Soviet Russia: The Politics of Revisionist Historiography, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001, ISBN 0-333-79209-2, Google Print, p4-5
  10. ^ John L H Keep: A History of the Soviet Union 1945-1991: Last of the Empires, pages 30–31
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ferro, Marc 2003 The Use and Abuse of History: Or How the Past Is Taught to Children London; New York: Routledge ISBN 978-0-415-28592-6 See Chapters 8 Aspects and variations of Soviet history and 10 History in profile: Poland
  12. ^ Lewis, B E 1977 Soviet Taboo Review of Vtoraya Mirovaya Voina, History of the Second World War by B Liddel Gart Russian translation Soviet Studies 29 4, 603-606
  13. ^ The Liberators Освободитель, 1981, Hamish Hamilton Ltd, ISBN 0-241-10675-3; cited from Russian edition of 1999, ISBN 5-237-03557-4, pages 13-16
  14. ^ Bidlack, Richard 1990 Review of Voprosy istorii i istoriografii Velikoi otechestvennoi voiny by I A Rosenko, G L Sovolev Slavic Review 49 4, 653-654
  15. ^ Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre, Małgorzata Kużniar-Plota, Departamental Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation, Warsaw 30 November 2004, Internet Archive also see the press release online, last accessed on 19 December 2005, English translation of Polish document
  16. ^ Rolf-Dieter Müller, Gerd R Ueberschär, Hitler's War in the East, 1941-1945: A Critical Assessment, Berghahn Books, 2002, ISBN 1-57181-293-8, Google Print, p239
  17. ^ David Satter Age of Delirium: The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Union, Yale University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-300-08705-5
  18. ^ a b c d History of the USSR: From the earliest time to the Great October Socialist Revolution Volume 1 DP Kallistov ed Progress Publishers 1977
  19. ^ Alan Smith, Russia and the World Economy: Problems of Integration, Routledge, 1993, ISBN 0-415-08924-7, Google Print, p34-35
  20. ^ a b c Nicholas Eberstadt and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, The Tyranny of Numbers: Mismeasurement and Misrule, American EnterpriseInstitute, 1995, ISBN 0-8447-3764-X, Google Print, p138-140
  21. ^ a b c d Edward A Hewett, Reforming the Soviet Economy: Equality Versus Efficiency, Brookings Institution Press, 1988, ISBN 0-8157-3603-7, Google Print, p7 and following chapters
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Nikolai M Dronin, Edward G Bellinger, Climate Dependence And Food Problems In Russia, 1900-1990, Central European University Press, 2005, ISBN 963-7326-10-3, Google Print, p15-16
  23. ^ a b c d David S Salsburg, he Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century, Owl Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8050-7134-2, Google Print, p147-149
  24. ^ A G Volkov Census of 1937 Facts and Fictions originally published in Перепись населения СССР 1937 года История и материалы/Экспресс-информация Серия "История статистики" Выпуск 3-5 часть II М, 1990/ с 6-63
  25. ^ Service, Robert 2009 A History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century, Third Edition Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press p 419 ISBN 0-674-01801-X 
  26. ^ Hannes Heer, Klaus Naumann, War Of Extermination: The German Military In World War II, Berghahn Books, 2004, ISBN 1-57181-232-6, Google Print, p304
  27. ^ Sellers, Lea Soviet Dissidents and the Western World The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs at Tufts University, 1976
  28. ^ Let History Judge by Roy Medvedev ISBN 0-231-06350-4
  29. ^ New Manuals Push A Putin's-Eye View In Russian Schools
  30. ^ Russia's past The rewriting of history, November 8, 2007, The Economist
  31. ^ УКАЗ Президента РФ от 15052009 N 549 Russian
  32. ^ Osborn, Andrew 2009-05-21 "Medvedev Creates History Commission" The Wall Street Journal 

Further readingedit

  • Avrich, Paul H 1960 The Short Course and Soviet Historiography Political Science Quarterly 75 4, 539-553
  • Enteen, George M 1976 Marxists versus Non-Marxists: Soviet Historiography in the 1920s Slavic Review 35 1, 91-110
  • Gefter, M J & V L Malkov 1967 Reply to a Questionnaire on Soviet Historiography History and Theory 6 2, 180-207
  • Ito Takayuki ed, Facing up to the Past: Soviet Historiography under Perestroika Sapporo: Hokkaido University, 1989
  • Keep, John ed,Contemporary History in the Soviet Mirror NY – London: Praeger, 1964
  • Markwick, Roger D Rewriting History in Soviet Russia: The Politics of Revisionist Historiography, 1956-1974 NY: Palgrave, 2001
  • Mazour, Anatole G & Herman E Bateman 1952 Recent Conflicts in Soviet Historiography The Journal of Modern History 24 1, 56-68
  • Mazour, Anatole G The Writing of History in the Soviet Union Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1971
  • McCann, James M 1984 Beyond the Bug: Soviet Historiography of the Soviet-Polish War of 1920 Soviet Studies 36 4, 475-493
  • Asher, Harvey 1972 The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of M N Pokrovsky Russian Review 31 1, 49-63
  • Baron, Samuel H 1974 The Resurrection of Plekhanovism in Soviet Historiography Russian Review 33 4, 386-404
  • Daniels, Robert V 1967 Soviet Historians Prepare for the Fiftieth Slavic Review 26 1, 113-118
  • Eissenstat, Bernard W 1969 M N Pokrovsky and Soviet Historiography: Some Reconsiderations Slavic Review 28 4, 604-618
  • Enteen, George M 1969 Soviet Historians Review Their Own Past: The Rehabilitation of M N Pokrovsky Soviet Studies 20 3, 306-320
  • Enteen, George M 1970 Pokrovsky's Rehabilitation: A Reply to Bernard W Eissenstat Soviet Studies 22 2, 295-297
  • McNeal, Robert H 1958 Soviet Historiography on the October Revolution: A Review of Forty Years American Slavic and East European Review 17 3, 269-281
  • Schlesinger, Rudolf 1950 Recent Soviet Historiography II Soviet Studies 2 1, 3-21
  • Schlesinger, Rudolf 1950 Recent Soviet Historiography III Soviet Studies 2 2, 138-162
  • Schlesinger, Rudolf 1950 Recent Soviet Historiography I Soviet Studies 1 4, 293-312
  • Schlesinger, Rudolf 1951 Note on Recent Soviet Historiography, Part IV Soviet Studies 3 1, 64
  • Shapiro, Jane P 1968 Soviet Historiography and the Moscow Trials: After Thirty Years Russian Review 27 1, 68-77
  • Barber, John Soviet Historians in Crisis, 1928-1932
  • Pundeff, Marin History in the USSR Selected Readings
  • Shteppa, Konstantin F Russian Historians and the Soviet State
  • Black, C E Rewriting Russian History Soviet Interpretations of Russia's Past
  • Nancy Whittier Heer Politics and History in the Soviet Union
  • Švābe, Arveds 1949 The Story of Latvia, Chapter 9 — Lies and Violence as Instruments of Russian Policy Latvian National Foundation
  • Kuuli, Olaf 2008: "Eesti ajaloo kirjutamisest Stalini ja Hruštšovi ajal" Estonian for Of historiography in Estonia during Stalin's and Khruschev's rule ISBN 978-9949-18-195-7

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