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Hebrews

hebrews 11, hebrews 12
Hebrews Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses123 of the Hebrew Bible While the term was not an ethnonym,45 it is mostly taken as synonymous with the Semitic-speaking Israelites, especially in the pre-monarchic period when they were still nomadic, but in some instances it may also be used in a wider sense, referring to the Phoenicians, or to other ancient groups, such as the group known as Shasu of Yhw on the eve of the Bronze Age collapse6

By the Roman Empire, Greek Hebraios could refer to the Jews in general, as Strong's Hebrew Dictionary puts it "any of the Jewish Nation"7 and at other times more specifically to the Jews living in Judea In Early Christianity, the Greek term Ἑβραῖος refers to Jewish Christians as opposed to the gentile Christians and Judaizers Acts 6:1 among others Ἰουδαία is the province where the Temple was located

In Armenian, Italian, Modern Greek, Serbian, Bulgarian Russian, Romanian and a few other modern languages because of pejorative connotation of the word corresponding to the word Jew, "Hebrew" is in the primary word used for a Jew8910 The name corresponding for Hebrew is used also in the Kurdish and was once used also in French

With the revival of the Hebrew language and the emergence of the Hebrew Yishuv, the term has been applied to the people of this new society or anything associated with it

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
    • 11 Shasu of Yhw
    • 12 Habiru
    • 13 Hyksos
  • 2 Use as synonym for "Israelites"
  • 3 Use as synonym for "Jews"
    • 31 Use in Zionism
  • 4 Synonym for "convert from Judaism"
  • 5 The United States
  • 6 Name of the Hebrew language
  • 7 References
    • 71 Bibliography
    • 72 Notes
  • 8 External links

Etymologyedit

The origin of the term remains uncertain11 The Biblical term Ivri עברי; Hebrew pronunciation: ʕivˈri, meaning to traverse or pass over, is usually rendered as Hebrew in English, from the ancient Greek Ἑβραῖος and Latin Hebraeus In the plural it is Ivrim, or Ibrim

Terracotta head of Semite, marked "Hebrew" by Petrie From Memphis, Foreign Quarter, Egypt Graeco-Roman Period The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

In Genesis 10:21 Shem, the elder brother of Ham and Japheth, first-born son of Noah, is referred to as the father of the sons of Eber עבר, which may have a similar meaning

Some authors argue that Ibri denotes the descendants of the biblical patriarch Eber Hebrew עבר, son of Shelah, a great grandson of Noah and an ancestor of Abraham,12 hence the occasional anglicization Eberites

Shasu of Yhwedit

Main article: Shasu Egyptian representation of a captive Shasu

The hieroglyphic rendering of the Egyptian word š3sw Shasu means "those who move on foot" The name "Shasu of Yhw", eg, the name rings from Soleb and Amarah-West, corresponds very precisely to the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Bible13 The demonym 'Israel' can reasonably be referred to a Shasu enclave, and it can be concluded that the Shasu originated from Moab and northern Edom and eventually helped to constitute the nation of 'Israel' which later established the Kingdom of Israel1415 The Shasu are mostly depicted hieroglyphically with a determinative indicating rather a land than a people, referencing people of that particular land16

Habiruedit

Main article: Habiru

Since the discovery of the second millennium inscriptions mentioning the Habiru, there have been many theories linking these to the Hebrews Some scholars argue that the name "Hebrew" is related to the name of the seminomadic Habiru people, who are recorded in Egyptian inscriptions of the 13th and 12th centuries BCE as having settled in Egypt17 This is rebutted by others who propose that the Hebrews are mentioned in older texts of the 3rd Intermediate Period of Egypt 15th century BCE as Shasu of Yhw18 According to Anson F Rainey, modern scholars conclude that the attempts to relate apiru Habiru to the Hebrew word ibri Hebrews are not fruitful19

Hyksosedit

Main article: Origins of the Hyksos

The Jewish historian Josephus maintains that the Hyksos were in fact the children of Jacob who joined his son Joseph in Egypt to escape a famine in the land of Canaan The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt during the Eleventh Dynasty They came out of the second intermediate period in control of Avaris and the Nile delta and ruled Lower Egypt as Semite kings Fifteenth Dynasty Kamose, the last king of the Theban 17th Dynasty, refers to the Hyksos King Apophis as a Chieftain of Retjenu Canaan At the end of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt, they were expelled by an ethnic Egyptian pharaoh The term "Hyksos" derives from the Egyptian expression heka khasewet "rulers of foreign lands"

Josephus records the false etymology that the Greek phrase Hyksos stood for the Egyptian phrase Hekw Shasu meaning the Shepherd Kings, which scholars have only recently shown means "rulers of foreign lands"20

Use as synonym for "Israelites"edit

See also: Israelites, Who is a Jew, and History of ancient Israel and Judah Greek painting of three Chaldeans with captive Hebrews

In the Hebrew Bible, the term "Hebrew" is normally used by Israelites when speaking of themselves to foreigners, or is used by foreigners when speaking about Israelites21 In fact, the Torah in parashat Lekh Lekha "go!" or "leave!", literally "go for you" calls Abraham Avram Ha-Ivri "Abram the Hebrew", which translates literally as "Abram the one who stands on the other side"Gen 14:13

Israelites are defined as the descendants of Jacob, son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham Eber, an ancestor of Jacob seven generations removed, is a distant ancestor of many people, including the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, Midianites and Qahtanites

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia the terms "Hebrews" and "Israelites" usually describe the same people, stating that they were called Hebrews before the conquest of the Land of Canaan and Israelites afterwards22 Professor Nadav Na'aman and others say that the use of the word "Hebrew" to refer to Israelites is rare and when used it is used "to Israelites in exceptional and precarious situations, such as migrants or slaves"2324

Use as synonym for "Jews"edit

By the Roman period, "Hebrews" could be used to designate the Jews, who use the Hebrew language25 The Epistle to the Hebrews was probably written for Jewish Christians26

In some modern languages, including Armenian, Greek, Italian, Romanian, and many Slavic languages, the name Hebrews survives as the standard ethnonym for Jews, but in many other languages in which there exist both terms, it is considered derogatory to call modern Jews "Hebrews" Among certain left-wing or liberal circles of Judaic cultural lineage, the word "Hebrew" is used as an alternatively secular description of the Jewish people eg, Bernard Avishai's The Hebrew Republic or left-wing wishes for a "Hebrew-Arab" joint cultural republican state

Use in Zionismedit

Beginning in the late 19th century, the term "Hebrew" became popular among secular Zionists; in this context the word alluded to the transformation of the Jews into a strong, independent, self-confident secular national group "the New Jew" sought by classical Zionism This use died out after the establishment of the state of Israel, when "Hebrew" was replaced with "Jew" or "Israeli"27

Synonym for "convert from Judaism"edit

The word "Hebrew", in its secular sense, has also been used as ethnic self-descriptors by converts from Judaism to other religions Hebrew Catholics, a community of converts from Judaism to Catholic Christianity, were so named by Elias Friedman, a Carmelite Catholic priest who founded the Association of Hebrew Catholics Similarly, "Hebrew Christians" better known as Jewish Christians identify with their Hebrew ethnicity while often embracing adaptations of Protestantism or any other form of Christianity "Hebrew Christians" are also known as "Messianic Jews", or "Completed Jews"

The United Statesedit

Early in its presence in the United States, Reform Judaism attempted to distance itself from terms such as "Jew" or "Jewish"citation needed The organization of reform congregations in the United States was known as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations prior to 2003 when it was renamed the "Union for Reform Judaism"

Name of the Hebrew languageedit

The Hebrew language is a member of the larger group of Canaanite languages within Northwest Semitic The language has been known as "Hebrew" in English since the 11th century, from Old French Ebreu, in turn from Latin Hebraeus and Greek Ἑβραῖος, whose alphabet is ultimately a loan from "Assyrian lettering" Ktav Ashuri, the "square-script", by Ezra the Scribe following the Babylonian Exile

Since the Hebrew Bible makes a point of marking the Canaanites as peoples set apart from the Israelites, the extent of the distinction between the culture of the Canaanites and the Israelites is a matter of debate It has been argued that the Israelites were themselves Canaanites, and that "historical Israel", as distinct from "literary" or "Biblical Israel" was a subset of Canaanite culture It is also known that Israelites and later the subdivision of Israelites known as the Judeans spoke Hebrew as their main language and it is still used in Jewish holy scriptures, study, speech and prayer

Referencesedit

  • Jewish Encyclopedia
  • Biblical History The Jewish History Resource Center

Bibliographyedit

  • Ancient Judaism, Max Weber, Free Press, 1967, ISBN 0-02-934130-2

Notesedit

  1. ^ Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible #5680
  2. ^ Step Bible
  3. ^ Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius 1952 "The NAS Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon" Oxford University Press ISBN 0-198-64301-2 Retrieved 2014-09-06 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  4. ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, p567, "Hebrew, Hebrews A non-ethnic term"
  5. ^ Collapse of the Bronze Age, p266, quote: "Opinion has sharply swung away from the view that the Apiru were the earliest Israelites in part because Apiru was not an ethnic term nor were Apiru an ethnic group"
  6. ^ The Electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary sv SA-GAZ The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago volume H 1956 p 13 & p 84; volume Š/1 1989 p 70
  7. ^ Thayer's Lexicon
  8. ^ Administrator "Jewish Museum of Venice - homepage" Museoebraicoit Archived from the original on 2012-08-17 Retrieved 2012-08-04 
  9. ^ "Jewish Ghetto of Venice" Ghettoit Retrieved 2012-08-04 
  10. ^ Yann Picand; Dominique Dutoit "translation of evreiesc in English | Romanian-English dictionary" Translationsensagentcom Retrieved 2012-08-04 
  11. ^ "Hebrew" Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 
  12. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia article on Eber
  13. ^ Astour, Michael C 1979 "Yahweh in Egyptian Topographic Lists" In Festschrift Elmar Edel, eds M Gorg & E Pusch, Bamberg; 1979, p 18
  14. ^ Redford, Donald B 1992 Egypt, Canaan and Israel In Ancient Times Princeton: Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-00086-7  p 272-3,275
  15. ^ Rainey, Anson 2008 "Shasu or Habiru Who Were the Early Israelites" Biblical Archeology Review 34:6 Nov/Dec
  16. ^ Dermot Anthony Nestor, Cognitive Perspectives on Israelite Identity, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010 p185
  17. ^ entry in britannicacom
  18. ^ Rainey, Anson November 2008 "Shasu or Habiru Who Were the Early Israelites" Biblical Archeology Review Biblical Archaeology Society 34 6 Nov/Dec 
  19. ^ Anson F Rainey, Unruly Elements in Late Bronze Canaanite Society, in "Pomegranates and golden bells" ed David Pearson Wright, David Noel Freedman, Avi Hurvitz, Eisenbrauns, 1995 p483
  20. ^ Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, 2001, The Free Press, New York City, ISBN 0-684-86912-8 p 54
  21. ^ William David Reyburn - Euan McG Fry - A handbook on Genesis - New York - United Bible Societies - 1997
  22. ^ Hebrews entry in Jewish Encyclopedia
  23. ^ Carolyn Pressler 2009 "Wives and Daughters, Bond and Free: Views of Women in the Slave Laws of Exodus 212-11" In Bernard M Levinson; Victor H Matthews; Tikva Frymer-Kensky Gender and Law in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East p 152 ISBN 978-0567545008 
  24. ^ Carvalho, Corrine L 2010 Encountering Ancient Voices: A Guide to Reading the Old Testament Anselm Academic p 68 ISBN 978-1599820507 
  25. ^ entry in thefreedictionarycom
  26. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Hebrews, Epistle to the
  27. ^ Shavit, Yaacov 1987 The New Hebrew Nation Routledge pp xiv ISBN 0-7146-3302-X 

External linksedit

Media related to Hebrews at Wikimedia Commons

hebrews 10, hebrews 11, hebrews 11:1, hebrews 12, hebrews 13, hebrews 13:5, hebrews 13:8, hebrews 4, hebrews 4:12, hebrews 6:19


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    29.10.2014


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