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Health information on Wikipedia

health information on wikipedia is written
The online encyclopedia Wikipedia has, since the late 2000s, served as a popular source for health information for both laypersons and, in many cases, health care practitioners Health-related articles on Wikipedia are popularly accessed as results from search engines, which frequently deliver links to Wikipedia articles Independent assessments have been made of the number and demographics of people who seek health information on Wikipedia, the scope of health information on Wikipedia, and the quality of the information on Wikipedia

The English-language Wikipedia was estimated in 2014 to hold around 25,000 articles on health-related topics Across Wikipedia encyclopedias in all languages there were 155,000 health articles using 950,000 citations to sources and which collectively received 48 billion pageviews in 2013 This amount of traffic makes Wikipedia one of the most consulted health resources in the world, or perhaps the most consulted resource

Contents

  • 1 Accuracy and usefulness of content
    • 11 Academic studies
    • 12 Other views
  • 2 Extent of usage
    • 21 Academic citations
    • 22 Impact on psychological tests
  • 3 Nature of contributors
  • 4 Usage of traffic statistics in health monitoring
  • 5 Projects to improve health information on Wikipedia
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References

Accuracy and usefulness of content

Academic studies

A 2007 study examined a sample of Wikipedia pages about the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the United States, and found that 857% of them were appropriate for patients and that these articles had "a remarkably high level of internal validity" However, the same study also raised concerns about Wikipedia's completeness, noting that only 629% of the articles examined were free of "critical omissions"

A 2008 study reported that drug information on Wikipedia "has a more narrow scope, is less complete, and has more errors of omission" than did such information on the traditionally edited online database Medscape Drug Reference

A 2011 assessment of 50 medical articles on Wikipedia found that 56% of the references cited on these pages could be considered reputable, and that each entry contained 29 reputable sources on average

A 2011 study examined Wikipedia pages about five statins, and concluded that these pages did not contain incorrect or misleading information, but that they were often missing information about drug interactions and contraindications to use

Another 2011 study examining Wikipedia articles on the 20 most widely prescribed drugs found that seven of these articles did not have any references, and concluded that "Wikipedia does not provide consistently accurate, complete, and referenced medication information"

An assessment of Wikipedia articles in 2012 on dietary supplements found that Wikipedia articles were "frequently incomplete, of variable quality, and sometimes inconsistent with reputable sources of information on these products"

A 2013 review of nephrology content on Wikipedia found it to be "a comprehensive and fairly reliable medical resource for nephrology patients that is written at a college reading level"

A 2013 scoping review published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research summarized the existing evidence about the use of wikis, Wikipedia and other collaborative writing applications in health care and found that the available research publications were observational reports rather than the primary research studies which would be necessary to begin drawing conclusions

A 2014 study that examined 97 Wikipedia articles about complementary and alternative medicine CAM found that 4% of them had attained "Good article" status, and that CAM articles on Wikipedia tended to be significantly shorter than those about conventional therapies

In May 2014 the The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association published an article which concluded that "Most Wikipedia articles for the 10 costliest conditions in the United States contain errors compared with standard peer-reviewed sources" Following this paper, many other media sources reported that readers should not trust Wikipedia for medical information Wikipedia's contributors to its health content defended Wikipedia and criticized this study

A 2014 study found that when the FDA issues new safety warnings about drugs, in 41% of cases reviewed Wikipedia articles about those drugs were updated to give the new safety information within two weeks Another 23% of Wikipedia drug articles were updated to give this information within an average of about 40 days, but 36% of articles are not updated with this information within a year

A 2014 comparison between selected drug information from pharmacology textbooks and comparable information on the English-language and German-language Wikipedias found that the drug information in Wikipedia covers most of what is essential for undergraduate pharmacology studies and that it is accurate

The readability of Wikipedia's articles for epilepsy and Parkinson's disease was critiqued and found to be difficult to read Another study found that Wikipedia's information about neurological diseases was significantly more difficult to read than the information in the American Academy of Neurology's patient brochures, the Mayo Clinic's website, or MedlinePlus Another 2015 study, this one authored by Samy Azer, reported that Wikipedia should not be used to learn about concepts related to pulmonology students Another 2015 study by Azer found that Wikipedia entries about cardiovascular diseases were "not aimed at a medical audience" and were mainly inaccurate due to errors of omission

A 2016 study found that Wikipedia information about common internal medicine diagnoses was written at a higher grade level than any of the four other sites studied NIH, WebMD, Mayo Clinic, and "diagnosis-specific websites" In contrast, another study published the same year found that medical students reading about three unstudied diseases on AccessMedicine and Wikipedia experienced less mental effort than did readers of the same diseases on UpToDate

Other views

Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has said that lack of health information increases preventable deaths in emerging markets and that health information from Wikipedia can improve community health Wales presented the Wikipedia Zero project as a channel for delivering health information into places where people have difficulty accessing online information

People who promote alternative medicine have complained that Wikipedia negatively portrays holistic health treatments including energy medicine, Emotional Freedom Techniques, Thought Field Therapy and Tapas Acupressure Technique In response, Wales has stated, "If you can get your work published in respectable scientific journals – that is to say, if you can produce evidence through replicable scientific experiments, then Wikipedia will cover it appropriately" Similar concerns have been raised regarding its coverage of homeopathy

As a result of public interest in the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, Wikipedia became a popular source of information on Ebola Doctors who were Wikipedia contributors said that Wikipedia's quality made it useful

Extent of usage

The majority of people in the United States use the internet as a source of health information One 2013 study suggested that 22% of healthcare searches online direct users to Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2014 as "the leading single source of healthcare information for patients and healthcare professionals" A study of a particular group of veterinary students found that the majority of these students sought and found medical information on Wikipedia Some doctors have described their use of Wikipedia as a "guilty secret"

Wikipedia's health information has been described as "transforming how our next doctors learn medicine" Various commentators in health education have said that Wikipedia is popular among medical students

Academic citations

Wikipedia has been inappropriately cited as an authoritative source in many health science journals

Impact on psychological tests

In 2009 a doctor and Wikipedia editor, James Heilman, incorporated public domain images of the Rorschach test into Wikipedia Psychologists complained that the increased public exposure to these tests devalued their clinical utility, and that public health was harmed as a result

Nature of contributors

A 2014 interview study found that around half of the editors of health-related content on the English-language Wikipedia are health care professionals, while the other half includes some medical students An author of this study wrote that this provides "reassurance about the reliability of the website" The study also found that the "core editor community", who actively monitor and edit most health-related articles on the English-language Wikipedia, numbered around 300 people The study found that people who contribute on these topics do so for a variety of reasons, including a desire to better learn the subjects themselves, and a sense of both responsibility and enjoyment in improving others' access to health information

Usage of traffic statistics in health monitoring

Just as Google Flu Trends was able to correlate searches for flu to local outbreaks of flu, page views of Wikipedia articles on flu-related topics have been found to increase in populations experiencing the spread of flu, and of other diseases such as dengue fever and tuberculosis

Projects to improve health information on Wikipedia

In 2009 the National Institutes of Health attempted a pilot project for integrating health information into Wikipedia In 2011, it was reported that Cancer Research UK had started a program whereby some of its staff would edit Wikipedia's cancer-related articles

The University of California, San Francisco has a program for encouraging students to contribute health content to Wikipedia

In response to studies showing that the majority of patients and providers use the Internet to find health information, the Maternal and Child Health MCH Library developed a New Media Primer to increase the skills of health care providers in using social media to share information on public health A 2012 article from Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario described the development of a disease-specific primer for providers and patients guiding both to the highest quality and most reliable new media sites

See also

  • Education portal
  • Health portal
  • Medicine portal
  • Health information on the Internet
  • List of medical wikis
  • Reliability of Wikipedia
  • WikiProject Medicine's Research list, A list maintained within Wikipedia of all academic publications on Wikipedia's health content

References

  1. ^ Laurent, M R; Vickers, T J 2009 "Seeking Health Information Online: Does Wikipedia Matter" Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 16 4: 471–479 doi:101197/jamiaM3059 PMC 2705249 PMID 19390105 
  2. ^ Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan 2011-01-31 "Wikipedia: A Key Tool for Global Public Health Promotion" Journal of Medical Internet Research 13 1: e14 doi:102196/jmir1589 PMC 3221335 PMID 21282098 
  3. ^ a b c Faric, Nusa December 5, 2014 "Around half of Wikipedia's medical editors are experts" Wikimedia Blog 
  4. ^ a b Heilman, James M; West, Andrew G 2015 "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language" Journal of Medical Internet Research 17 3: e62 doi:102196/jmir4069 ISSN 1438-8871 PMC 4376174 PMID 25739399 
  5. ^ a b Devgan, Lara; Powe, Neil; Blakey, Brittony; Makary, Martin September 2007 "Wiki-Surgery Internal validity of Wikipedia as a medical and surgical reference" Journal of the American College of Surgeons 205 3: S76–S77 doi:101016/jjamcollsurg200706190 
  6. ^ Clauson, K A; Polen, H H; Boulos, M N K; Dzenowagis, J H 18 November 2008 "Scope, Completeness, and Accuracy of Drug Information in Wikipedia" Annals of Pharmacotherapy 42 12: 1814–1821 doi:101345/aph1L474 PMID 19017825 
  7. ^ Haigh, CA February 2011 "Wikipedia as an evidence source for nursing and healthcare students" Nurse education today 31 2: 135–9 doi:101016/jnedt201005004 PMID 20646799 
  8. ^ Kupferberg, N; Protus, BM October 2011 "Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: an assessment" Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA 99 4: 310–3 doi:103163/1536-5050994010 PMID 22022226 
  9. ^ Lavsa, Stacey M; Corman, Shelby L; Culley, Colleen M; Pummer, Tara L April 2011 "Reliability of Wikipedia as a medication information source for pharmacy students" Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 3 2: 154–158 doi:101016/jcptl201101007 
  10. ^ Phillips, Jennifer; Lam, Connie; Palmisano, Lisa 2014 "Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia" Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 54 4: 406 doi:101331/JAPhA201413181 ISSN 1544-3191 
  11. ^ Thomas, G R; Eng, L; De Wolff, J F; Grover, S C 2013 "An Evaluation of Wikipedia as a Resource for Patient Education in Nephrology" Seminars in Dialysis 26 2: 159–63 doi:101111/sdi12059 PMID 23432369 
  12. ^ Archambault, Patrick M; Belt, Tom H van de; III, Francisco J Grajales; Faber, Marjan J; Kuziemsky, Craig E; Gagnon, Susie; Bilodeau, Andrea; Rioux, Simon; Nelen, Willianne LDM 2013-10-08 "Wikis and Collaborative Writing Applications in Health Care: A Scoping Review" Journal of Medical Internet Research 15 10: e210 doi:102196/jmir2787 PMC 3929050 PMID 24103318 
  13. ^ Koo, Malcolm 2014 "Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Wikipedia: Opportunities for Improvement" Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014: 1–4 doi:101155/2014/105186 PMID 24864148 
  14. ^ Hasty, Robert; Garvalosa, Ryan; Barbato, Vincenzo; Valdes, Pedro; Powers, David; Hernandez, Emmanuel; John, Jones; Suciu, Gabriel; Qureshi, Farheen; Popa-Radu, Matei; San Jose, Sergio; Drexler, Nathaniel; Patankar, Rohan; Paz, Jose; King, Christopher; Gerber, Hilary; Valladares, Michael; Somji, Alyaz 2014 "Wikipedia vs Peer-Reviewed Medical Literature for Information About the 10 Most Costly Medical Conditions" The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 114 05: 368–373 doi:107556/jaoa2014035 ISSN 0098-6151 PMID 24778001 
  15. ^ Hasty, Robert 8 May 2014 "Dr Robert Hasty - Wikipedia vs Peer-Reviewed Medical Articles" youtubecom Retrieved 4 June 2014 
  16. ^ Stephens, Pippa 28 May 2014 "Trust your doctor, not Wikipedia, say scientists" bbccom Retrieved 4 June 2014 
  17. ^ Kedmey, Dan 27 May 2014 "Don't Trust Wikipedia When It Comes to Your Health, Study Says" timecom Retrieved 4 June 2014 
  18. ^ Gagnon, Tiffany 28 May 2014 "Are Wikipedia Health Tips Making You Sick" Men's Fitness Retrieved 4 June 2014 
  19. ^ Dillner, Luisa 1 June 2014 "Is Wikipedia a reliable source for medical advice" theguardiancom Retrieved 4 June 2014 
  20. ^ Chatterjee, Anwesh; Cooke, Robin MT; Furst, Ian; Heilman, James 23 June 2014 "Is Wikipedia's medical content really 90% wrong" cochraneorg Retrieved 23 June 2014 
  21. ^ a b Hwang, Thomas J; Bourgeois, Florence T; Seeger, John D 2014 "Drug Safety in the Digital Age" New England Journal of Medicine 370 26: 2460–2462 doi:101056/NEJMp1401767 ISSN 0028-4793 
  22. ^ Kräenbring, Jona; Monzon Penza, Tika; Gutmann, Joanna; Muehlich, Susanne; Zolk, Oliver; Wojnowski, Leszek; Maas, Renke; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio 2014-09-24 "Accuracy and Completeness of Drug Information in Wikipedia: A Comparison with Standard Textbooks of Pharmacology" PLoS ONE 9 9: e106930 doi:101371/journalpone0106930 PMC 4174509 PMID 25250889 
  23. ^ Brigo, F; Erro, R 18 January 2015 "The readability of the English Wikipedia article on Parkinson's disease" Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology doi:101007/s10072-015-2077-5 PMID 25596713 
  24. ^ Brigo, F; Otte, WM; Igwe, SC; Tezzon, F; Nardone, R 16 January 2015 "Clearly written, easily comprehended The readability of websites providing information on epilepsy" Epilepsy & behavior : E&B 44C: 35–39 doi:101016/jyebeh201412029 PMID 25601720 
  25. ^ Punia, Vineet; Dagar, Anjali; Agarwal, Nitin; He, Wenzhuan; Hillen, Machteld December 2014 "Comparison of neurological healthcare oriented educational resources for patients on the internet" Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 21 12: 2179–2183 doi:101016/jjocn201405043 
  26. ^ Azer, Samy A 2015 "Is Wikipedia a reliable learning resource for medical students Evaluating respiratory topics" Advances in Physiology Education 39 1: 5–14 doi:101152/advan001102014 ISSN 1043-4046 
  27. ^ Azer, SA; AlSwaidan, NM; Alshwairikh, LA; AlShammari, JM 6 October 2015 "Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students" BMJ open 5 10: e008187 doi:101136/bmjopen-2015-008187 PMID 26443650 
  28. ^ Hutchinson, N; Baird, GL; Garg, M 29 January 2016 "Examining the reading level of Internet medical information for common Internal Medicine diagnoses" The American Journal of Medicine 129: 637–9 doi:101016/jamjmed201601008 PMID 26829438 
  29. ^ Saparova, D; Nolan, NS January 2016 "Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning" Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA 104 1: 24–32 doi:103163/1536-50501041004 PMC 4722638 PMID 26807049 
  30. ^ a b Williams-Grut, Oscar 3 October 2014 "Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales: 'Free Wiki could save thousands of lives'" The Independent London: INM ISSN 0951-9467 OCLC 185201487 Retrieved 7 October 2014 
  31. ^ a b Sifferlin, Alexandra 25 March 2014 "Wikipedia Founder Sticks It To 'Lunatic' Holistic Healers" Time magazine Retrieved 26 March 2014 
  32. ^ Hay Newman, Lily March 27, 2014 Jimmy Wales Gets Real, and Sassy, About Wikipedia's Holistic Healing Coverage, Slate magazine Retrieved November 23, 2014
  33. ^ ACEP's Position Statement on Wikipedia energypsychorg Retrieved November 23, 2014
  34. ^ Ullman, Dana October 10, 2014 "Dysfunction at Wikipedia on Homeopathic Medicine" The Huffington Post Retrieved November 23, 2014 
  35. ^ a b Cohen, Noam 26 October 2014 "Wikipedia Emerges as Trusted Internet Source for Ebola Information" The New York Times New York: NYTC ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 27 October 2014 
  36. ^ Fox, S; Jones, S 11 Jun 2009 "The social life of health information" Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project cited 6 October 2010 
  37. ^ Makovsky Health 9 September 2013 "Online Health Research Eclipsing Patient-Doctor Conversations - Makovsky" makovskycom Retrieved 2 October 2013 
  38. ^ Note - sketchy link requires registration IMS Health 2014 "The use of Wikipedia in Health Care" Engaging patients through social media Is healthcare ready for empowered and digitally demanding patients IMS Health pp 16–26 Retrieved 22 January 2014  Further cited in
    • NPR staff 8 February 2014 "Dr Wikipedia: The 'Double-Edged Sword' Of Crowd-Sourced Medicine" nprorg NPR Retrieved 10 February 2014 
    • Feltman, Rachel 28 January 2014 "America's future doctors are starting their careers by saving Wikipedia" qzcom Retrieved 5 February 2014 
    • Reagan, Michael 31 Jan 2014 "Wikipedia Shouldn't be Doctors' online healthcare source" newsmaxcom Retrieved 5 February 2014 
    • Tucker, Miriam E 5 February 2014 "Doctors, Not Just Patients, Use Wikipedia, Too: IMS Report" Medscape Retrieved 7 February 2014 
    • Beck, Julie 5 March 2014 "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia" theatlanticcom Retrieved 5 March 2014 
  39. ^ Kolski, D; Arlt, S; Birk, S; Heuwieser, W 2013 "Use and acceptance of Wiki systems for students of veterinary medicine" GMS Zeitschrift fur medizinische Ausbildung 30 1: Doc10 doi:103205/zma000853 PMC 3589678 PMID 23467415 
  40. ^ Godlee, F 27 March 2014 "Unethical, a guilty secret, and still crazy after all these years" BMJ 348 mar27 1: g2396–g2396 doi:101136/bmjg2396 
  41. ^ Morris, Nathaniel P 18 November 2013 "Wikipedia's role in medical education brings awesome promise — and a few risks" bostonglobecom Retrieved 21 November 2013 
  42. ^ Allahwala, Usaid K; Nadkarni, Aniket; Sebaratnam, Deshan F 2013 "Wikipedia use amongst medical students – New insights into the digital revolution" Medical Teacher 35 4: 337–337 doi:103109/0142159X2012737064 ISSN 0142-159X 
  43. ^ Teunis, Teun March 2013 "The Wikipedia Guide to Medicine Could the Online Encyclopaedia Provide the Basis for a New Medical School Curriculum" Student BMJ 21: 16–17 doi:101136/sbmjf1091 
  44. ^ Bould, M D; Hladkowicz, E S; Pigford, A-A E; Ufholz, L-A; Postonogova, T; Shin, E; Boet, S 6 March 2014 "References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature" BMJ 348 mar05 4: g1585–g1585 doi:101136/bmjg1585 
  45. ^ Blackwell, Tom 12 March 2014 "'It's against all principles of scientific reporting': Thousands of medical papers cite Wikipedia, study says" National Post Retrieved 13 March 2014 
  46. ^ a b
    • Cohen, Noam 28 July 2009 "Has Wikipedia Created a Rorschach Cheat Sheet Analyze That - NYTimescom" The New York Times New York: NYTC ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 2 October 2013 
    • Lilienfeld, Scott 3 August 2009 "The Rorschach-Wikipedia Kerfuffle Continues" Psychology Today Retrieved 2 October 2013 
    • White, Patrick 29 July 2009 "Rorschach and Wikipedia: The battle of the inkblots - The Globe and Mail" The Globe and Mail Retrieved 2 October 2013 
    • Schultz, D S; Brabender, V M 2013 "More Challenges Since Wikipedia: The Effects of Exposure to Internet Information About the Rorschach on Selected Comprehensive System Variables" Journal of Personality Assessment 95 2: 149–158 doi:101080/002238912012725438 PMID 23030722 
  47. ^ a b Farič, Nuša; Potts, Henry WW 2014 "Motivations for Contributing to Health-Related Articles on Wikipedia: An Interview Study" Journal of Medical Internet Research 16 12: e260 doi:102196/jmir3569 ISSN 1438-8871 
  48. ^ McIver, David J; Brownstein, John S; Salathé, Marcel 17 April 2014 "Wikipedia Usage Estimates Prevalence of Influenza-Like Illness in the United States in Near Real-Time" PLoS Computational Biology 10 4: e1003581 doi:101371/journalpcbi1003581 PMC 3990502 PMID 24743682 
  49. ^ none listed 3 November 2014 "How Wikipedia Data Is Revolutionizing Flu Forecasting" MIT Technology Review Retrieved 4 November 2014 
  50. ^ Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y; Priedhorsky, Reid; Salathé, Marcel 13 November 2014 "Global Disease Monitoring and Forecasting with Wikipedia" PLoS Computational Biology 10 11: e1003892 doi:101371/journalpcbi1003892 PMC 4231164 PMID 25392913 
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  57. ^ "New Media Primer for Health Professionals" Retrieved 16 November 2013 
  58. ^ Fortinsky, KJ; Fournier, MR; Benchimol, E 2012 "Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients" Inflammatory Bowel Disease 18 6: 1156–63 doi:101002/ibd22834 PMID 22147497 

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