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Harvard University

harvard university, harvard university tuition
Harvard University is a private, Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636, whose history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities

Established originally by the Massachusetts legislature and soon thereafter named for John Harvard its first benefactor, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, and the Harvard Corporation formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College is its first chartered corporation Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites Following the American Civil War, President Charles W Eliot's long tenure 1869–1909 transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900 James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College

The University is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre 85 ha main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3 miles 5 km northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area Harvard's $376 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university The nominal cost of attendance is high, but the University's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages It operates several arts, cultural, and scientific museums, alongside the Harvard Library, which is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries with over 18 million volumes Harvard's alumni include eight US presidents, several foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 335 Rhodes Scholars, and 242 Marshall Scholars To date, some 130 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or staff

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Colonial
    • 12 19th century
    • 13 20th century
    • 14 21st century
  • 2 Campuses
    • 21 Cambridge
    • 22 Allston
    • 23 Longwood
    • 24 Other
  • 3 Organization and administration
    • 31 Governance
    • 32 Endowment
      • 321 Divestment
  • 4 Academics
    • 41 Admission
    • 42 Teaching and learning
    • 43 Research
    • 44 Libraries and museums
    • 45 University rankings
  • 5 Student life
    • 51 Student body
    • 52 Athletics
    • 53 Song
  • 6 Notable people
    • 61 Alumni
    • 62 Faculty
  • 7 Literature and popular culture
    • 71 Literature
    • 72 Film
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
    • 91 Citations
    • 92 Further reading
  • 10 External links

History

Main article: History of Harvard University

Colonial

The official seal of the Harvard Corporation Found on Harvard diplomas, it carries the University's original motto, Christo et Ecclesiae "Christ and Church", later changed to Veritas "Truth" Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere, 1767

Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony It was initially called "New College" or "the college at New Towne" In 1638, the college became home to British North America's first known printing press In 1639, the college was renamed Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, who was an alumnus of the University of Cambridge He had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 books The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650

In the early years the College trained many Puritan ministers A 1643 publication said the school's purpose was "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust" It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—​​many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—​​but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches

The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701 In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism

19th century

John Harvard statue, Harvard Yard

Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregationalist ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties:1–4 When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years later, which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas:4–5:24

In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences" Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the "official philosophy" of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school

Charles W Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person

20th century

Richard Rummell's 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast Harvard Yard as seen from Holyoke Center

During the 20th century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900

In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians"—a group later called "WASPs" White Anglo-Saxon Protestants By the 1970s it was much more diversified

James Bryant Conant president, 1933–1953 reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee its preeminence among research institutions He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth In 1943, he asked the faculty make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as the college level The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in the history of American education in the 20th century

In 1945–1960 admissions policies were opened up to bring in students from a more diverse applicant pool No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics or Asians

Harvard graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century, and during World War II, students at Radcliffe College which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women students began attending Harvard classes alongside men, The first class of women was admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945 Since the 1970s Harvard has been responsible for essentially all aspects of admission, instruction, and undergraduate life for women, and Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard in 1999

21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust, the Dean at Radcliffe, became the first female president of Harvard in 2007

Campuses

Cambridge

University seal

Harvard's 209-acre 85 ha main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles 5 km west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential Houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle commonly referred to as the Quad, which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall and library The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness

Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard, is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common

Memorial Hall Memorial Church

Between 2011 and 2013, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 104 forcible sex offenses, 55 robberies, 83 aggravated assaults, 89 burglaries, and 43 cases of motor vehicle theft

Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel

Allston

Main article: Harvard University's expansion in Allston, Massachusetts

The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre 145 ha campus in Allston, a Boston neighborhood across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus The John W Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge A ten-year plan calls for 14 million square feet 130,000 square meters of new construction and 500,000 square feet 50,000 square meters of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School; a hotel and conference center; a multipurpose institutional building; renovations to graduate student housing and to Harvard Stadium; new athletic facilities; new laboratories and classrooms for the John A Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; expansion of the Harvard Education Portal; and a district energy facility

Longwood

Main article: Longwood Medical and Academic Area

Further south, the Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre 85 ha campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area about 33 miles 53 km south of the Cambridge campus, and the same distance southwest of downtown Boston The Arnold Arboretum, in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, is also owned and operated by Harvard

Other

Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington, DC; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts; the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts and the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy Harvard also operates the Harvard Shanghai Center in China

Organization and administration

Governance

College/school Year founded
Harvard College 1636
Medicine 1782
Divinity 1816
Law 1817
Dental Medicine 1867
Arts and Sciences 1872
Business 1908
Extension 1910
Design 1914
Education 1920
Public Health 1922
Government 1936
Engineering and Applied Sciences 2007
Harvard Medical School

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College also known as the Harvard Corporation, which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University There are 16,000 staff and faculty, including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors teaching 7,200 undergraduates and 14,000 graduate students

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the Harvard Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School There are ten other graduate and professional school faculties, in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study

Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX

Endowment

Main article: Harvard University endowment

Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world As of September 2011, it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008 recession It was worth $32 billion in 2011, up from $28 billion in September 2010 and $26 billion in 2009 It suffered about 30% loss in 2008–09 In December 2008, Harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22% approximately $8 billion from July to October 2008, necessitating budget cuts Later reports suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure, a reduction of nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone Forbes in March 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $12 billion One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting of construction of the $12 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents As of 2012, Harvard University had a total financial aid reserve of $159 million for students, and a Pell Grant reserve of $4093 million available for disbursement

Divestment

Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the fossil fuel industry

During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that "operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups" However, the university did eventually reduce its South African holdings by $230 million out of $400 million in response to the pressure

Academics

Admission

Undergraduate admission to Harvard is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as "more selective, lower transfer-in" Harvard College accepted 53% of applicants for the class of 2019, a record low and the second lowest acceptance rate among all national universities Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority applicants applying to selective universities, yet for the class of 2016 an Early Action program was reintroduced

The undergraduate admissions office's preference for children of alumni policies have been the subject of scrutiny and debate as it primarily aids Caucasians and the wealthy and seems to conflict with the concept of meritocratic admissions

Teaching and learning

Massachusetts Hall 1720, Harvard's oldest building Harvard Yard

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929 The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations majors, 134 graduate degrees, and 32 professional degrees For the 2008–2009 academic year, Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate degrees, 400 master's degrees, 512 doctoral degrees, and 4,460 professional degrees

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an "arts and sciences focus" Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration Since 2008, undergraduate students have been required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World Harvard offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program and there is a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate degrees The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education

Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May Undergraduates typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered full-time In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work Students graduating in the top 4–5% of the class are awarded degrees summa cum laude, students in the next 15% of the class are awarded magna cum laude, and the next 30% of the class are awarded cum laude Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation, although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005 Moreover, the honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" will now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class

University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a "culture of cheating" In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students In 2013, there was a report that as many as 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university, and these incidents have prompted the university to consider adopting an honor code

For the 2012–13 school year annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of attendance of $57,000 Beginning 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, including room and board Families with incomes between $60,000 to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions; $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support Grants total 88% of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans 8% and work-study 4%

Research

Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and remains a research university with "very high" research activity and a "comprehensive" doctoral program across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine Research and development expenditures in 2011 totaled $6497 million, 27th among American universities

Libraries and museums

Widener Library anchors the Harvard University Library system

The Harvard University Library System is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding over 18 million volumes According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and one of the largest in the world Cabot Science Library, Lamont Library, and Widener Library are three of the most popular libraries for undergraduates to use, with easy access and central locations There are rare books, manuscripts and other special collections throughout Harvard's libraries; Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library

Henry Moore's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont Library

Harvard operates several arts, cultural, and scientific museums The Harvard Art Museums comprises three museums The Arthur M Sackler Museum includes collections of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art, covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East

University rankings

National
ARWU 1
Forbes 4
US News & World Report 2
Washington Monthly 2
Global
ARWU 1
QS 3
Times 6
US News & World Report 1

Among overall rankings, both Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU and THE World Reputation Rankings have consecutively ranked Harvard the best since the time when they were first released When QS and THE were published in partnership as the THE-QS World University Rankings during 2004-2009, Harvard had also held the top spot every year

Regarding rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both University Ranking by Academic Performance 2015-2016 and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities 2011, which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies According to the 2016 poll done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is the second most commonly named "dream college" in the United States, both for students and parents College ROI Report: Best Value Colleges by PayScale puts Harvard 22nd nationwide in the most recent 2016 edition

Student life

Demographics of student body
Undergraduate Graduate
and Professional
US Census
Asian/Pacific Islander 17% 11% 5%
Black/Non-Hispanic 6% 4% 12%
Hispanics of any race 9% 5% 16%
White/non-Hispanic 46% 43% 64%
Mixed Race/Other 10% 8% 9%
International students 11% 27% N/A

Student body

In the last six years, Harvard's student population ranged between 19,000 and 21,000, across all programs Harvard enrolled 6,655 students in undergraduate programs, 3,738 students in graduate programs, and 10,722 students in professional programs The undergraduate population is 51% female, the graduate population is 48% female, and the professional population is 49% female

Athletics

Main article: Harvard Crimson Harvard Stadium, home of Harvard Crimson and the Boston Cannons Harvard men's eight crew at Henley, 2004 The Cornell–Harvard hockey rivalry match, 2006

The Harvard Crimson competes in 42 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Ivy League Harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with Yale University culminating in The Game, although the Harvard–Yale Regatta predates the football game This rivalry, though, is put aside every two years when the Harvard and Yale Track and Field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world

Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply "The Game" While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days it won the Rose Bowl in 1920, both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp former captain of the Yale football team, suggested widening the field to open up the game But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface So, other steps had to be taken Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history

Harvard has several athletic facilities, such as the Lavietes Pavilion, a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the "MAC", serves both as the university's primary recreation facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports The five-story building includes two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held, an indoor cycling studio, three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball The MAC offers personal trainers and specialty classes It is home to Harvard volleyball, fencing and wrestling The offices of several of the school's varsity coaches are also in the MAC

Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house the women's and men's rowing teams, respectively The men's crew also uses the Red Top complex in Ledyard, Connecticut, as their training camp for the annual Harvard-Yale Regatta The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both as a home for Harvard's squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning center for all athletic sports

As of 2013, there were 42 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships

Older than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard-Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools It is held annually in June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing Today, Harvard fields top teams in several other sports, such as the Harvard Crimson men's ice hockey team with a strong rivalry against Cornell, squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003

Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989 Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win a NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990

Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game

The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson The color was unofficially adopted in preference to magenta by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president 1869–1909, bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta

Song

Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana" While "Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs, and other cheers, at football and hockey games These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song "Fight Fiercely, Harvard," which he composed while an undergraduate

Notable people

Alumni

Main articles: List of Harvard University people and Notable non-graduate alumni of Harvard

Faculty

Harvard's faculty includes scholars such as biologist E O Wilson, cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber, chemists Elias Corey, Dudley R Herschbach and George M Whitesides, computer scientists Michael O Rabin and Leslie Valiant, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand, critic Helen Vendler, historians Henry Louis Gates, Jr and Niall Ferguson, economists Amartya Sen, N Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen A Marglin, Don M Wilson III and Martin Feldstein, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Baroness Shirley Williams and Michael Sandel, Fields Medalist mathematician Shing-Tung Yau, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph Nye, and Stanley Hoffmann, scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands, astrophysicist Alyssa A Goodman, and legal scholars Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig

Past faculty members include Michael Walzer, Stephan Thernstrom, Robert Nozick, and Cornel West

Literature and popular culture

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said

Literature

  • William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury 1929 and Absalom! Absalom! 1936 depict Harvard student life
  • Of Time and the River 1935, Thomas Wolfe's fictionalized autobiography, includes his alter ego's student days at Harvard
  • The Late George Apley 1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize, by John P Marquand, parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century
  • The Second Happiest Day 1953, by John P Marquand, Jr, depicts the Harvard of the World War II generation

Film

Since 1970 Harvard's policy has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square are in fact shot elsewhere

  • Erich Segal's Love Story 1970, which concerns a romance between a wealthy hockey player Ryan O'Neal and a brilliant Radcliffe student of modest means Ali MacGraw, is screened annually for incoming freshmen
  • The Paper Chase 1973
  • Prozac Nation 2001
  • Legally Blonde 2001
  • Stealing Harvard 2002
  • The Social Network 2010

See also

  • Boston portal
  • Massachusetts portal
  • University portal
  • 2012 Harvard cheating scandal
  • Academic regalia of Harvard University
  • Gore Hall
  • Harvard College
  • Harvard University Police Department
  • Harvard University Press
  • Harvard/MIT Cooperative Society, campus bookstore
  • I, Too, Am Harvard
  • List of universities by number of billionaire alumni
  • Outline of Harvard University
  • Secret Court of 1920

References

Citations

  1. ^ Harvard's Veritas appears on the university's arms; heraldically speaking, however, a 'motto' is a word or phrase displayed on a scroll in conjunction with a shield of arms Since 1692 University seals have borne Christo et Ecclesiae for Christ and the Church in this manner, arguably making that phrase the university's motto in a heraldic sense This legend is otherwise not in general use today
  2. ^ An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 OS, at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28 Some sources consider October 28, 1636 OS November 7, 1636 NS to be the date of founding Harvard's 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836 Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah 1860 History of Harvard University 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co , p 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month October, 1636 the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year" Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday" Time September 28, 1936 Retrieved September 8, 2006 : "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding This was Sept 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct 28, 1636 £400 for that 'school or college' the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony" Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower September 2, 2003 "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History" Harvard University Retrieved September 15, 2006 , "Sept 8, 1836 - Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard" guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr, Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836"
  3. ^ a b c "Harvard at a Glance" Harvard University Retrieved November 2, 2015 
  4. ^ Office of Institutional Research 2009 "Faculty" Harvard University Fact Book PDF  "Unduplicated, Paid Instructional Faculty Count: 2,107 Unduplicated instructional faculty count is the most appropriate count for general reporting purposes"
  5. ^ a b c As of 1 September 2014 "Harvard at a Glance" Harvard University Retrieved November 27, 2014 
  6. ^ Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis 2001 Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University Oxford University Press pp 463–481 ISBN 0-19-514457-0 Harvard's professional schools won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes 
  7. ^ Spaulding, Christina 1989 "Sexual Shakedown" In Trumpbour, John How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire South End Press pp 326–336 ISBN 0-89608-284-9 tremendous institutional power and prestige Within the nation's arguably most prestigious institution of higher learning  
  8. ^ David Altaner March 9, 2011 "Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports" Bloomberg Retrieved March 1, 2012 
  9. ^ Collier's Encyclopedia Macmillan Educational Co 1986 Harvard University, one of the world's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636 
  10. ^ Newport, Frank "Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place" Gallup 
  11. ^ "ARWU - Harvard University" Shanghai Ranking Consultancy 2015 Retrieved September 3, 2015 
  12. ^ "The Week in Review: Harvard Ends Early Admissions and Guess Who Wins" The New York Times September 17, 2006 The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated 
  13. ^ Rudolph, Frederick 1961 The American College and University University of Georgia Press p 3 ISBN 0-8203-1285-1 
  14. ^ Story, Ronald 1975 "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865" Journal of Social History 8 3: 94–121 doi:101353/jsh/8394 
  15. ^ Farrell, Betty G 1993 Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston State University of New York Press ISBN 0-7914-1593-7 
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  17. ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions" PDF Office of the Provost, Harvard University Retrieved August 27, 2010 
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  19. ^ a b c d e f "Carnegie Classifications - Harvard University" The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  20. ^ a b Rimer, Sara; Finder, Alan December 10, 2007 "Harvard Steps Up Financial Aid" The New York Times 
  21. ^ a b "Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013" Harvard University Library 2013 Retrieved January 3, 2015 
  22. ^ a b c "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held" American Library Association May 2009 Retrieved August 19, 2009 
  23. ^ "Speaking Volumes" Harvard Gazette The President and Fellows of Harvard College February 26, 1998 
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  25. ^ Janhavi Kumar Sapra August 11, 2010 "Billionaire Universities" Forbes Retrieved August 31, 2010 
  26. ^ http://wwwmarshallscholarshiporg/about/statistics
  27. ^ "The complete list of Fields Medal winners" areppim AG 2014 Retrieved September 10, 2015 
  28. ^ "The instrument behind New England's first literary flowering" Harvard University Retrieved January 18, 2014 
  29. ^ "Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press" PDF Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull Retrieved January 18, 2014 
  30. ^ "John Harvard Facts, Information" The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2008 Retrieved July 17, 2009 He bequeathed £780 half his estate and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass, which was named in his honor 
  31. ^ Grigg, John A; Mancall, Peter C 2008 British Colonial America: People and Perspectives ABC-CLIO p 47 ISBN 978-1-59884-025-4 
  32. ^ Wright, Louis B 2002 The Cultural Life of the American Colonies p 116 ISBN 978-0-486-42223-7 
  33. ^ Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs July 26, 2007 "Harvard guide intro" Harvard University Archived from the original on July 26, 2007 Retrieved August 29, 2010 
  34. ^ a b Gary J Dorrien The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805-1900, Volume 1 Westminster John Knox Press, 2001
  35. ^ Peter S Field Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 ISBN 978-0847688425
  36. ^ Nartonis, David K 2005 "Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795–1846" Journal of the History of Ideas 66 3: 437–449 doi:101353/jhi20050045 JSTOR 3654189 
  37. ^ Shoemaker, Stephen P 2006–2007 "The Theological Roots of Charles W Eliot's Educational Reforms" Journal of Unitarian Universalist History 31: 30–45 
  38. ^ "Arader Galleries Iconic College Views", Rummell, Richard, Littig & Co 1915
  39. ^ Jerome Karabel 2006 The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton p 23 
  40. ^ Anita Fay Kravitz, "The Harvard Report of 1945: An historical ethnography", PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994, 367 pages; AAT 9427558
  41. ^ Malka A Older 1996 Preparatory schools and the admissions process The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996
  42. ^ Schwager, Sally 2004 "Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe" In Laurel Thatcher Ulrich ed Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History New York: Palgrave Macmillan p 115 ISBN 1-4039-6098-4 
  43. ^ First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School, 1945 Report Countway Repository, Harvard University Library Retrieved May 2, 2016 
  44. ^ Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard Report Retrieved May 6, 2016 
  45. ^ Alan Finder; Patrick D Healy; Kate Zernicke February 22, 2006 "President of Harvard Resigns, Ending Stormy 5-Year Tenure" The New York Times Retrieved August 8, 2015 
  46. ^ Associated Press February 11, 2007 "Harvard Board Names First Woman President" NBC News Retrieved August 8, 2015 
  47. ^ Biography in the Exeter Bulletin Archived June 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard President and Fellows of Harvard College 2016 Retrieved October 10, 2016
  49. ^ "Appendix 1 — Cambridge Campus Clery Act Criminal Statistics" PDF Harvard University Police Department Retrieved August 29, 2015 
  50. ^ Institutional Ownership Map - Cambridge Massachusetts
  51. ^ Harvard Purchases Doubletree Hotel Building
  52. ^ Harvard continues its march into Allston, with science complex Tim Logan Boston Globe April 14, 2016 Retrieved September 30, 2016
  53. ^ "Allston Planning and Development / Office of the Executive Vice President" Harvard University Retrieved 7 Sep 2016 
  54. ^ Harvard unveils big campus expansion Svea Herbst-Bayliss Reuters January 12, 2007 Retrieved September 30, 2016
  55. ^ http://wwwoebharvardedu/cfs/
  56. ^ "Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies" Itattiit Retrieved June 30, 2010 
  57. ^ http://shanghaicenterharvardedu/
  58. ^ Bethell, John T; Hunt, Richard M; Shenton, Robert 2009 Harvard A to Z Harvard University Press pp 166– ISBN 978-0-674-02089-4 
  59. ^ Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Press
  60. ^ Office of Institutional Research 2009 Harvard University Fact Book 2009–2010 PDF  "Faculty"
  61. ^ Harvard University 2010 Financial Report, Fiscal Year 2010 PDF  p 20
  62. ^ "Harvard Endowment Rises $44 Billion to $32 Billion" Harvard Magazine November–December 2011 Retrieved December 13, 2011 
  63. ^ "US and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" PDF National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute Retrieved January 29, 2014 
  64. ^ Beth Healy January 28, 2010 "Harvard endowment leads others down" The Boston Globe Retrieved September 2, 2010 
  65. ^ Hechinger, John December 4, 2008 "Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges" Wall Street Journal p A1 
  66. ^ a b Munk, Nina August 2009 "Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard" Vanity Fair Retrieved August 29, 2010 
  67. ^ Andrew M Rosenfield March 4, 2009 "Understanding Endowments, Part I" Forbes Retrieved August 29, 2010 
  68. ^ Vidya B Viswanathan and Peter F Zhu March 5, 2009 "Residents Protest Vacancies in Allston" Harvard Crimson Retrieved February 10, 2011 
  69. ^ Locate Colleges Harvard University
  70. ^ Alli Welton November 20, 2012 "Harvard Students Vote 72 Percent Support for Fossil Fuel Divestment" The Nation Retrieved July 27, 2015 
  71. ^ a b Michael C George; David W Kaufman May 23, 2012 "Students Protest Investment in Apartheid South Africa" The Harvard Crimson Retrieved July 27, 2015 
  72. ^ Anjali Cadambi September 19, 2010 "Harvard University community campaigns for divestment from apartheid South Africa, 1977-1989" Global Nonviolent Action Database Retrieved July 27, 2015 
  73. ^ John Trumpbour 1989 How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire South End Press pp 402–418 ISBN 978-0-89608-283-0 
  74. ^ Robert Anthony Waters Jr March 20, 2009 Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations Scarecrow Press p 77 ISBN 978-0-8108-6291-3 
  75. ^ "Stanford offers admission to 2,144 students, expands financial aid program" Retrieved July 10, 2015 
  76. ^ Yaqhubi, Zohra D "Harvard College Accepts Record Low of 58 Percent to the Class of 2017 | News | The Harvard Crimson" Thecrimsoncom Retrieved July 5, 2013 
  77. ^ Finder, Alan; Arenson, Karen W September 12, 2006 "Harvard Ends Early Admission" The New York Times 
  78. ^ Golden, Daniel January 15, 2003 "Admissions Preferences Given to Alumni Children Draws Fire" The Wall Street Journal 
  79. ^ Golden, Daniel 2006 The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges—and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates ISBN 1-4000-9796-7 
  80. ^ Harvard College "A Brief History of Harvard College" Harvard College Retrieved July 25, 2011 
  81. ^ "Roster of Institutions" Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  82. ^ "Fields of Concentration" Handbook for Students Harvard College Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  83. ^ "Degree Programs" PDF Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook pp 28–30 Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  84. ^ a b "Degrees Conferred by Program: Academic Year 2008–2009" PDF Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, Harvard University Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  85. ^ "Academic Information: The Core Curriculum Requirement" Handbook for Students Harvard College Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  86. ^ "Academic Information: Program in General Education Requirement" Handbook for Students Harvard College Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  87. ^ Hicks, D L September 20, 2002 "Should Our Colleges Be Ranked" The New York Times 
  88. ^ Merrow, J 2004 "Grade Inflation: It's Not Just an Issue for the Ivy League" Carnegie Perspectives The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching 
  89. ^ "5 Year Academic Calendar" Harvard University Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  90. ^ "Academic Information: Rate of Work" Handbook for Students Harvard College Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  91. ^ "Academic Information: The Concentration Requirement" Handbook for Students Harvard College Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  92. ^ "Academic Information: Requirements for Honors Degrees" Handbook for Students Harvard College Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  93. ^ "Prizes" Faculty of Arts & Sciences Harvard University 2010 
  94. ^ Primack, Phil October 5, 2008 "Doesn't Anybody Get a C Anymore" The Boston Globe 
  95. ^ Kohn, A November 8, 2002 "The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation" The Chronicle of Higher Education 
  96. ^ No author given 2003 Brevia Harvard Magazine, January–February 2003
  97. ^ Milzoff, R M, Paley, A R, & Reed, B J 2001 Grade Inflation is Real Fifteen Minutes March 1, 2001
  98. ^ Bombardieri, M & Schweitzer, S 2006 "At Harvard, more concern for top grades" The Boston Globe, February 12, 2006 p B3 Benedict Gross quotes, 237% A/25% A- figures, characterized as an "all-time high"
  99. ^ Associated Press 2004 Princeton becomes first to formally combat grade inflation USA Today, April 26, 2004
  100. ^ Davis, Kevin S February 15, 1994 "How Does Harvard Define Cheating" The Harvard Crimson, Retrieved September 15, 2013 Cheating incidences that appear before the Ad Board almost always result in requirement to withdraw by the student 
  101. ^ Curry, Coleen August 31, 2012 "Harvard Students Accused of Cheating on Final Exam Reflects 'Culture of Cheating,' Grad Says" ABC News Retrieved September 15, 2013 
  102. ^ a b Hu, Melody Y; Newcomer, Eric P March 24, 2010 "Administrators Discuss College Honor Code" The Harvard Crimson Retrieved September 15, 2013 "one thing remains certain: many College administrators are looking for a way to combat academic dishonesty at Harvard—which Harris recently called a real problem" 
  103. ^ Perez-Pena, Richard February 1, 2013 "Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal" The New York Times Retrieved September 15, 2013 
  104. ^ Moya-Smith, Simon September 6, 2013 "Survey: 42 percent of Harvard's incoming freshman class cheated on homework" NBC News Retrieved September 6, 2013 
  105. ^ Harrington, Rebecca September 14, 2012 "Song of the Cheaters" The New York Times Retrieved September 15, 2013 "an honor code, a system Harvard has long resisted 
  106. ^ "Harvard University Tuition And Costs" Retrieved November 22, 2013 
  107. ^ "Tuition at Harvard Schools: FY1990 – FY2010" PDF Harvard University Retrieved August 28, 2010 
  108. ^ "Member Institutions and Years of Admission" Association of American Universities Retrieved September 15, 2013 
  109. ^ "Table 14: Higher education R&D expenditures, ranked by all R&D expenditures, by source of funds: FY 2011" PDF National Science Foundation 2011 Retrieved September 15, 2013 
  110. ^ See the library portal listing of archives and special collections Harvard Libraries : Archives and Special Collections Listed Alphabetically by Name
  111. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016: USA" Shanghai Ranking Consultancy Retrieved August 16, 2016 
  112. ^ "America's Top Colleges" Forbes July 5, 2016 
  113. ^ "Best Colleges 2017: National Universities Rankings" US News & World Report September 12, 2016 
  114. ^ "2016 Rankings - National Universities" Washington Monthly Retrieved September 6, 2016 
  115. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016" Shanghai Ranking Consultancy 2016 Retrieved August 16, 2016 
  116. ^ "QS World University Rankings® 2016/17" Quacquarelli Symonds Limited 2016 Retrieved September 6, 2016 
  117. ^ "World University Rankings 2016-17" THE Education Ltd Retrieved September 21, 2016 
  118. ^ "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2017" US News & World Report LP Retrieved October 25, 2016 
  119. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities——Harvard University Ranking Profile" Shanghai Ranking Consultancy Retrieved September 7, 2016 
  120. ^ "World Reputation Rankings 2016" Times Higher Education 2016 Retrieved September 7, 2016 
  121. ^ Ted Nesi October 9, 2009 "Brown slips in world university rankings" Providence Business News Retrieved August 31, 2010 
  122. ^ "2015-2016 WORLD RANKING 1-250" University Ranking by Academic Performance URAP Research Laboratory 2015 Retrieved September 7, 2016 
  123. ^ "College Hopes & Worries Press Release" PR Newswire 2016 Retrieved September 7, 2016 
  124. ^ "College ROI Report: Best Value Colleges" PayScale 2016 Retrieved September 7, 2016 
  125. ^ a b c "Degree Student Head Count: Fall 2010" PDF Harvard University Retrieved March 11, 2013 
  126. ^ See Demographics of the United States for references
  127. ^ "Fall Headcount Enrollment, 2008-2012" PDF The Office of the Provost Retrieved December 16, 2013 
  128. ^ http://wwwprovostharvardedu/institutional_research/Provost_-_Harvard_Fact_Book_2009-10_FINAL_newpdf
  129. ^ "Yale and Harvard Defeat Oxford/Cambridge Team" Yale University Athletics Retrieved September 13, 2011 
  130. ^ "History of American Football" Newsdialcom Retrieved August 29, 2010 
  131. ^ Nelson, David M, Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game, 1994, pp 127–128
  132. ^ "Harvard : Women's Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University" Gocrimsoncom August 9, 2012 Retrieved July 5, 2013 
  133. ^ "The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard" Harvard University September 2, 2006 Archived from the original on September 2, 2006 Retrieved August 29, 2010 
  134. ^ Thomas, Sarah September 24, 2010 "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role" Bostoncom ‘In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston can get this idea that it’s all trust fund babies and ivy-covered walls’ 
  135. ^ King, Michael 2002 Wrestling with the Angel p 371 praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP-ish class 
  136. ^ Halberstam, Michael J February 18, 1953 "White Shoe and Weak Will" Harvard Crimson The book is written slickly, but without distinction The book will be quick, enjoyable reading for all Harvard men 
  137. ^ Yardley, Jonathan December 23, 2009 "Second Reading" The Washington Post  'a balanced and impressive novel' a judgment with which I  
  138. ^ Du Bois, William February 1, 1953 "Out of a Jitter-and-Fritter World" The New York Times p BR5 exhibits Mr Phillips' talent at its finest 
  139. ^ "John Phillips, The Second Happiest Day" Southwest Review 38 p 267 So when the critics say the author of "The Second Happiest Day" is a new Fitzgerald, we think they may be right 
  140. ^ Schwartz, Nathaniel L September 21, 1999 "University, Hollywood Relationship Not Always a 'Love Story'" Harvard Crimson Retrieved September 15, 2013 
  141. ^ Sarah Thomas September 24, 2010 "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role" bostoncom 
  142. ^ "Never Having To Say You're Sorry for 25 Years" Harvard Crimson June 3, 1996 Retrieved September 15, 2013 
  143. ^ Vinciguerra, Thomas August 20, 2010 "The Disease: Fatal The Treatment: Mockery" The New York Times 
  144. ^ Gewertz, Ken February 8, 1996 "A Many-Splendored 'Love Story' Movie filmed at Harvard 25 years ago helped to define a generation" Harvard University Gazette 
  145. ^ Walsh, Colleen October 2, 2012 "The Paper Chase at 40" Harvard Gazette 

Further reading

  • Abelmann, Walter H, ed The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995 2004 346 pp
  • Beecher, Henry K and Altschule, Mark D Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years 1977 569 pp
  • Bentinck-Smith, William, ed The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries 2d ed1982 499 pp
  • Bethell, John T; Hunt, Richard M; and Shenton, Robert Harvard A to Z 2004 396 pp excerpt and text search
  • Bethell, John T Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-674-37733-8
  • Bunting, Bainbridge Harvard: An Architectural History 1985 350 pp
  • Carpenter, Kenneth E The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition 1986 216 pp
  • Cuno, James et al Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting 1996 364 pp
  • Elliott, Clark A and Rossiter, Margaret W, eds Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives 1992 380 pp
  • Hall, Max Harvard University Press: A History 1986 257 pp
  • Hay, Ida Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum 1995 349 pp
  • Hoerr, John, We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard; Temple University Press, 1997, ISBN 1-56639-535-6
  • Howells, Dorothy Elia A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979 1978 152 pp
  • Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University 2001, major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition
  • Lewis, Harry R Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education 2006 ISBN 1-58648-393-5
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936 1986 512pp; excerpt and text search
  • Powell, Arthur G The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority 1980 341 pp
  • Reid, Robert Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School 1994 331 pp
  • Rosovsky, Henry The University: An Owner's Manual 1991 312 pp
  • Rosovsky, Nitza The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe 1986 108 pp
  • Seligman, Joel The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School 1978 262 pp
  • Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A, eds Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe 1993 548 pp
  • Trumpbour, John, ed, How Harvard Rules Reason in the Service of Empire, Boston: South End Press, 1989, ISBN 0-89608-283-0
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed, Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004 337 pp
  • Winsor, Mary P Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum 1991 324 pp
  • Wright, Conrad Edick Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence 2005 298 pp

External links

  • Official website
  • Harvard Athletics website
  • Harvard University at National Center for Education Statistics: College Navigator

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