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Harney County, Oregon

harney county oregon assessor's office, harney county oregon fire lookout towers
Harney County is a county located in the US state of Oregon As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,422,1 making it the fifth-least populous county in Oregon The county seat is Burns2 Established in 1889, the county is named in honor of William S Harney, a military officer of the period, who was involved in the Pig War and popular in the Pacific Northwest

Harney County is a rural county in southeastern Oregon34 It is a five hours' drive from Portland, Oregon3 The county is bordered by Grant County to the north, Malheur County to the east; the State of Nevada to the south; and Lake, Deschutes, and Crook counties to the west4

At 10,228 square miles 26,490 km2 in size, the county is the largest in Oregon, and one of the largest in the United States34 The county is sparsely populated, with a population of about 7,7003 The county has just two incorporated cities: Burns, the county seat and larger city, with 40 percent of the population, and Hines, with 20 percent of the county's population4 About 75 percent of the county's area is federal land,3 variously managed by the Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and US Forest Service5 About 10 percent of Harney County's area is part of the Ochoco National Forest and Malheur National Forest3 The county also contains the Burns Paiute Indian Reservation within and immediately north of the City of Burns; this 760-acres reservation of the Burns Paiute Tribe is a remnant of the former Malheur Indian Reservation, a 15-million-acre federal trust land that was encroached upon by white settlement in the 19th century456

Harney County has a "high desert" topography, with low levels of precipitation3 About 500 ranches and farms producing cattle, dairy products and hay operate within the county; in the county, cattle outnumber people 14-to-13 Besides ranching and farming, forestry are important industries in the county4

The county is of ecological as well as recreational importance Along with neighboring Grant County, Harney County has the nation's largest Ponderosa pine forest4 The county was also a focus of recent efforts to conserve the sage grouse; in 2014, Harney County ranchers signed 30-year agreements with the federal government to protect the sage grouse3 Visitors are attracted to the county for its hunting, fishing, and camping activities4

According to the website of the Harney County Sheriff's Office, the sheriff has a staff of six law enforcement officers7not in citation given Burns has a separate police department but, as of 2008, did not employ enough officers to provide "24-hour" coverage8

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 2016 militia occupation
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Adjacent counties
    • 22 Time Zones
    • 23 National protected areas
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 2000 census
    • 32 2010 census
  • 4 Politics
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Communities
    • 61 Cities
    • 62 Census-designated place
    • 63 Unincorporated communities
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Footnotes
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

Historyedit

The Native Americans living in this region at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition were the Northern Paiute, who fought with the Tenino and Wasco peoples Peter Skene Ogden was the first known European to explore this area in 1826 when he led a fur brigade for the Hudson's Bay Company

Harney County was carved out of the southern two-thirds of Grant County on February 25, 1889 A fierce political battle, with armed "night riders" who spirited county records from Harney to Burns, ended with Burns as the county seat in 1890

The Malheur River Indian Reservation was created by executive order on March 14, 1871, and the Northern Paiute within the Oregon state boundaries were settled there The federal government "discontinued" the reservation after the Bannock War of 1878 Descendants of these people form a federally recognized tribal entity, the Burns Paiute Tribe, which had 341 members in 20089 Fewer than 355% of the tribal members live on the Burns Paiute Indian Colony near Burns9 The tribe formerly earned revenue from a small casino, the Old Camp Casino, before its closure in 2012, and renting out communal tribal lands for grazing rights to local ranchers

2016 militia occupationedit

Main article: Occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

On January 2, 2016, the headquarters building of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge was seized by armed protesters related to the Bundy standoff10 The group protested the prison sentences of two ranchers convicted of arson in wildfires set in 2001 and 2006, which the ranchers claimed spread from their land into the wildlife reserve11 Militia leaders, including Ammon Bundy and Jon Ritzheimer, were arrested on January 26, 2016, in an event that included the shooting of militant LaVoy Finicum12 The following day, only four militants remained, and they surrendered on February 11, 201613

Geographyedit

Sign welcoming drivers to Harney County Harney County has a population of less than 8,000 occupying a land area about two-thirds the size of Denmark, shown in this overlay

According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,226 square miles 26,490 km2, of which 10,133 square miles 26,240 km2 is land and 93 square miles 240 km2 09% is water14 It is the largest county in Oregon by area and the tenth-largest county in the United States excluding boroughs and census areas in Alaska

Steens Mountain is the county's most prominent geographical feature, rising 9,700 feet 3,000 m above sea level and spanning many miles across a region that is otherwise fairly flat To its southeast is the Alvord Desert—the driest place in Oregon15—and the Trout Creek Mountains, which extend south into Nevada South of Steens Mountain, the Pueblo Mountains are another remote range in Oregon and Nevada North of Steens Mountain lies the Harney Basin, which contains Malheur Lake and Harney Lake

Adjacent countiesedit

  • Grant County - north
  • Malheur County - east/Mountain Time Border
  • Humboldt County, Nevada - south
  • Washoe County, Nevada - southwest
  • Lake County - west
  • Deschutes County - northwest
  • Crook County - northwest

Time Zonesedit

Further information: Time in Oregon

Although the county is officially in the Pacific Time Zone, unincorporated Drewsey, just west of the Malheur County line unofficially observes the Mountain Time Zone

National protected areasedit

  • Malheur National Forest part
  • Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
  • Ochoco National Forest part

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1890 2,559
1900 2,598 15%
1910 4,059 562%
1920 3,992 −17%
1930 5,920 483%
1940 5,374 −92%
1950 6,113 138%
1960 6,744 103%
1970 7,215 70%
1980 8,314 152%
1990 7,060 −151%
2000 7,609 78%
2010 7,422 −25%
Est 2016 7,292 −18%
US Decennial Census17
1790-196018 1900-199019
1990-200020 2010-20161

2000 censusedit

As of the census21 of 2000, there were 7,609 people, 3,036 households, and 2,094 families residing in the county The population density was 1 people per square mile 0/km² There were 3,533 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile 0/km² The racial makeup of the county was 9193% White, 397% Native American, 051% Asian, 013% Black or African American, 007% Pacific Islander, 130% from other races, and 209% from two or more races 415% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race 211% were of German, 111% American, 103% Irish and 97% English ancestry

There is a small, but significant Spanish Basque community22

Approximately 75% of the population of Harney County lives in the Burns-Hines municipal district Crane is the only other localised population center, with less than 7% of the population of Harney County Lawen and Riley have no localised populations The remaining population of Harney County is dispersed throughout the countryside, mostly dwelling on large ranches

There were 3,036 households out of which 2940% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 5800% were married couples living together, 680% had a female householder with no husband present, and 3100% were non-families 2590% of all households were made up of individuals and 1020% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 245 and the average family size was 294

In the county, the population was spread out with 2600% under the age of 18, 640% from 18 to 24, 2660% from 25 to 44, 2610% from 45 to 64, and 1500% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 40 years For every 100 females there were 10290 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 9820 males

The median income for a household in the county was $30,957, and the median income for a family was $36,917 Males had a median income of $27,386 versus $21,773 for females The per capita income for the county was $16,159 About 860% of families and 1180% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1270% of those under age 18 and 1390% of those age 65 or over

2010 censusedit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,422 people, 3,205 households, and 2,069 families residing in the county23 The population density was 07 inhabitants per square mile 027/km2 There were 3,835 housing units at an average density of 04 per square mile 015/km224 The racial makeup of the county was 919% white, 31% American Indian, 05% Asian, 03% black or African American, 13% from other races, and 30% from two or more races Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 40% of the population23 In terms of ancestry, 287% were German, 186% were English, 150% were Irish, 67% were Scottish, 51% were Dutch, and 45% were American25

Of the 3,205 households, 264% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 520% were married couples living together, 88% had a female householder with no husband present, 354% were non-families, and 300% of all households were made up of individuals The average household size was 228 and the average family size was 281 The median age was 452 years23

The median income for a household in the county was $39,036 and the median income for a family was $46,626 Males had a median income of $40,218 versus $31,046 for females The per capita income for the county was $20,849 About 141% of families and 185% of the population were below the poverty line, including 275% of those under age 18 and 92% of those age 65 or over26

Politicsedit

Presidential Elections Results27
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 733% 2,912 172% 683 95% 379
2012 728% 2,607 232% 832 40% 144
2008 705% 2,595 258% 950 38% 138
2004 760% 2,815 227% 839 13% 48
2000 750% 2,799 205% 766 45% 169
1996 554% 1,948 279% 980 167% 587
1992 400% 1,350 289% 973 311% 1,049
1988 551% 1,833 414% 1,379 35% 118
1984 626% 2,197 367% 1,290 07% 25
1980 611% 2,313 293% 1,110 96% 362
1976 485% 1,652 460% 1,567 55% 188
1972 591% 1,693 351% 1,004 58% 166
1968 566% 1,617 363% 1,036 72% 205
1964 425% 1,172 572% 1,577 04% 10
1960 544% 1,464 453% 1,220 03% 7
1956 555% 1,512 445% 1,212 00% 0
1952 582% 1,378 416% 983 02% 5
1948 483% 784 494% 802 23% 38
1944 439% 787 556% 997 06% 10
1940 427% 912 568% 1,214 05% 10
1936 281% 546 651% 1,262 68% 132
1932 332% 687 617% 1,276 51% 105
1928 606% 952 382% 600 12% 19
1924 538% 851 276% 436 186% 294
1920 633% 1,026 295% 479 72% 117
1916 375% 872 533% 1,239 92% 213
1912 306% 377 437% 538 257% 317
1908 524% 450 383% 329 93% 80
1904 584% 395 281% 190 136% 92

Like all counties in eastern Oregon, the majority of registered voters who are part of a political party in Harney County are members of the Republican Party In the 2008 presidential election 7045% of Harney County voters voted for Republican John McCain, while 2579% voted for Democrat Barack Obama and 373% of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate28 These numbers show a slight shift towards the Democratic candidate when compared to the 2004 presidential election, in which 76% of Harney Country voters voted for George W Bush, while 227% voted for John Kerry, and 13% of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate29

30

Economyedit

Three industries have traditionally provided the county's economic base: ranching, sheep raising, and timber The railroad, which extended into the area in 1883, served as a catalyst to the cattle industry but later contributed to its decline By bringing farmers and sheep men to the area, it created increased competition for productive land Harvesting and breeding of wild horses was lucrative for a period Harney County shares the largest Ponderosa Pine forest in the nation with Grant County Its abundance of game, numerous campsites and excellent fishing have stimulated fast-growing recreational activities

Although county lands were open to homesteading from 1862 to 1934, the US Bureau of Land Management still owns more than 3 million acres 12,000 km2, or 62%, of the lands within the county boundaries Facilitated on the national level by the Carey act of 1894, arid land in Harney County was donated to the state for irrigation and settlement, but all water development efforts failed

Eventually all land claims filed under the reclamation legislation were abandoned or nullified Malheur National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1908 and expanded in 1936 The refuge now includes 159,872 acres 64698 km2 Borax has been mined in the Steens area, and uranium has been found on its south side

Communitiesedit

Citiesedit

  • Burns county seat
  • Hines

Census-designated placeedit

  • Crane

Unincorporated communitiesedit

  • Andrews
  • Blitzen
  • Buchanan
  • Denio
  • Diamond
  • Drewsey
  • Dunnean
  • Fields
  • Frenchglen
  • Frost Mill
  • Harney
  • Indian Village
  • Lawen
  • Narrows
  • New Princeton
  • Riley
  • Suntex
  • Trout Creek
  • Van
  • Venator
  • Voltage
  • Wagontire
  • Whitehorse Ranch

See alsoedit

  • Oregon portal
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Harney County, Oregon

Footnotesedit

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts" United States Census Bureau Retrieved November 15, 2013 
  2. ^ "Find a County" National Association of Counties Retrieved June 7, 2011 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Noelle Crombie, >Where is Burns Harney County home to more cattle than people, The Oregonian/OregonLive January 3, 2016
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Harney County Transportation System Plan: Revised Final Draft, Harney County Planning Department June 2001, pp 9-10
  5. ^ a b Harney County with Townships 85 x 11, Harney County GIS, Harney County/Bureau of Land Management
  6. ^ Steve Russell, Bundy Militia Musters Again Over Paiute Land, Indian Country Today Media Network January 3, 2016
  7. ^ "Sheriff" coharneyorus Harney County, Oregon Retrieved January 3, 2016 
  8. ^ Brown, Lauren February 20, 2008 "Burns, Hines set to share police chief" Burns Times-Herald Retrieved January 3, 2016 
  9. ^ a b "Wadatika Today" Burns Paiute Tribe September 15, 2008 Retrieved April 8, 2013 
  10. ^ Zaitz, Les "Militia takes over Malheur National Wildlife Refuge headquarters" Oregonlive The Oregonian Retrieved 3 January 2016 
  11. ^ "Eastern Oregon Ranchers Convicted of Arson Resentenced to Five Years in Prison" United States Department of Justice US Department of Justice Retrieved 7 October 2015 
  12. ^ Johnson, Alex; Blankstein, Andrew January 26, 2016 "Oregon Occupation Leaders Ammon and Ryan Bundy Arrested, One Dead" NBC News Retrieved January 26, 2016 
  13. ^ Smith, Alexander; Erik, Ortiz February 11, 2016 "Four Remaining Oregon Occupiers, Surrounded by FBI, Surrender" NBC News New York: NBC Retrieved February 11, 2016 
  14. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files" United States Census Bureau August 22, 2012 Retrieved February 25, 2015 
  15. ^ Lorain, Douglas 2011 100 Classic Hikes in Oregon Second ed Seattle, Washington: The Mountaineers Books p 239 ISBN 978-1-59485-492-7 
  16. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  17. ^ "US Decennial Census" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 25, 2015 
  18. ^ "Historical Census Browser" University of Virginia Library Retrieved February 25, 2015 
  19. ^ Forstall, Richard L, ed March 27, 1995 "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 25, 2015 
  20. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4 Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" PDF United States Census Bureau April 2, 2001 Retrieved February 25, 2015 
  21. ^ "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved January 31, 2008 
  22. ^ Etulain, Richard W "Basques" The Oregon Encyclopedia Portland State University Retrieved May 21, 2014 
  23. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  24. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  25. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  26. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  27. ^ http://uselectionatlasorg/RESULTS
  28. ^ "Harney County, Oregon, General Election – Official Results" PDF Harney County November 4, 2008 Retrieved April 21, 2009 
  29. ^ http://wwwcity-datacom/county/Harney_County-ORhtml Retrieved on 4/21/09
  30. ^ "Voter Registration by County: March 2009" PDF Oregon Secretary of State April 10, 2009 p 1 Retrieved September 22, 2014 

Further readingedit

  • George Francis Brimlow, Harney County, Oregon, and Its Range Land Burns, OR: Gail Graphics, 1980
  • Dorsey Griffin, Starting at the Narrows: A History of Harney County, Oregon Netarts, OR: Griffin Press, 1990
  • Harney County Chamber of Commerce, A Lively Little History of Harney County: A Centennial Souvenir Album, 1889-1989 Burns, OR : Harney County Chamber of Commerce, 1989
  • Harney County Historical Society, Harney County Historical Highlights Burns, OR: Harney County Historical Society & Museum, 1997 —Periodical
  • Royal G Jackson and Jennifer A Lee, Harney County: An Historical Inventory Burns, OR: Harney County Historical Society, 1978
  • Margaret Justine Lo Piccolo, Some Aspects of the Range Cattle Industry of Harney County, Oregon, 1870-1900 MA thesis University of Oregon, 1962
  • Karen Nitz and Claire McGill Luce, Harney County San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Pub, 2008
  • Peter K Simpson, The Community of Cattlemen: A Social History of the Cattle Industry in Southeastern Oregon, 1869-1912 Moscow, D: University of Idaho Press, 1987
  • An Illustrated History of Baker, Grant, Malheur and Harney Counties, with a Brief Outline of the Early History of the State of Oregon Chicago: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1902

External linksedit

Media related to Harney County, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 43°04′N 118°58′W / 4307°N 11897°W / 4307; -11897

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