Gunther E. Rothenberg


Gunther Erich Rothenberg 11 July 1923 – 26 April 2004 was an internationally known military historian, best known for his publications on the Habsburg military and Napoleonic Wars He had a fifteen-year military career, as a British Army soldier in World War II, a Haganah officer in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and in the United States Air Force during the Korean War

Contents

  • 1 Escape from Nazi Germany and military service
  • 2 Education and career
  • 3 Legacy
  • 4 Personal life and family
  • 5 Publications
    • 51 Books
    • 52 Journal articles
  • 6 Citations
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Escape from Nazi Germany and military serviceedit

Gunther Erich Rothenberg was born in Berlin His family was a culturally assimilated German Jewish family5 In 1937, Rothenberg moved to the Netherlands with his mother; his father later joined them6 The family moved next to Britain, where Rothenberg had some schooling5 In 1939, he moved to Mandatory Palestine, then under British rule There he joined the Zionist movement and Hashomer Hatzair The Youth Guard, a Socialist-Zionist youth movement He retained his passion for a Jewish homeland throughout his life6

On 13 July 1941, his parents emigrated to the United States on the Villa de Madrid, an overcrowded ocean-liner that left Barcelona on 20 June7 His father, Erich Joseph Rothenberg, was an importer, and both his parents spoke English, Hebrew, French, and German Their visas, issued in Lisbon, Portugal, claimed Cuban citizenship8 At the age of 57, his father registered for the fourth draft in 1942, listing his residence as New York City, and his next of kin as his wife, Lotte9

In 1941, Gunther Rothenberg volunteered for the British army, serving in an all-Jewish unit He was wounded in North Africa10 He transferred from the Royal Army Service Corps to the Intelligence Corps and fought with the Eighth Army He served in the Italian campaign, in the Yugoslav war of liberation and in Austria6 His service continued in the occupation of Austria until 1946 He was a civilian employee of US Intelligence 1946-19481 Rothenberg returned to Palestine and joined the Haganah for Israel's War of Independence11 He rose to the rank of captain in the Israel Defense Forces6

By 1948, Rothenberg's father had died6 and his mother, Lotte 1894–1990,12 had become a naturalized United States citizen13 To be with her in New York City,6 Rothenberg journeyed to Canada, arriving in Halifax, Nova Scotia; traveling from there to Toronto, he lived for a while at Wycliffe College, where he worked briefly as a construction laborer14 On 19 November 1948, he crossed the international border into the United States at Buffalo, with $1200 in his pocket14 In 1951, he volunteered for the United States Army, transferred to the Air Force,6 and served in the Korean War until 195510 He remained guided by a deep sense of duty and a strong sense of American patriotism throughout his life6

Education and careeredit

After military service in the United States Air Force, he graduated from the University of Illinois with an undergraduate degree Two years later, he had a master's degree from the University of Chicago In 1959 he finished his doctoral degree at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign He retired from Purdue University, was appointed Professor Emeritus, and lived in Canberra, Australia, where he continued to write about the Napoleonic Wars

He wrote several ground-breaking books on the organization of the Habsburg military and the military reforms of Archduke Charles in the first decade of the Napoleonic Wars His last book, The Emperor's Last Victory, about the Battle of Wagram in 1809, was published posthumously Although he had never finished high school, with the help of the GI Bill, Rothenberg completed a bachelor's degree from the University of Illinois6 in 1954 He attended graduate school at the University of Chicago,10 where he was recognized as an argumentative, sometimes abrasive, graduate student with a keen mind15 As a graduate student, Rothenberg reviewed WED Allen's Caucasian Battlefields: A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828–1921 Cambridge University Press, 1953 for Journal of Modern History,16 He wrote his 1956 masters' thesis entitled General Crook and the Apaches, 1871–1874: the campaign in the Tonto Basin17 Rothenberg received his doctorate from the University of Illinois: his 1959 dissertation, Antemurales Christianitatis: then military border in Croatia, 1522–1749, was published in 1960 by the University of Chicago Press, as The Military Border in Croatia, 1522–1749; he followed this with a second study, The Military Border in Croatia, 1750–1888: a study of an imperial institution in 1966, also published by University of Chicago Press Both volumes were translated into German in 197018

In part-time temporary teaching positions in Illinois15 and four years at the Southern Illinois University,6 Rothenberg taught European and world history, and published an instructor's manual on history of the world, with Henry C Boren In 1962, Rothenberg joined the faculty of the University of New Mexico; over the following ten years, he rose to the position of full professor6 In 1972, he accepted a position at Purdue University There, he taught courses in military and European history As a teacher, his popular course on World War II attracted more than 250 undergraduates annually10

In the 1970s, Rothenberg also established himself as an international Napoleonic scholar with The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon, published in 1977 He also mentored hundreds of graduate and doctoral students He regularly published in such peer-reviewed publications as Journal of Military History and served on the editorial board of War in History In 1985, Rothenberg was a visiting Fulbright fellow in the Department of History in the Faculty of Military Studies at the Australian Royal Military College, Duntroon He retired from Purdue in 1999 and was named Professor Emeritus10

From 1995–2001, Rothenberg was a visiting fellow at the School of Historical Studies, Monash University After his retirement, he moved to Melbourne, Australia, and then to Canberra, where his third wife, Eleanor Hancock, taught at the Australian Defence Force Academy6 Although retired, he continued to teach, lecture, and publish reviews19 He also wrote two more books10

Life in Australia did not always please him; he missed both his colleagues in North America and his Purdue students His politics—he "was anything but politically correct"—did not mesh well with Australia's leftist atmosphere5 He wrote indignantly to a friend in the United States that he regretted moving to Australia when the authorities confiscated his muzzle loaders, which were prohibited "Down Under"5

In 2004, he returned to the United States to present the keynote address at the 34th Annual Conference of the Consortium on Revolutionary Europe He had recently completed The Emperor’s Last Victory: Napoleon and the Battle of Wagram, which was published posthumously in November 200410 He died at the age of 806

Legacyedit

Rothenberg's legacy is not only the generations of scholars he prepared, but also his vast historiographical contribution to understanding the Revolutionary era For many years, his Army of Francis Joseph 1976 was the standard and the only English language analysis of the Habsburg Army in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic wars20 He changed the widespread perception of Archduke Charles' military acumen A masterful historian,15 Rothenberg was known furthermore as an eminently fair scholar After publishing a critique of a publication, the author contacted him, and proved the critique unjust; Rothenberg immediately wrote to a review retracting the criticism, and the two scholars remained friends for the remainder of his life5

Some of his colleagues considered Rothenberg "the greatest scholar of the Napoleonic era of our day"21 His adventurous life and diverse experiences gave him a deep understanding of human nature6 This made him a valuable colleague and a treasured mentor for his many graduate students5

High Point University conducts the Gunther E Rothenberg Seminar in Military History22

Personal life and familyedit

His first marriage in 1952 ended in a 1967 divorce In 1969, Rothenberg married Ruth Gillah Smith, a widow with three daughters Judith Goris, Laura Allman, Georgia Jones all born Herron, whom he helped to raise; she died in 1992 In 1995, he married for a third time, to Eleanor Hancock, a lecturer at Monash University in Australia16 She is now a Senior Lecturer in History at the Australian Defence Force Academy at the University of New South Wales, and has written the first biography of Ernst Julius Röhm23 Her 1988 doctoral thesis, National Socialist Leadership And Total War, 1941–45 for the Australia National University24 was published by St Martin's Press in 199225

Publicationsedit

Rothenberg published hundreds of journal articles, reviews, and lectures This is a partial list26

Booksedit

  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 1960 The Austrian Military Border in Croatia, 1522–1747 Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press LCCN 60015931 Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 1966 The Austrian Military Border in Croatia, 1740–1881; a Study of an Imperial Institution Chicago: University of Chicago Press LCCN 66013887 Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 1976 The army of Francis Joseph West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press ISBN 0911198415 LCCN 75016051 Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 1979 The anatomy of the Israeli army London: B T Batsford ISBN 0713419660 LCCN 79321715 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 1982 Napoleon's Great Adversaries: the Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army, 1792–1814 Bloomington: Indiana University Press ISBN 0253339693 LCCN 82047512 Retrieved 2014-02-01  Subsequent editions titled Napoleon's Great Adversary: the Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 1978 The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon Bloomington: Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-31076-8 LCCN 77086495 Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 2000 Keegan, John, ed The Napoleonic Wars London: Cassell ISBN 0304352675 LCCN 2001347125 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich 2004 The Emperor's Last Victory: Napoleon and the Battle of Wagram London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0297846728 LCCN 2005440770 Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  • Király, Béla Kalman; Rothenberg, Gunther E, eds 1979 Special topics and generalizations on the 18th and 19th centuries New York: Brooklyn College Press ISBN 0930888049 LCCN 79051780  Distributed by Columbia University Press
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E; Király, Béla K; Sugar, Peter F, eds 1982 East Central European society and war in the prerevolutionary eighteenth century New York: Boulder Social Science Monographs ISBN 0930888197 LCCN 81050886  Distributed by Columbia University Press

Journal articlesedit

  • Rothenberg, Gunther E June 1960 "The Origins of the Austrian Military Frontier in Croatia and the Alleged Treaty of 22 December 1522" The Slavonic and East European Review Modern Humanities Research Association 38 91: 493–498 JSTOR 4205180 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1961 "Venice and the Uskoks of Senj: 1537–1618" The Journal of Modern History 33 2: 148–156 doi:101086/238780 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1963 "Aventinus and the Defense of the Empire Against the Turks" Studies in the Renaissance 10: 60–67 doi:102307/2857048 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1964 "The Croatian Military Border and the Rise of Yugoslav Nationalism" The Slavonic and East European Review 43 100: 34–45 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1964 "The Struggle Over the Dissolution of the Croatian Military Border, 1850- 1871" Slavic Review 23 1: 63–78 doi:102307/2492376 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1968 "The Austrian Army in the Age of Metternich" The Journal of Modern History 40 2: 155–165 doi:101086/240187 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1972 "Toward a National Hungarian Army: The Military Compromise of 1868 and its Consequences" Slavic Review 31 4: 805–816 doi:102307/2493764 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1973 "The Austrian Sanitary Cordon and the Control of the Bubonic Plague: 1710–1871" Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences doi:101093/jhmas/XXVIII115 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1973 "The Habsburg Army in the Napoleonic Wars" Military Affairs: The Journal of Military History, Including Theory and Technology 37 1: 1–5 doi:102307/1986561 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1976 "Nobility and Military Careers: The Habsburg Officer Corps, 1740-1914" Military Affairs: The Journal of Military History, Including Theory and Technology 40 4: 182–186 doi:102307/1986702 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1988 "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon" Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18 4: 771–793 doi:102307/204824 
  • Rothenberg, Gunther E 1989 "The Austro-Hungarian Campaign Against Serbia in 1914" Journal of Military History 53 2: 127–146 doi:102307/1985745 

Citationsedit

  1. ^ a b c "Gunther Erich Rothenberg 11 July 1923 - 26 April 2004" The Emperor's Last Victory: Napoleon and the Battle of Wagram Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  2. ^ "Gunther Eric Rothenberg" Contemporary Authors Online fee, via Fairfax County Public Library|format= requires |url= help Detroit: Gale 2001 Gale Document Number: GALE|H1000085240 Retrieved 2014-02-01  subscription required Biography in Context
  3. ^ "Gunther Eric Rothenberg" Directory of American Scholars fee, via Fairfax County Public Library Gale 1999 Gale Document Number: GALE|K1612517143 Retrieved 2014-02-01  Biography in Context subscription required
  4. ^ Dennis, Peter Winter 2004 "Professor Gunther E Rothenberg 1923–2004: in memoriam" PDF Australian Army Journal 2 1: 252–254 ISSN 1448-2843 Retrieved 2014-02-02 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Thomas M Barker "Letters to the Editor" Project Muse 2004 Accessed 31 May 2010
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Peter Dennis and Eleanor Hancock "Gunther Rothenberg Obituary Jewish News Melbourne Melbourne, Australia, 11 June 2004
  7. ^ Art Mahler, "Glory and Liberty: Recollections of WWII" Accessed 24 June 2012
  8. ^ Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897 National Archives Microfilm Publication M237, 675 rolls; Records of the US Customs Service, Record Group 36; National Archives, Washington, DC
  9. ^ United States, Selective Service System Selective Service Registration Cards, World War II: Fourth Registration National Archives and Records Administration Branch locations: National Archives and Records Administration Region Branches
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Schneid, Frederick "Gunther Rothenberg 1923-2004" H-Net Retrieved 2004-04-28 
  11. ^ Charles Schneid Hnet Obituary 28 April 2004
  12. ^ Social Security Administration Social Security Death Index, Master File Social Security Administration Accessed 31 May 2010
  13. ^ Soundex Index to Petitions for Naturalization filed in Federal, State, and Local Courts located in New York City, 1792–1989 New York, NY, USA: National Archives and Records Administration, Northeast Region
  14. ^ a b Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and Rochester, New York, 1902–1954 National Archives Micropublication M1480, 165 rolls; Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, RG 85; National Archives, Washington, DC
  15. ^ a b c Earl A Reitan, "Letter to the Editor" Journal of Military History 684 2004 1343–1350
  16. ^ Caucasian Battlefields: A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828–1921, for Journal of Modern History, September 1956, vol 28, no 3, p 280–281
  17. ^ Gunther Erich Rothenberg Worldcatorg Accessed 31 May 2010
  18. ^ Published in Wien: Verl Herold See Gunther Rothenberg Worldcat Accessed 31 May 2010
  19. ^ See for example, Gunther E Rothenberg, "Review: War for the Everyday, by Eric Lund" The Journal of Military History, Vol 64, No 2 Apr, 2000, pp 522–523
  20. ^ H H Herwig "Rebirth of the Habsburg Army" Central European History 1997, 30: 116–117
  21. ^ Reed Browning "Review: Rothenberg's The Emperor's Last Victory" European History Quarterly 37:4, p 638
  22. ^ "The Gunther E Rothenberg Seminar in Military History" High Point University March 19, 2011 Retrieved 2014-02-01 
  23. ^ MacMillan Palgrave "Eleanor Hancock" 2008 Macmillan Accessed 31 May 2010
  24. ^ Worldcat, "Eleanor Hancock thesis/dissertation," Worldcatorg Accessed 31 May 2010
  25. ^ Council on Foreign Relations "Capsule Reviews" Accessed 31 May 2010
  26. ^ Gunther Rothenberg Worldcatorg Accessed 31 May 2010

Referencesedit

  • Barker, Thomas M "Letters to the Editor" Project Muse 2004 Accessed 31 May 2010
  • Browning, Reed "Review: Rothenberg's The Emperor's Last Victory" European History Quarterly 37:4, p 638
  • Council on Foreign Relations "Capsule Reviews" Accessed 31 May 2010
  • Dennis, Peter and Eleanor Hancock "Gunther Rothenberg Obituary" Jewish News Melbourne Melbourne, Australia, 11 June 2004
  • Herwig, H H "Rebirth of the Habsburg Army" Central European History 1997, 30: 116–117
  • Schneid, Frederick Gunther RothenbergH-net 28 April 2004
  • MacMillan Palgrave "Eleanor Hancock" Macmillan 2008- Accessed 31 May 2010
  • Reitan, Earl A "Letter to the Editor" Journal of Military History 684 2004 1343–1350
  • Rothenberg, Gunther Erich Worldcatorg Worldcat Accessed 31 May 2010
  • Rothenberg, Gunther "Review: War for the Everyday, by Eric Lund" The Journal of Military History Vol 64, No 2 Apr, 2000, pp 522–523
  • United States Government Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897 National Archives Microfilm Publication M237, 675 rolls; Records of the US Customs Service, Record Group 36; National Archives, Washington, DC Readily available in a variety of indexes and databases See for example Ancestry
  • United States Government Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Buffalo, Niagara Falls, and Rochester, New York, 1902–1954 National Archives Micropublication M1480, 165 rolls; Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, RG 85; National Archives, Washington, DC Readily available in a variety of indexes and databases See for example Ancestry
  • United States, Selective Service System Selective Service Registration Cards, World War II: Fourth Registration National Archives and Records Administration Branch locations: National Archives and Records Administration Region Branches Readily available in a variety of indexes and databases See for example Ancestry
  • United States, Soundex Index to Petitions for Naturalization filed in Federal, State, and Local Courts located in New York City, 1792–1989 New York, NY, USA: National Archives and Records Administration, Northeast Region Readily available in a variety of indexes and databases See for example Ancestry
  • Mahler, Art "Glory and Liberty: Recollections of WWII" Accessed 24 June 2012

External linksedit

  • Gunther E Rothenberg at Find a Grave


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