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Grand appartement de la reine

grand appartement de la reine, grand appartement de la reine roi

Plan of the Palace of Versailles c 1676 before the third building campaign, with the Queen's grand apartment marked in yellow

The grand appartement de la reine is the Queen's grand apartment of the Palace of Versailles

Forming a parallel enfilade with that of the grand appartement du roi, the grand appartement de la reine served as the residence of three queens of France: Marie-Thérèse d’Autriche, wife of Louis XIV, Marie Leszczyńska, wife of Louis XV, and Marie-Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI Additionally, Louis XIV's granddaughter-in-law, Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie, as duchesse de Bourgogne, occupied these rooms from 1697, the year of her marriage, to her death in 1712

The Queen's bedchamber There is a barely discernible hidden door in the corner near the jewel cabinet by Schwerdfeger 1787 through which Marie Antoinette escaped the night of 5/6 October 1789 when the Paris mob stormed Versailles

When Louis Le Vau’s envelope of the château vieux old palace was completed, the grand appartement de la reine came to include a suite of seven enfilade rooms on the main floor in the left wing with an arrangement that mirrored almost exactly the grand appartement du roi in the right wing The configuration was:

  1. Chapel — corresponding to the salon de Diane in the King's grand apartment[1]
  2. Salle de gardes — corresponding to the salon de Mars in the King's grand apartment
  3. Antichambre — corresponding to the salon de Mercure in the King's grand apartment
  4. Chambre — corresponding to with the salon d’Apollon in the King's grand apartment
  5. Grand cabinet — corresponding to the salon de Jupiter in the King's grand apartment
  6. Oratory — corresponding to the salon de Saturne in the King's grand apartment
  7. Petit cabinet — corresponding to the salon de Vénus in the King's grand apartment[2]

As with the decoration of the ceiling in the grand appartement du roi, which depicted the heroic actions of Louis XIV as allegories from events taken from the antique past, the decoration of the grand appartement de la reine likewise depicted heroines from the antique past and harmonized with the general theme of a particular room's decor[3]

With the construction of the Hall of Mirrors, which began in 1678, the configuration of the grand appartement de la reine changed The chapel was transformed into the salle des gardes de la reine and it was in this room that the decorations from the salon de Jupiter were reused[4] The salle des gardes de la reine communicates with a loggia that issues from the escalier de la reine Queen's staircase, which corresponded albeit a smaller, though similarly-decorated example to the escalier des ambassadeurs Ambassador's Staircase in the grand appartement du roi The loggia also provides access to the appartement du roi, the suite of rooms in which Louis XIV lived Toward the end of Louis XIV's reign, the escalier de la reine became the principal entrance to the château, with the escalier des ambassadeurs used on rare state occasions After the destruction of the escalier des ambassadeurs in 1752, the escalier de la reine became the main entrance to the château

From 1682, the grand appartement de la reine included:

  • Salle des gardes de la reine
  • Antichambre formerly the salle des gardes
  • Grand cabinet
  • Chambre de la reine

With the death of Louis XIV in 1715, the court moved to Vincennes and later to Paris In 1722, Louis XV reinstalled the court at Versailles and began modifications to the château's interior Among the most noteworthy of the building projects during Louis XV's reign, the redecoration of the chambre de la reine must be cited

To commemorate the birth of his only son and heir, Louis, in 1729, Louis XV ordered a complete redecoration of the room Elements of the chambre de la reine as it had been used by Marie-Thérèse and Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie were removed and a new, more modern decor was installed[5]

During her life at Versailles, Marie Leszczynska 1703–1768 lived in the grand appartement de la reine, to which she annexed the salon de la paid to serve as a music room In 1770, when the Austrian archduchess Marie-Antoinette married the dauphin, later Louis XVI, she took up residence in these rooms Upon Louis XVI's ascension to the throne in 1774, Marie-Antoinette ordered major redecoration of the grand appartement de la reine At this time, the queen's apartment achieved the arrangement that we see today

  • Salle des gardes de la reine — this room remained virtually unchanged by Marie-Antoinette[6]
  • Antichambre — this room was transformed into the antichambre du grand couvert It was in this room that the king, queen, and members of the royal family dined in public Occasionally, this room served as a theater for the château
  • Grand cabinet — this room was transformed into the salon des nobles Following the tradition established by her predecessor, Marie-Antoinette would hold formal audiences in this room When not used for formal audiences, the salon des nobles served as an antechamber to the queen's bedroom
  • Chambre de la reine — this room was used as the queen's bedroom, and was of exceptional splendor On the night of 6/7 October 1789, Marie-Antoinette fled from the Paris mob by escaping through a private corridor that connected her apartment with that of the king

Notes

  1. ^ This chapel was the second of chapels built in the château of Versailles
  2. ^ Owing to the construction of the Hall of Mirrors — the central project of Louis XIV’s 3rd building campaign — and the death of Marie-Thérèse in 1683, the grand cabinet, the oratory, and the petit cabinet were destroyed for the construction of the Hall of Mirrors and the Salon de la paix Of these three rooms, only fragments of the ceiling decoration of the Grand cabinet have survived; no evidence regarding the decoration of the oratory or the petit cabinet has been found See Nicole Reynaud and Jacques Villain, “Fragments retrouvés de la décoration du Grand Appartement de la Reine Marie-Thérèse,” Revue du Louvre, #4-5 1970: 231-238
  3. ^ On an interesting note, not only were women depicted in the decoration of the grand appartement de la reine, but women contributed to the decoration of these rooms Most notable of these ladies would be Madeleine de Boulogne, who painted the over-door painting in the salle des gardes
  4. ^ With the creation of this room, a new chapel — the château’s third — was built in the adjacent room to the east In 1682, when the third chapel was built where the salon d’Hercule is now located, this room was renamed la grande salle des gardes de la reine In the 19th century, this room was rebaptized salle du sacre owing to the installation of Jean-Louis David’s Coronation of Napoléon I
  5. ^ The decoration of this room was an important expression in French interior design It heralded the transition from the Regency style, which prevailed from the death of Louis XIV through to 1732 with the decoration of the Salon de la princesse at the Hôtel de Soubise, and the Rococo or style Louis XV, the style that prevailed for the greater part of the reign of Louis XV
  6. ^ It was via this room that the Paris mob, which stormed the château during the night of 6/7 October 1789, gained access to the château During the mêlée, members of the garde Suisse, which formed part the queen’s bodyguard, were killed in their attempts to protect the queen

Bibliography

Primary source

  • Félibien, André 1694 La description du chateau de Versailles, de ses peintures, et d'autres ouvrages fait pour le roy Paris: Antoine Vilette OCLC 14959654mw-parser-output citecitationmw-parser-output citation qmw-parser-output id-lock-free a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-free amw-parser-output id-lock-limited a,mw-parser-output id-lock-registration a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-limited a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-registration amw-parser-output id-lock-subscription a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-subscription amw-parser-output cs1-subscription,mw-parser-output cs1-registrationmw-parser-output cs1-subscription span,mw-parser-output cs1-registration spanmw-parser-output cs1-ws-icon amw-parser-output codecs1-codemw-parser-output cs1-hidden-errormw-parser-output cs1-visible-errormw-parser-output cs1-maintmw-parser-output cs1-subscription,mw-parser-output cs1-registration,mw-parser-output cs1-formatmw-parser-output cs1-kern-left,mw-parser-output cs1-kern-wl-leftmw-parser-output cs1-kern-right,mw-parser-output cs1-kern-wl-rightmw-parser-output citation mw-selflink
  • Félibien, Jean-François 1703 Description sommaire de Versailles ancienne et nouvelle Paris: A Chrétien OCLC 186796049
  • Monicart, Jean-Baptiste de 1720 Versailles immortalisé par les merveilles parlantes des bâtimens, jardins, bosquets, parcs, statues et vases de marbre qui sont dans les châteaux de Versailles, de Trianon, de la Ménagerie et de Marly Paris: E Ganeau OCLC 563933157

Secondary source

  • Campbell, Malcolm 1977 Pietro da Cortona at the Pitti Palace Princeton: Princeton University Press ISBN 9780691038919 OCLC 993316809
  • Lighthart, E 1997 Archétype et symbole dans le style Louis XIV versaillais: réflexions sur l'imago rex et l'imago patriae au début de l'époque moderne Doctoral thesis
  • Marie, Alfred and Jeanne 1972 Mansart à Versailles Paris: Editions Jacques Freal OCLC 889332274
    • Marie, Alfred and Jeanne 1976 Versailles au temps de Louis XIV: Mansart et Robert de Cotte Paris: Imprimerie Nationale OCLC 837387303
    • Marie, Alfred 1968 Naissance de Versailles Paris: Edition Vincent, Freal & Cie OCLC 640147659
  • Nolhac, Pierre de 1901 La création de Versailles d'après les sources inédites étude sur les origines et les premières transformations du château et des jardins Versailles: L Bernard OCLC 265027101
    • Nolhac, Pierre de 1925 Versailles; résidence de Louis XIV Paris: Louis Conard OCLC 21028820
  • Verlet, Pierre 1985 Le Chateau de Versailles sous Louis XV : recherches sur l'histoire de la cour et sur les travaux des batiments du roi Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard OCLC 8001418

Journal articles

  • Baillie, Hugh Murray 1967 "Etiquette and the Planning of State Apartments in Baroque Palaces" Archaeologia 101: 169–199 doi:101017/s0261340900013813
  • Constans, Claire 1976 "Les tableaux du Grand Appartement du Roi" Revue du Louvre 3: 157–173
  • Josephson, Ragnar 1926 "Relation de la visite de Nicodème Tessin à Marly, Versailles, Rueil, et St-Cloud en 1687" Revue de l'Histoire de Versailles: 150–67, 274–300
  • Kimball, Fiske 1946 "Unknown Versailles: The appartement du Roi, 1678-1701" Gazette des Beaux-Arts 29 6: 85–112
    • Kimball, Fiske 1949 "Genesis of the Château Neuf at Versailles, 1668-1671" Gazette des Beaux-Arts 35 6: 353–372 doi:101080/00043079194011409005
  • Le Guillou, Jean-Claude December 1983 "Le château-neuf ou enveloppe de Versailles: concept et evolution du premier projet" Gazette des Beaux-Arts 102 6: 193–207
    • Le Guillou, Jean-Claude July–August 1986 "Le Grand et le Petit Appartement de Louis XIV au château de Versailles" Gazette des Beaux-Arts 108 6: 7–22 doi:103406/bulmo20082007
  • Nolhac, Pierre de 1899 "La construction de Versailles de Le Vau" Revue de l'Histoire de Versailles: 161–171

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