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Google Public DNS

google public dns, google public dns ip
Google Public DNS is a Domain Name System DNS service offered by Google It functions as a recursive name server providing domain name resolution for any host on the Internet The service was announced on 3 December 2009, in an effort described as "making the web faster and more secure" As of 2014, Google Public DNS is the largest public DNS service in the world, handling 400 billion requests per day


  • 1 Service
  • 2 Privacy
  • 3 History
    • 31 DNSSEC
    • 32 Censorship in Turkey
  • 4 Tools
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links


Google Public DNS operates recursive name servers for public use at the following IP addresses: 8888 and 8844 for IPv4 service, as well as 2001:4860:4860::8888 and 2001:4860:4860::8844, for IPv6 access The addresses are mapped to the nearest operational server by anycast routing

The service does not use a conventional DNS name server, such as BIND, instead relying on a custom-built implementation, with limited IPv6 support, conforming to the DNS standards set forth by the IETF It fully supports the DNSSEC protocol since 19 March 2013 Previously Google Public DNS accepted and forwarded DNSSEC-formatted messages but did not perform validation

Some DNS providers practice DNS hijacking while processing queries, redirecting web browsers to an advertisement site operated by the provider when a nonexistent domain name is entered This is considered intentional breaking of the DNS specification The Google service correctly replies with a non-existent domain NXDOMAIN response

The Google service also addresses DNS security A common attack vector is to interfere with a DNS service to achieve redirection of web pages from legitimate to malicious servers Google documents efforts to be resistant to DNS cache poisoning, including “Kaminsky Flaw” attacks as well as denial-of-service attacks

Google claims various efficiency and speed benefits, such as using anycast routing to send user requests to the closest data center, over-provisioning servers to handle denial-of-service attacks, and load-balancing servers using two cache levels, with a small per-host cache containing the most popular names and another pool of servers partitioned by the name to be looked up This second level cache reduces the fragmentation and cache miss rate that can result from increasing the number of servers


It is stated that for the purposes of performance and security, only the querying IP address, which is deleted after 24–48 hours, ISP, and location information kept permanently are stored on the servers

According to Google's general privacy policy, "We may combine personal information from one service with information, including personal information, from other Google services" However, Google Public DNS's policy specifically states, "We don't correlate or combine information from our temporary or permanent logs with any personal information that you have provided Google for other services"


In December 2009, Google Public DNS was launched with its announcement on the Official Google Blog by product manager Prem Ramaswami, with an additional post on the Google Code blog


At the launch of Google Public DNS, it did not directly support DNSSEC Although RRSIG records of course could be queried, the AD flag Authenticated Data, meaning the server was able to validate signatures for all of the data was never set in the launch version This was upgraded on 28 January 2013, when Google's DNS servers silently started providing DNSSEC validation information, but only if the client explicitly set the DNSSEC OK DO flag on its query This service requiring a client-side flag was replaced on 6 May 2013 with full DNSSEC validation by default, meaning all queries will be validated unless clients explicitly opt out

Since June 2014, Google Public DNS automatically detects nameservers that support edns-client-subnet ECS options as defined in the IETF draft by probing nameservers at a low rate with ECS queries and caching the ECS capability, and will send queries with ECS options to such nameservers automatically

Censorship in Turkey

In March 2014, use of Google Public DNS was blocked in Turkey after it was used by users to circumvent the blocking of Twitter, which took effect on 20 March 2014 under court order The block was the result of earlier remarks by Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan who vowed to "wipe out Twitter" following damaging allegations of corruption in his inner circle The method became popular after it was determined that a simple domain name block was used to enforce the ban, which would easily be bypassed by using an alternate DNS system Activists distributed information on how to use the service, and spray-painted the IP addresses used by the service as graffiti on buildings Following the discovery of this method, the government moved to directly block Twitter's IP address, and Google Public DNS was blocked entirely


  • DNSd is a DNSSEC resolver through Google DNS-over-HTTPS implemented in C

See also

  • DynDNS
  • DNScom
  • Norton ConnectSafe - a collection of DNS servers, some of which block sites tagged as security risks, pornography, and material described as being "non-family friendly"
  • Open Root Server Network
  • Public recursive name servers
    • OpenDNS
    • OpenNIC


  1. ^ Geez, Google Wants to Take Over DNS, Too Wired, 3 December 2009
  2. ^ Introducing Google Public DNS, Official Google Blog
  3. ^ Pondering Google's Move Into the DNS Business New York Times, 4 December 2009
  4. ^ "Top 5 Best Free Public DNS Servers For Better Browsing", eCloudBuzz, 1 February 2015
  5. ^ Google DNS Speed
  6. ^ Mario Bonilla   View profile    More options 2011-06-09 "Announcement on public-dns-announce" Groupsgooglecom Retrieved 2012-10-10  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  7. ^ Google DNS FAQ Countries
  8. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions" Retrieved 4 December 2009 
  9. ^ Google Online Security Blog: Google Public DNS Now Supports DNSSEC Validation
  10. ^ "Public DNS Server with no hijacking!" Retrieved 22 Jun 2012 
  11. ^ What Is NXDOMAIN Email PDF Print Mar/13/12 2012-03-13 "What Is Nxdomain" Dnsknowledgecom Retrieved 2013-05-24 
  12. ^ "Google Public DNS Security Threats and Mitigations" Retrieved 22 June 2012 
  13. ^ "Google Public DNS Performance Benefits" Retrieved 22 June 2012 
  14. ^ a b "Google Public DNS: Your Privacy" Google 2016-04-01 Retrieved 2016-09-05 
  15. ^ a b "Google Privacy Policy" Google 2014-03-31 Retrieved 2014-07-01 
  16. ^ "Google Public DNS and your privacy" PC World 4 December 2009 
  17. ^ Introducing Google Public DNS Official Google Blog, 3 December 2009
  18. ^ "Introducing Google Public DNS" Google Code Blog 3 December 2009 
  19. ^ "Google's Public DNS does DNSSEC validation" nanog mailing list archives 29 January 2013 
  20. ^ Huston, Geoff 17 July 2013 "DNS, DNSSEC and Google's Public DNS Service" CircleID 
  21. ^ "Google Public DNS Now Supports DNSSEC Validation" Google Code Blog 1 June 2013 
  22. ^ Public-DNS-announce mailing list: Google Public DNS now auto-detects nameservers that support edns-client-subnet
  23. ^ "Turkish citizens use Google to fight Twitter ban" The Verge Retrieved 24 March 2014 
  24. ^ "Twitter website 'blocked' in Turkey", BBC News, 20 March 2014 Retrieved 23 March 2014
  25. ^ "'We'll eradicate Twitter': Turkey blocks Twitter access", PCWorld, 21 March 2014 Retrieved 22 March 2014
  26. ^ "Turkey becomes first country ever to ban Google DNS" Today's Zaman Retrieved 24 March 2014 

External links

  • Official website

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Google Public DNS

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