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Google Neural Machine Translation

google neural machine translation, google neural machine translation system
Google Neural Machine Translation GNMT is a neural machine translation NMT system developed by Google and introduced in November 2016, that uses an artificial neural network to increase fluency and accuracy in Google Translate[1][2][3][4]

GNMT improves on the quality of translation by applying an example based EBMT machine translation method in which the system "learns from millions of examples"[2] GNMT's proposed architecture of system learning was first tested on over a hundred languages supported by Google Translate[2] With the large end-to-end framework, the system learns over time to create better, more natural translations[1] GNMT is capable of translating whole sentences at a time, rather than just piece by piece[1] The GNMT network can undertake interlingual machine translation by encoding the semantics of the sentence, rather than by memorizing phrase-to-phrase translations[2][5]


  • 1 History
  • 2 Languages Supported by GNMT
  • 3 Zero-shot translation
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links


The Google Brain project was established in 2011 in the "secretive Google X research lab"[6] by Google Fellow Jeff Dean, Google Researcher Greg Corrado, and Stanford University Computer Science professor Andrew Ng[7][8][9] Ng's work has led to some of the biggest breakthroughs at Google and Stanford[6]

In September 2016, a research team at Google announced the development of the Google Neural Machine Translation system GNMT and by November Google Translate began using neural machine translation NMT in preference to its previous statistical methods SMT[1][10][11][12] which had been used since October 2007, with its proprietary, in-house SMT technology[13][14]

Google Translate's NMT system uses a large artificial neural network capable of deep learning[1][2][3] By using millions of examples, GNMT improves the quality of translation,[2] using broader context to deduce the most relevant translation The result is then rearranged and adapted to approach grammatically based human language[1] GNMT's proposed architecture of system learning was first tested on over a hundred languages supported by Google Translate[2] GNMT did not create its own universal interlingua but rather aimed at commonality found in between many languages, considered to be of more interest to psychologists and linguists than to computer scientists[15] The new translation engine was first enabled for eight languages:to and from English and French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Turkish in 2016[16] In March 2017, three additional languages were enabled:Russian, Hindi and Vietnamese along with Thai for which support was added later[17][18] Support for Hebrew and Arabic was also added with help from the Google Translate Community in the same month[19] In mid April 2017 Google Netherlands announced support for Dutch and other European languages related to English[20] Further support was added for nine Indian languages, viz Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada at the end of April 2017[21]

Languages Supported by GNMT

This is a list of language translation pairs supported by Google Translate's Neural Machine Translation NMT model As of July 2017 all languages currently only support translation to and from English:[22]

Language CodesLanguage Pair
af ↔ enAfrikaans ↔ English
sq ↔ enAlbanian ↔ English
am ↔ enAmharic ↔ English
ar ↔ enArabic ↔ English
hy ↔ enArmenian ↔ English
az ↔ enAzerbaijani ↔ English
eu ↔ enBasque ↔ English
bn ↔ enBengali ↔ English
bs ↔ enBosnian ↔ English
bg ↔ enBulgarian ↔ English
ca ↔ enCatalan ↔ English
ceb ↔ enCebuano ↔ English
zh-CN↔ enChinese Simplified ↔ English
zh-TW ↔ enChinese Traditional ↔ English
co ↔ enCorsican ↔ English
hr ↔ enCroatian ↔ English
cs ↔ enCzech ↔ English
da ↔ enDanish ↔ English
dv ↔ enDhivehi ↔ English
nl ↔ enDutch ↔ English
eo ↔ enEsperanto ↔ English
et ↔ enEstonian ↔ English
fi ↔ enFinnish ↔ English
fr ↔ enFrench ↔ English
fy ↔ enFrisian ↔ English
gl ↔ enGalician ↔ English
ka ↔ enGeorgian ↔ English
de ↔ enGerman ↔ English
el ↔ enGreek ↔ English
gu ↔ enGujarati ↔ English
ht ↔ enHaitian Creole ↔ English
ha ↔ enHausa ↔ English
haw ↔ enHawaiian ↔ English
iw ↔ enHebrew ↔ English
hi ↔ enHindi ↔ English
hmn ↔ enHmong ↔ English
hu ↔ enHungarian ↔ English
is ↔ enIcelandic ↔ English
ig ↔ enIgbo ↔ English
id ↔ enIndonesian ↔ English
ga ↔ enIrish ↔ English
it ↔ enItalian ↔ English
ja ↔ enJapanese ↔ English
jw ↔ enJavanese ↔ English
kn ↔ enKannada ↔ English
kk ↔ enKazakh ↔ English
km ↔ enKhmer ↔ English
ko ↔ enKorean ↔ English
ku ↔ enKurdish ↔ English
lo ↔ enLao ↔ English
lv ↔ enLatvian ↔ English
lt ↔ enLithuanian ↔ English
lb ↔ enLuxembourgish ↔ English
mk ↔ enMacedonian ↔ English
mg ↔ enMalagasy ↔ English
ms ↔ enMalay ↔ English
ml ↔ enMalayalam ↔ English
mt <- enMaltese <- English
mi ↔ enMaori ↔ English
mr ↔ enMarathi ↔ English
mn ↔ enMongolian ↔ English
ne ↔ enNepali ↔ English
no ↔ enNorwegian ↔ English
ny ↔ enNyanja Chichewa ↔ English
ps ↔ enPashto ↔ English
fa ↔ enPersian ↔ English
pl ↔ enPolish ↔ English
pt ↔ enPortuguese Portugal, Brazil ↔ English
pa ↔ enPunjabi ↔ English
ro ↔ enRomanian ↔ English
ru ↔ enRussian ↔ English
sm ↔ enSamoan ↔ English
gd ↔ enScots Gaelic ↔ English
sr ↔ enSerbian ↔ English
st ↔ enSesotho ↔ English
sn ↔ enShona ↔ English
sd ↔ enSindhi ↔ English
si ↔ enSinhala Sinhalese ↔ English
sk ↔ enSlovak ↔ English
sl ↔ enSlovenian ↔ English
so ↔ enSomali ↔ English
es ↔ enSpanish ↔ English
sw ↔ enSwahili ↔ English
sv ↔ enSwedish ↔ English
tl ↔ enTagalog Filipino ↔ English
tg ↔ enTajik ↔ English
ta ↔ enTamil ↔ English
te ↔ enTelugu ↔ English
th ↔ enThai ↔ English
tr ↔ enTurkish ↔ English
uk ↔ enUkrainian ↔ English
ur ↔ enUrdu ↔ English
uz ↔ enUzbek ↔ English
vi ↔ enVietnamese ↔ English
cy ↔ enWelsh ↔ English
xh ↔ enXhosa ↔ English
yi ↔ enYiddish ↔ English
yo ↔ enYoruba ↔ English
zu ↔ enZulu ↔ English

Zero-shot translation

The GNMT system is said to represent an improvement over the former Google Translate in that it will be able handle "zero-shot translation", that is it directly translates one language into another for example, Japanese to Korean[2] Google Translate previously first translated the source language into English and then translated the English into the target language rather than translating directly from one language to another[5] Currently, no non-English language pairs are supported

See also

  • Example-based machine translation
  • Rule-based machine translation
  • Comparison of machine translation applications
  • Statistical machine translation
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Cache language model
  • Computational linguistics
  • Computer-assisted translation
  • History of machine translation
  • List of emerging technologies
  • List of research laboratories for machine translation
  • Neural machine translation
  • Machine translation
  • Universal translator


  1. ^ a b c d e f Barak Turovsky November 15, 2016, "Found in translation:More accurate, fluent sentences in Google Translate", Google Blog, retrieved January 11, 2017mw-parser-output citecitationmw-parser-output citation qmw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-free amw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-limited a,mw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-registration amw-parser-output citation cs1-lock-subscription amw-parser-output cs1-subscription,mw-parser-output cs1-registrationmw-parser-output cs1-subscription span,mw-parser-output cs1-registration spanmw-parser-output cs1-ws-icon amw-parser-output codecs1-codemw-parser-output cs1-hidden-errormw-parser-output cs1-visible-errormw-parser-output cs1-maintmw-parser-output cs1-subscription,mw-parser-output cs1-registration,mw-parser-output cs1-formatmw-parser-output cs1-kern-left,mw-parser-output cs1-kern-wl-leftmw-parser-output cs1-kern-right,mw-parser-output cs1-kern-wl-right
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Mike Schuster, Melvin Johnson, and Nikhil Thorat November 22, 2016, "Zero-Shot Translation with Google's Multilingual Neural Machine Translation System", Google Research Blog, retrieved January 11, 2017CS1 maint:uses authors parameter link
  3. ^ a b Gil Fewster January 5, 2017, "The mind-blowing AI announcement from Google that you probably missed", freeCodeCamp, retrieved January 11, 2017
  4. ^ Wu, Yonghui; Schuster, Mike; Chen, Zhifeng; Le, Quoc V; Norouzi, Mohammad "Google's neural machine translation system:Bridging the gap between human and machine translation" PDF Retrieved October 1, 2018 Cite journal requires |journal= help
  5. ^ a b Boitet, Christian; Blanchon, Hervé; Seligman, Mark; Bellynck, Valérie 2010 "MT on and for the Web" PDF Retrieved December 1, 2016
  6. ^ a b Robert D Hof August 14, 2014 "A Chinese Internet Giant Starts to Dream:Baidu is a fixture of online life in China, but it wants to become a global power Can one of the world's leading artificial intelligence researchers help it challenge Silicon Valley's biggest companies" Technology Review Retrieved January 11, 2017
  7. ^ Jeff Dean and Andrew Ng June 26, 2012 "Using large-scale brain simulations for machine learning and AI" Official Google Blog Retrieved January 26, 2015
  8. ^ "Google's Large Scale Deep Neural Networks Project" Retrieved October 25, 2015
  9. ^ Markoff, John June 25, 2012 "How Many Computers to Identify a Cat 16,000" New York Times Retrieved February 11, 2014
  10. ^ Katyanna Quach November 17, 2016, Google's neural network learns to translate languages it hasn't been trained on:First time machine translation has used true transfer learning, retrieved January 11, 2017
  11. ^ Lewis-Kraus, Gideon December 14, 2016 "The Great AI Awakening" The New York Times Retrieved January 11, 2017
  12. ^ Le, Quoc; Schuster, Mike September 27, 2016 "A Neural Network for Machine Translation, at Production Scale" Google Research Blog Google Retrieved December 1, 2016
  13. ^ Google Switches to its Own Translation System, October 22, 2007
  14. ^ Barry Schwartz October 23, 2007 "Google Translate Drops SYSTRAN for Home-Brewed Translation" Search Engine Land
  15. ^ Chris McDonald January 7, 2017, Commenting on Gil Fewster's January 5th article in the Atlantic, retrieved January 11, 2017
  16. ^ Turovsky, Barak November 15, 2016 "Found in translation:More accurate, fluent sentences in Google Translate" The Keyword Google Blog Google Retrieved December 1, 2016
  17. ^ Perez, Sarah March 6, 2017 "Google's smarter, AI-powered translation system expands to more languages" TechCrunch Oath Inc
  18. ^ Turovsky, Barak "Higher quality neural translations for a bunch more languages" The Keyword Google Blog Google Retrieved March 6, 2017
  19. ^ Novet, Jordan March 30, 2017 "Google now provides AI-powered translations for Arabic and Hebrew" VentureBeat
  20. ^ Finge, Rachid April 19, 2017 "Grote verbetering voor het Nederlands in Google Translate" [Big improvement for Dutch in Google Translate] Google Netherlands Blog in Dutch
  21. ^ Turovsky, Barak April 25, 2017 "Making the internet more inclusive in India" The Keyword
  22. ^ "Translation API Language Support" Google Cloud Platform May 4, 2017

External links

  • Google’s Neural Machine Translation System:Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation
  • The Advantages and Disadvantages of Machine Translation
  • Statistical Machine Translation
  • International Association for Machine Translation IAMT
  • Machine Translation Archive by John Hutchins An electronic repository and bibliography of articles, books and papers in the field of machine translation and computer-based translation technology
  • Machine translation computer-based translation – Publications by John Hutchins includes PDFs of several books on machine translation

google neural machine translation, google neural machine translation (gnmt), google neural machine translation system

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