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George W. Bush

george w. bush, george w. bush net worth
Governor of Texas

  • Governorship
  • 2000 Republican primary

President of the United States

Policies

  • Cabinet
  • Domestic
  • Economy
  • Foreign relations
    • Bush Doctrine
    • International trips
  • Judicial Appointments
  • Legislation & Programs
  • Pardons
  • Space

First term

  • Campaign for the Presidency
    • 2000
    • Bush v Gore
    • Florida
    • Aftermath
  • 1st inauguration
  • Presidency
  • First term
  • September 11
  • War on Terrorism
  • War in Afghanistan
  • Invasion of Iraq
  • Dismissal of US attorneys controversy
  • Email controversy

Second term

  • Campaign
    • 2004
  • 2nd inauguration
  • War in Iraq
  • Second term
  • State of the Union, 2006
  • 2007 Iraq surge
  • Great Recession
    • Stimulus
  • Presidential Library
  • Legacy

Post-Presidency

  • Decision Points
  • Clinton Bush Haiti Fund
  • 41: A Portrait of My Father

  • v
  • e

George Walker Bush born July 6, 1946 is an American politician who was the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009 and 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 The eldest son of Barbara and George H W Bush, he was born in New Haven, Connecticut After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in oil businesses He married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election He was elected president in 2000 after a close and controversial election against Al Gore, becoming the fourth president to be elected while receiving fewer popular votes nationwide than an opponent He is the second president to have been the son of a former president, the first having been John Quincy Adams He is also the brother of Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida and candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election

Eight months into Bush's first term as president, the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign which included the war in Afghanistan, in 2001, and the Iraq War, in 2003 He also promoted policies on the economy, health care, education, social security reform, and amending the Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage He signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, and funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR His tenure saw national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, and torture

Bush successfully ran for re-election against Democratic Senator John Kerry in 2004, in another relatively close election After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, and other challenges Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession, often referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the September 11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis

Bush left office in 2009, returning to Texas where he purchased a home in suburban Dallas He is currently a public speaker, and has written a memoir, Decision Points His presidential library was opened in 2013 His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historian rankings of US presidents published in the late 2000s and 2010s

Contents

  • 1 Early life and career
    • 11 Education
    • 12 Military career
      • 121 Texas Air National Guard
    • 13 Marriage, family, and personal life
  • 2 Legislative career
    • 21 Governor of Texas 1995–2000
  • 3 Presidential campaigns
    • 31 2000 presidential candidacy
      • 311 Primary
      • 312 General election
    • 32 2004 presidential candidacy
  • 4 Presidency 2001–09
    • 41 Domestic policy
      • 411 Economic policy
      • 412 Education and health
      • 413 Social services and social security
      • 414 Environmental policies
      • 415 Energy policies
      • 416 Stem cell research and first veto
      • 417 Genetic Nondiscrimination
      • 418 Immigration
      • 419 Hurricane Katrina
      • 4110 Midterm dismissal of US attorneys
    • 42 Foreign policy
      • 421 September 11 attacks
      • 422 War on Terrorism
      • 423 Afghanistan invasion
      • 424 Iraq invasion
      • 425 Surveillance
      • 426 Interrogation policies
      • 427 North Korea condemnation
      • 428 Syria sanctions
      • 429 Africa
      • 4210 Assassination attempt
      • 4211 Other issues
    • 43 Judicial appointments
      • 431 Supreme Court
      • 432 Other courts
    • 44 Public image and perception
      • 441 Domestic
        • 4411 Image
        • 4412 Job approval
      • 442 Foreign perceptions
      • 443 Acknowledgments and dedications
    • 45 Reception
  • 5 Post-presidency
    • 51 Residence since 2009
    • 52 Publications and appearances
    • 53 Collaborations
    • 54 Visual art
  • 6 Legacy
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

Early life and career

Main article: Early life of George W Bush George W Bush with his parents, Barbara and George H W Bush, c 1947

George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Grace-New Haven Hospital now Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, as the first child of George Herbert Walker Bush and Barbara Pierce He was raised in Midland and Houston, Texas, with four siblings, Jeb, Neil, Marvin and Dorothy Another younger sister, Robin, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953 His grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a US Senator from Connecticut His father, George HW Bush, was Ronald Reagan's Vice President from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st US President from 1989 to 1993 Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Welsh, Irish, French, and Scottish roots

Education

Bush attended public schools in Midland, Texas, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade He then went to The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Houston for two years

Bush attended high school at the Phillips Academy, a boarding school then all-male in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball, and during his senior year, was the head cheerleader He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in History During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV He characterized himself as an average student His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, and he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year

Beginning in the fall of 1973, Bush attended the Harvard Business School, where he earned an MBA degree He is the only US President to have earned an MBA

Military career

Texas Air National Guard

Main article: George W Bush military service controversy See also: Killian documents controversy and Killian documents authenticity issues Lt George W Bush while in the Texas Air National Guard

In May 1968, Bush was commissioned into the Texas Air National Guard After two years of active-duty service while training, he was assigned to Houston, flying Convair F-102s with the 147th Reconnaissance Wing out of the Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base Critics, including former Democratic National Committee Chairman Terry McAuliffe, have alleged that Bush was favorably treated due to his father's political standing as a member of the House of Representatives, citing his selection as a pilot despite his low pilot aptitude test scores and his irregular attendance In June 2005, the United States Department of Defense released all the records of Bush's Texas Air National Guard service, which remain in its official archives

In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the 187th Fighter Wing of the Alabama Air National Guard, having moved to Montgomery, Alabama, to work on the unsuccessful US Senate campaign of Republican Winton M Blount In 1972, Bush was suspended from flying for failure to take a scheduled physical exam He was honorably discharged from the Air Force Reserve on November 21, 1974

Marriage, family, and personal life

See also: Bush family

At a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Lane Welch, a school teacher and librarian Bush proposed to her after a three-month courtship, and they married on November 5 of that year The couple settled in Midland, Texas Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters, Barbara Bush and Jenna Welch Bush; they graduated from high school in 2000 and from Yale University and the University of Texas at Austin, respectively, in 2004

George and Laura Bush with their daughters Jenna and Barbara, 1990

Prior to his marriage, Bush had multiple episodes of alcohol abuse In one instance, on September 4, 1976, he was arrested near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine, for driving under the influence of alcohol He pleaded guilty, was fined $150, and had his Maine driver's license briefly suspended Bush says his wife has had a stabilizing effect on his life, and attributes to her influence his 1986 decision to give up alcohol While Governor of Texas, Bush said of his wife, "I saw an elegant, beautiful woman who turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but very smart and willing to put up with my rough edges, and I must confess has smoothed them off over time"

Bush has been an avid reader throughout his adult life, preferring biographies and histories During his time as president, Bush read the Bible daily He also read 14 Lincoln biographies and, during the last three years of his presidency, he reportedly read 186 books Walt Harrington, a journalist, recalls seeing "books by John Fowles, F Scott Fitzgerald, James Joyce, and Gore Vidal lying about, as well as biographies of Willa Cather and Queen Victoria" in his home when Bush was a Texas oilman Other hobbies include cigar smoking and golf Since leaving the White House, Bush has also taken up oil painting

His first granddaughter, Margaret Laura "Mila" Hager, was born to his daughter Jenna Bush on April 14, 2013 She is named after her two grandmothers

Legislative career

Main article: Professional life of George W Bush George W Bush with his father outside the White House, April 29, 1992

In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district His opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed him as out of touch with rural Texans Bush lost the election by 6,000 votes 6 percent of the 103,000 votes cast He returned to the oil industry and began a series of small, independent oil exploration companies He created Arbusto Energy, and later changed the name to Bush Exploration In 1984, his company merged with the larger Spectrum 7, and Bush became chairman The company was hurt by decreased oil prices, and it folded into HKN, Inc Bush served on the board of directors for HKN Questions of possible insider trading involving HKN arose, but the Securities and Exchange Commission's SEC investigation concluded that the information Bush had at the time of his stock sale was not sufficient to constitute insider trading

Bush moved his family to Washington, DC in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the US presidency He served as a campaign adviser and liaison to the media; he assisted his father by campaigning across the country Returning to Texas after the successful campaign, he purchased a share in the Texas Rangers baseball franchise in April 1989, where he served as managing general partner for five years He actively led the team's projects and regularly attended its games, often choosing to sit in the open stands with fans Bush's sale of his shares in the Rangers in 1998 brought him over $15 million from his initial $800,000 investment

In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 Presidential re-election campaign as "campaign advisor" The previous month, his father asked him to tell White House chief of staff John H Sununu that he should resign

Governor of Texas 1995–2000

Main article: Governorship of George W Bush Governor Bush right with father, former president George H W Bush and wife, Laura, in 1997

As Bush's brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election His campaign focused on four themes: welfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction, and education improvement Bush's campaign advisers were Karen Hughes, Joe Allbaugh, and Karl Rove

After easily winning the Republican primary, Bush faced popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards In the course of the campaign, Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to obtain permits to carry concealed weapons Richards had vetoed the bill, but Bush signed it after he became governor According to The Atlantic Monthly, the race "featured a rumor that she was a lesbian, along with a rare instance of such a tactic's making it into the public record – when a regional chairman of the Bush campaign allowed himself, perhaps inadvertently, to be quoted criticizing Richards for 'appointing avowed homosexual activists' to state jobs" The Atlantic, and others, connected the lesbian rumor to Karl Rove, but Rove denied being involved Bush won the general election with 535 percent against Richards' 459 percent

Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut, $2 billion He extended government funding for organizations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping to reduce domestic violence Critics contended that during his tenure, Texas ranked near the bottom in environmental evaluations Supporters pointed to his efforts to raise the salaries of teachers and improve educational test scores

In 1999, Bush signed a state law obliging electric retailers to buy a certain amount of energy from renewable sources RPS, which helped Texas eventually become the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the US

In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record 69 percent of the vote He became the first governor in Texas history to be elected to two consecutive four-year terms For most of Texas history, governors served two-year terms; a constitutional amendment extended those terms to four years starting in 1975 In his second term, Bush promoted faith-based organizations and enjoyed high approval ratings He proclaimed June 10, 2000 to be Jesus Day in Texas, a day on which he "urge all Texans to answer the call to serve those in need"

Throughout Bush's first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate Following his re-election, speculation soared Within a year, he decided to seek the 2000 Republican presidential nomination

Presidential campaigns

2000 presidential candidacy

Main article: United States presidential election, 2000

Primary

George W Bush in Concord, New Hampshire signing to be a candidate for president

In June 1999, while Governor of Texas, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States With no incumbent running, Bush entered a large field of candidates for the Republican Party presidential nomination consisting of John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, Orrin Hatch, Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Lamar Alexander, John Kasich, and Bob Smith

Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative, implying he was more centrist than other Republicans He campaigned on a platform that included bringing integrity and honor back to the White House, increasing the size of the United States Armed Forces, cutting taxes, improving education, and aiding minorities By early 2000, the race had centered on Bush and McCain

Bush won the Iowa caucuses, but, although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he trailed McCain by 19 percent and lost that primary Despite this, Bush regained momentum and, according to political observers, effectively became the front runner after the South Carolina primary, which according to The Boston Globe made history for his campaign's negativity; The New York Times described it as a smear campaign

General election

On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers by asking Dick Cheney, a former White House Chief of Staff, US Representative, and Secretary of Defense, to be his running mate Cheney was then serving as head of Bush's Vice-Presidential search committee Soon after, Bush and Cheney were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the 2000 Republican National Convention

Bush continued to campaign across the country and touted his record as Governor of Texas Bush's campaign criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over gun control and taxation

When the election returns came in on November 7, Bush won 29 states, including Florida The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount The initial recount also went to Bush, but the outcome was tied up in courts for a month until reaching the US Supreme Court On December 9, in the controversial Bush v Gore ruling, the Court reversed a Florida Supreme Court decision ordering a third count, and stopped an ordered statewide hand recount based on the argument that the use of different standards among Florida's counties violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment The machine recount showed that Bush had won the Florida vote by a margin of 537 votes out of six million cast Although he received 543,895 fewer individual votes than Gore nationwide, Bush won the election, receiving 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266 Gore's statewide victories had electoral votes tallying 267; however, one of Gore's pledged electors abstained, rendering the official tally at 266 Bush was the first person to win an American presidential election with fewer national votes than another candidate since Benjamin Harrison in 1888

2004 presidential candidacy

Main article: United States presidential election, 2004 George W Bush speaks at a campaign rally in 2004

In 2004, Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge He appointed Ken Mehlman as campaign manager, with a political strategy devised by Karl Rove Bush and the Republican platform included a strong commitment to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, support for the USA PATRIOT Act, a renewed shift in policy for constitutional amendments banning abortion and same-sex marriage, reforming Social Security to create private investment accounts, creation of an ownership society, and opposing mandatory carbon emissions controls Bush also called for the implementation of a guest worker program for immigrants, which was criticized by conservatives

The Bush campaign advertised across the US against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John Kerry Kerry and other Democrats attacked Bush on the Iraq War, and accused him of failing to stimulate the economy and job growth The Bush campaign portrayed Kerry as a staunch liberal who would raise taxes and increase the size of government The Bush campaign continuously criticized Kerry's seemingly contradictory statements on the war in Iraq, and argued that Kerry lacked the decisiveness and vision necessary for success in the War on Terror

In the election, Bush carried 31 of 50 states, receiving a total of 286 electoral votes He won an absolute majority of the popular vote 507 percent to his opponent's 483 percent The previous President to win an absolute majority of the popular vote was Bush's father in the 1988 election Additionally, it was the first time since Herbert Hoover's election in 1928 that a Republican president was elected alongside re-elected Republican majorities in both Houses of Congress

Presidency 2001–09

Main articles: Presidency of George W Bush, George W Bush's first term as President of the United States, and George W Bush's second term as President of the United States President Bush addressing the media at the Pentagon, September 17, 2001

Though Bush originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, his priorities were significantly altered following the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001 Wars were waged in Afghanistan and Iraq with significant domestic debates regarding immigration, healthcare, Social Security, economic policy, and treatment of terrorist detainees Over an eight-year period, Bush's once-high approval ratings steadily declined, while his disapproval numbers increased significantly In 2007, the United States entered the longest post-World War II recession

Domestic policy

Main article: Domestic policy of the George W Bush administration

Economic policy

Main article: Economic policy of the George W Bush administration

Bush took office during a period of economic recession in the wake of the bursting of the Dot-com bubble The terrorist attacks also impacted the economy The Bush administration increased federal government spending from $1789 trillion to $2983 trillion 60 percent while revenues increased from $2025 trillion to $2524 trillion from 2000 to 2008 Individual income tax revenues increased by 14 percent, corporate tax revenues by 50 percent, customs and duties by 40 percent Discretionary defense spending was increased by 107 percent, discretionary domestic spending by 62 percent, Medicare spending by 131 percent, social security by 51 percent, and income security spending by 130 percent Cyclically adjusted, revenues rose by 35 percent and spending by 65 percent

President Bush signing a $135 trillion tax cut into law, June 7, 2001

The increase in spending was more than under any predecessor since Lyndon B Johnson The number of economic regulation governmental workers increased by 91,196

The surplus in fiscal year 2000 was $237 billion—the third consecutive surplus and the largest surplus ever In 2001, Bush's budget estimated that there would be a $56 trillion surplus over the next ten years Facing congressional opposition, Bush held townhall style meetings across the US in order to increase public support for his plan for a $135 trillion tax cut program—one of the largest tax cuts in US history Bush argued that unspent government funds should be returned to taxpayers, saying "the surplus is not the government's money The surplus is the people's money" Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan warned of a recession and Bush stated that a tax cut would stimulate the economy and create jobs Treasury Secretary Paul H O'Neill, opposed some of the tax cuts on the basis that they would contribute to budget deficits and undermine Social Security O'Neill disputes the claim, made in Bush's book Decision Points, that he never openly disagreed with him on planned tax cuts By 2003, the economy showed signs of improvement, though job growth remained stagnant Another tax cut program was passed that year

During the 2001 to 2008 years, GDP grew at an average annual rate of 2125 percent, less than for past business cycles

Bush entered office with the Dow Jones Industrial Average at 10,587, and the average peaked in October 2007 at over 14,000 When Bush left office, the average was at 7,949, one of the lowest levels of his presidency

Deficit and debt increases 2001–2009 Gross debt has increased over $500 billion each year since FY2003

Unemployment originally rose from 42 percent in January 2001 to 63 percent in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 45 percent as of July 2007 Adjusted for inflation, median household income dropped by $1,175 between 2000 and 2007, while Professor Ken Homa of Georgetown University has noted that "Median real after-tax household income went up 2%" The poverty rate increased from 113 percent in 2000 to 123 percent in 2006 after peaking at 127 percent in 2004 By October 2008, due to increases in spending, the national debt had risen to $113 trillion, an increase of over 100 percent from 2000 when the debt was only $56 trillion Most debt was accumulated as a result of what became known as the "Bush tax cuts" and increased national security spending In March 2006, then-Senator Barack Obama said when he voted against raising the debt ceiling: "The fact that we are here today to debate raising America's debt limit is a sign of leadership failure" By the end of Bush's presidency, unemployment climbed to 72 percent

In December 2007, the United States entered the longest post–World War II recession, which included a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices, and a declining dollar value In February, 63,000 jobs were lost, a five-year record To aid with the situation, Bush signed a $170 billion economic stimulus package which was intended to improve the economic situation by sending tax rebate checks to many Americans and providing tax breaks for struggling businesses The Bush administration pushed for significantly increased regulation of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in 2003, and after two years, the regulations passed the House but died in the Senate Many Republican senators, as well as influential members of the Bush Administration, feared that the agency created by these regulations would merely be mimicking the private sector's risky practices In September 2008, the crisis became much more serious beginning with the government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac followed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers and a federal bailout of American International Group for $85 billion

Many economists and world governments determined that the situation became the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression Additional regulation over the housing market would have been beneficial, according to former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan Bush, meanwhile, proposed a financial rescue plan to buy back a large portion of the US mortgage market Vince Reinhardt, a former Federal Reserve economist now at the American Enterprise Institute, said "it would have helped for the Bush administration to empower the folks at Treasury and the Federal Reserve and the comptroller of the currency and the FDIC to look at these issues more closely", and additionally, that it would have helped "for Congress to have held hearings"

In November 2008, over 500,000 jobs were lost, which marked the largest loss of jobs in the United States in 34 years The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that in the last four months of 2008, 19 million jobs were lost By the end of 2008, the US had lost a total of 26 million jobs

Education and health

Bush undertook a number of educational priorities, such as increasing the funding for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health in his first years of office, and creating education programs to strengthen the grounding in science and mathematics for American high school students Funding for the NIH was cut in 2006, the first such cut in 36 years, due to rising inflation

President Bush signing the No Child Left Behind Act into law, January 2002

One of the administration's early major initiatives was the No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich and poor student performance, provide options to parents with students in low-performing schools, and target more federal funding to low-income schools This landmark education initiative passed with broad bipartisan support, including that of Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts It was signed into law by Bush in early 2002 Many contend that the initiative has been successful, as cited by the fact that students in the US have performed significantly better on state reading and math tests since Bush signed "No Child Left Behind" into law Critics argue that it is underfunded and that NCLBA's focus on "high-stakes testing" and quantitative outcomes is counterproductive

After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford, resulted in "the greatest expansion in America's welfare state in forty years;" the bill's costs approached $7 trillion In 2007, Bush opposed and vetoed State Children's Health Insurance Program SCHIP legislation, which was added by the Democrats onto a war funding bill and passed by Congress The SCHIP legislation would have significantly expanded federally funded health care benefits and plans to children of some low-income families from about six million to ten million children It was to be funded by an increase in the cigarette tax Bush viewed the legislation as a move toward socialized health care, and asserted that the program could benefit families making as much as $83,000 per year who did not need the help

Social services and social security

Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare program by providing beneficiaries with some assistance in paying for prescription drugs, while relying on private insurance for the delivery of benefits The retired persons lobby group AARP worked with the Bush Administration on the program and gave their endorsement Bush said the law, estimated to cost $400 billion over the first ten years, would give the elderly "better choices and more control over their health care"

President Bush discussing Social Security reform at the Lake Nona YMCA Family Center in Orlando, Florida, March 18, 2005

Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to reform Social Security, which was facing record deficit projections beginning in 2005 Bush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite opposition from some in the US Congress In his 2005 State of the Union Address, Bush discussed the potential impending bankruptcy of the program and outlined his new program, which included partial privatization of the system, personal Social Security accounts, and options to permit Americans to divert a portion of their Social Security tax FICA into secured investments Democrats opposed the proposal to partially privatize the system

Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning for his initiative in media events known as "Conversations on Social Security", in an attempt to gain public support Nevertheless, public support for the proposal declined and the House Republican leadership decided not to put Social Security reform on the priority list for the remainder of their 2005 legislative agenda The proposal's legislative prospects were further diminished by the political fallout from Hurricane Katrina in the fall of 2005 After the Democrats gained control of both houses of Congress as a result of the 2006 midterm elections, there was no prospect of further congressional action on the Bush proposal for the remainder of his term in office

Environmental policies

Main article: Domestic policy of the George W Bush administration § Environment

Upon taking office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change which seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, citing that the treaty exempted 80 percent of the world's population and would have cost tens of billions of dollars per year He also cited that the Senate had voted 95–0 in 1997 on a resolution expressing its disapproval of the protocol

In May 2001, Bush signed an executive order to create an inter-agency task force to streamline energy projects, and later signed two other executive orders to tackle environmental issues

In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Act of 2003, aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs Many experts argued that this legislation would have weakened the original legislation by allowing higher emission rates of pollutants than were previously legal The initiative was introduced to Congress, but failed to make it out of committee

Later in 2006, Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument comprises 84 million acres 340,000 km2 and is home to 7,000 species of fish, birds, and other marine animals, many of which are specific to only those islands The move was hailed by conservationists for "its foresight and leadership in protecting this incredible area"

Bush has said that he believes that global warming is real and has noted that it is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's man-made or naturally caused" The Bush Administration's stance on global warming remained controversial in the scientific and environmental communities Critics have alleged that the administration misinformed the public and did not do enough to reduce carbon emissions and deter global warming

Energy policies

In his 2006 State of the Union Address, Bush declared, "America is addicted to oil" and announced his Advanced Energy Initiative to increase energy development research

President Bush delivering a statement on energy, urging Congress to end offshore oil drill ban, June 18, 2008

In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production Amid high gasoline prices in 2008, Bush lifted a ban on offshore drilling However, the move was largely symbolic as there is still a federal law banning offshore drilling Bush said, "This means that the only thing standing between the American people and these vast oil reserves is action from the US Congress" Bush had said in June 2008, "In the long run, the solution is to reduce demand for oil by promoting alternative energy technologies My administration has worked with Congress to invest in gas-saving technologies like advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells In the short run, the American economy will continue to rely largely on oil And that means we need to increase supply, especially here at home So my administration has repeatedly called on Congress to expand domestic oil production"

In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the US would commit $2 billion over the next three years to a new international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate change, saying, "Along with contributions from other countries, this fund will increase and accelerate the deployment of all forms of cleaner, more efficient technologies in developing nations like India and China, and help leverage substantial private-sector capital by making clean energy projects more financially attractive" He also announced plans to reaffirm the United States' commitment to work with major economies, and, through the UN, to complete an international agreement that will slow, stop, and eventually reverse the growth of greenhouse gases; he stated, "This agreement will be effective only if it includes commitments by every major economy and gives none a free ride"

Stem cell research and first veto

Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law since the passage in 1995 of the Dickey-Wicker Amendment by Congress and the signature of President Bill Clinton Bush has said that he supports adult stem cell research and has supported federal legislation that finances adult stem cell research However, Bush did not support embryonic stem cell research On August 9, 2001, Bush signed an executive order lifting the ban on federal funding for the 71 existing "lines" of stem cells, but the ability of these existing lines to provide an adequate medium for testing has been questioned Testing can be done on only 12 of the original lines, and all approved lines have been cultured in contact with mouse cells, which creates safety issues that complicate development and approval of therapies from these lines On July 19, 2006, Bush used his veto power for the first time in his presidency to veto the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act The bill would have repealed the Dickey-Wicker Amendment, thereby permitting federal money to be used for research where stem cells are derived from the destruction of an embryo

Genetic Nondiscrimination

On May 21, 2008 President George W Bush signed into law the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act GINA The bill aims to protect Americans against discrimination based on their genetic information when it comes to health insurance and employment The issue had been debated for 13 years before becoming law It is designed to protect citizens while not hindering genetic research

Immigration

President Bush discussing border security with Homeland Security Director Michael Chertoff near El Paso, November 2005

Nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005, more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history Almost half entered illegally In 2006, Bush urged Congress to allow more than 12 million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker program" Bush also urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico–United States border From May to June 2007, Bush strongly supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, which was written by a bipartisan group of Senators with the active participation of the Bush administration The bill envisioned a legalization program for illegal immigrants, with an eventual path to citizenship; establishing a guest worker program; a series of border and work site enforcement measures; a reform of the green card application process and the introduction of a point-based "merit" system for green cards; elimination of "chain migration" and of the Diversity Immigrant Visa; and other measures Bush argued that the lack of legal status denies the protections of US laws to millions of people who face dangers of poverty and exploitation, and penalizes employers despite a demand for immigrant labor Bush contended that the proposed bill did not amount to amnesty

A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, most conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty provisions The bill was eventually defeated in the Senate on June 28, 2007, when a cloture motion failed on a 46–53 vote Bush expressed disappointment upon the defeat of one of his signature domestic initiatives The Bush administration later proposed a series of immigration enforcement measures that do not require a change in law

On September 19, 2010, former Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said that Bush offered to accept 100,000 Palestinian refugees as American citizens if a permanent settlement had been reached between Israel and the Palestinian Authority

Hurricane Katrina

Main article: Political effects of Hurricane Katrina President Bush shaking hands with New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin after viewing the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, September 2, 2005

Hurricane Katrina, one of the most damaging natural disasters in US history, struck early in Bush's second term Katrina formed in late August during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and devastated much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States, particularly New Orleans

Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27, and in Mississippi and Alabama the following day; he authorized the Department of Homeland Security DHS and Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA to manage the disaster, but his announcement failed to spur these agencies to action The eye of the hurricane made landfall on August 29, and New Orleans began to flood due to levee breaches; later that day, Bush declared that a major disaster existed in Louisiana, officially authorizing FEMA to start using federal funds to assist in the recovery effort

President Bush with hurricane victims in Biloxi, September 2, 2005

On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance", triggering the first use of the newly created National Response Plan Three days later, on September 2, National Guard troops first entered the city of New Orleans The same day, Bush toured parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and declared that the success of the recovery effort up to that point was "not enough"

As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics charged that Bush was misrepresenting his administration's role in what they saw as a flawed response Leaders attacked Bush for having appointed apparently incompetent leaders to positions of power at FEMA, notably Michael D Brown; it was also argued that the federal response was limited as a result of the Iraq War and Bush himself did not act upon warnings of floods Bush responded to mounting criticism by accepting full responsibility for the federal government's failures in its handling of the emergency It has been argued that with Katrina, Bush passed a political tipping point from which he would not recover

Midterm dismissal of US attorneys

Main article: Dismissal of US attorneys controversy President Bush announcing his nomination of Alberto Gonzales as the next US Attorney General, November 10, 2004

During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys The White House maintained that the US attorneys were fired for poor performance Attorney General Alberto Gonzales later resigned over the issue, along with other senior members of the Justice Department The House Judiciary Committee issued subpoenas for advisers Harriet Miers and Josh Bolten to testify regarding this matter, but Bush directed Miers and Bolten to not comply with those subpoenas, invoking his right of executive privilege Bush maintained that all of his advisers were protected under a broad executive privilege protection to receive candid advice The Justice Department determined that the President's order was legal

Although Congressional investigations focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the US Attorney positions for political advantage, no official findings have been released On March 10, 2008, the Congress filed a federal lawsuit to enforce their issued subpoenas On July 31, 2008, a United States district court judge ruled that Bush's top advisers were not immune from Congressional subpoenas

In all, twelve Justice Department officials resigned rather than testify under oath before Congress They included Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and his chief of staff Kyle Sampson, Gonzales' liaison to the White House Monica Goodling, aide to the president Karl Rove and his senior aide Sara Taylor In addition, legal counsel to the president Harriet Miers and deputy chief of staff to the president Joshua Bolten were both found in contempt of Congress

In 2010, the Justice Department investigator concluded that though political considerations did play a part in as many as four of the attorney firings, the firings were "inappropriately political", but not criminal According to the prosecutors, there was insufficient evidence to pursue prosecution for any criminal offense

Foreign policy

Main article: Foreign policy of the George W Bush administration President Bush with Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi in 2005 Countries visited by President George W Bush during his time in office

In July 2001, Bush visited Pope John Paul II at Castel Gandolfo During his Presidential campaign, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements The administration pursued a national missile defense Bush was an advocate of China's entry into the World Trade Organization

In his 2002 State of the Union Address, Bush referred to an axis of evil including Iraq, Iran and North Korea After the September 11 attacks on New York, Bush launched the War on Terror, in which the United States military and a small international coalition invaded Afghanistan In 2003, Bush then launched the invasion of Iraq, searching for Weapons of Mass Destruction, which he described as being part of the War on Terrorism Those invasions led to the toppling of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq

Foreign Minister of India Pranab Mukherjee with President Bush, March 2008

Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations He appointed long-time adviser Karen Hughes to oversee a global public relations campaign Bush lauded the pro-democracy struggles in Georgia and Ukraine

In March 2006, a visit to India led to renewed ties between the two countries, reversing decades of US policy The visit focused particularly on areas of nuclear energy and counter-terrorism cooperation, discussions that would lead eventually to the India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement

This is in stark contrast to the stance taken by his predecessor, Clinton, whose approach and response to India after the 1998 nuclear tests was that of sanctions and hectoring The relationship between India and the United States was one that dramatically improved during Bush's tenure

Midway through Bush's second term, it was questioned whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes toward some oil-rich former Soviet republics in central Asia

In an address before both Houses of Congress on September 20, 2001, Bush thanked the nations of the world for their support following the September 11 attacks He specifically thanked UK Prime Minister Tony Blair for traveling to Washington to show "unity of purpose with America", and said "America has no truer friend than Great Britain"

September 11 attacks

Main article: September 11 attacks President Bush, standing with firefighter Bob Beckwith, addressing rescue workers at Ground Zero in New York, September 14, 2001

The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency That evening, he addressed the nation from the Oval Office, promising a strong response to the attacks He also emphasized the need for the nation to come together and comfort the families of the victims On September 14, he visited Ground Zero, meeting with Mayor Rudy Giuliani, firefighters, police officers, and volunteers Bush addressed the gathering via a megaphone while standing on a heap of rubble, to much applause: "I can hear you The rest of the world hears you And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon"

In a September 20 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and his organization Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was operating, to "hand over the terrorists, or share in their fate"

War on Terrorism

Main article: War on Terror President Bush presenting former British Prime Minister Tony Blair with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, January 13, 2009

After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terror The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with Osama bin Laden, so Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime In his January 29, 2002 State of the Union Address, he asserted that an "axis of evil" consisting of North Korea, Iran, and Iraq was "arming to threaten the peace of the world" and "pose a grave and growing danger" The Bush Administration asserted both a right and the intention to wage preemptive war, or preventive war This became the basis for the Bush Doctrine which weakened the unprecedented levels of international and domestic support for the United States which had followed the September 11 attacks

Dissent and criticism of Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq continued In 2006, a National Intelligence Estimate concluded that the Iraq War had become the "cause célèbre for jihadists"

Afghanistan invasion

Main article: War in Afghanistan 2001–14 President Bush and President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan appearing at a joint news conference in Kabul, March 1, 2006

On October 7, 2001, US and British forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul on November 13 The main goals of the war were to defeat the Taliban, drive al-Qaeda out of Afghanistan, and capture key al-Qaeda leaders In December 2001, the Pentagon reported that the Taliban had been defeated, but cautioned that the war would go on to continue weakening Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders Later that month the UN had installed the Afghan Transitional Administration chaired by Hamid Karzai In 2002, based on UNICEF figures, Nicholas Kristof reported that "our invasion of Afghanistan may end up saving one million lives over the next decade" as the result of improved healthcare and greater access to humanitarian aid

Efforts to kill or capture al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the mountainous region of Tora Bora, which the Bush Administration later acknowledged to have resulted from a failure to commit enough US ground troops It was not until May 2011, two years after Bush left office, that bin Laden was killed by US forces Bin Laden's successor, Ayman al-Zawahiri, remains at large

Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits The 2005 failure of Operation Red Wings showed that the Taliban had returned In 2006, the Taliban insurgency appeared larger, fiercer and better organized than expected, with large-scale allied offensives such as Operation Mountain Thrust attaining limited success As a result, Bush commissioned 3,500 additional troops to the country in March 2007

Iraq invasion

Main articles: Iraq War and George W Bush and the Iraq War President Bush, with Naval Flight Officer Lieutenant Ryan Philips, after landing on the USS Abraham Lincoln prior to his Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003

Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing "a grave and growing danger" to US interests through possession of weapons of mass destruction

In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons programs, not properly accounting for Iraqi biological and chemical weapons, and that some Iraqi missiles had a range greater than allowed by the UN sanctions Contentions that the Bush Administration manipulated or exaggerated the threat and evidence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities would eventually become a major point of criticism for the president

In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons inspectors in Iraq, but were advised by the US to depart the country four days prior to the US invasion, despite their requests for more time to complete their tasks The US initially sought a UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of military force but dropped the bid for UN approval due to vigorous opposition from several countries

President Bush paying a surprise visit to Baghdad International Airport, November 27, 2003

More than 20 nations most notably the United Kingdom, designated the "coalition of the willing" joined the United States in invading Iraq They launched the invasion on March 20, 2003 The Iraqi military was quickly defeated The capital, Baghdad, fell on April 9, 2003 On May 1, Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq The initial success of US operations increased his popularity, but the US and allied forces faced a growing insurgency led by sectarian groups; Bush's "Mission Accomplished" speech was later criticized as premature From 2004 until 2007, the situation in Iraq deteriorated further, with some observers arguing that there was a full-scale civil war in Iraq Bush's policies met with criticism, including demands domestically to set a timetable to withdraw troops from Iraq The 2006 report of the bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by James Baker, concluded that the situation in Iraq was "grave and deteriorating" While Bush admitted that there were strategic mistakes made in regards to the stability of Iraq, he maintained he would not change the overall Iraq strategy According to Iraq Body Count, some 251,000 Iraqis have been killed in the civil war following the US-led invasion, including at least 163,841 civilians

President Bush with Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, July 25, 2006

In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in 50 years According to Iraqi National Security Advisor Mowaffak al-Rubaie, "This is the greatest day in the history of this country" Bush praised the event as well, saying that the Iraqis "have taken rightful control of their country's destiny" This led to the election of Jalal Talabani as President and Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister of Iraq A referendum to approve a constitution in Iraq was held in October 2005, supported by most Shiites and many Kurds

On January 10, 2007, Bush announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $12 billion for these programs On May 1, 2007, Bush used his second-ever veto to reject a bill setting a deadline for the withdrawal of US troops, saying the debate over the conflict was "understandable" but insisting that a continued US presence there was crucial

In March 2008, Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq" He said he would carefully weigh recommendations from his commanding General David Petraeus and Ambassador Ryan Crocker about how to proceed after the end of the military buildup in the summer of 2008 He also praised the Iraqis' legislative achievements, including a pension law, a revised de-Baathification law, a new budget, an amnesty law, and a provincial powers measure that, he said, set the stage for the Iraqi elections By July 2008, American troop deaths had reached their lowest number since the war began, and due to increased stability in Iraq, Bush announced the withdrawal of additional American forces

Surveillance

Following the events of September 11, Bush issued an executive order authorizing the President's Surveillance Program which included allowing the NSA to monitor communications between suspected terrorists outside the US and parties within the US without obtaining a warrant as required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act As of 2009, the other provisions of the program remained highly classified Once the Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel questioned its original legal opinion that FISA did not apply in a time of war, the program was subsequently re-authorized by the President on the basis that the warrant requirements of FISA were implicitly superseded by the subsequent passage of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists The program proved to be controversial, as critics of the administration, as well as organizations such as the American Bar Association, argued that it was illegal In August 2006, a US district court judge ruled that the NSA electronic surveillance program was unconstitutional, but on July 6, 2007, that ruling was vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit on the grounds that the plaintiffs lacked standing On January 17, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales informed US Senate leaders that the program would not be reauthorized by the President, but would be subjected to judicial oversight Later in 2007, the NSA launched a replacement for the program, referred to as PRISM, that was subject to the oversight of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court This program was not publicly revealed until reports by The Washington Post and The Guardian emerged in June 2013

Interrogation policies

See also: Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture President Bush at the celebration of the sixtieth anniversary of victory in World War II, Red Square, Moscow

Bush authorized the CIA to use waterboarding as one of several enhanced interrogation techniques Between 2002 and 2003 the CIA considered certain enhanced interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding, to be legal based on a secret Justice Department legal opinion arguing that terror detainees were not protected by the Geneva Conventions' ban on torture and Vice President Cheney said enhanced interrogation including waterboarding was not torture or illegal The CIA had exercised the technique on certain key terrorist suspects under authority given to it in the Bybee Memo from the Attorney General, though that memo was later withdrawn While not permitted by the US Army Field Manuals which assert "that harsh interrogation tactics elicit unreliable information", the Bush administration believed these enhanced interrogations "provided critical information" to preserve American lives Critics, such as former CIA officer Bob Baer, have stated that information was suspect, "you can get anyone to confess to anything if the torture's bad enough"

On October 17, 2006, Bush signed into law the Military Commissions Act of 2006, a law enacted in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision in Hamdan v Rumsfeld, 548 US 557 2006, which allows the US government to prosecute unlawful enemy combatants by military commission rather than a standard trial The law also denies them access to habeas corpus and bars the torture of detainees, but allows the president to determine what constitutes torture

On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed HR 2082, a bill that would have expanded congressional oversight over the intelligence community and banned the use of waterboarding as well as other forms of interrogation not permitted under the United States Army Field Manual on Human Intelligence Collector Operations, saying that "the bill Congress sent me would take away one of the most valuable tools in the War on Terror" In April 2009, the ACLU sued and won release of the secret memos that had authorized the Bush administration's interrogation tactics One memo detailed specific interrogation tactics including a footnote that described waterboarding as torture as well as that the form of waterboarding used by the CIA was far more intense than authorized by the Justice Department

North Korea condemnation

Main article: North Korea–United States relations President Bush with China's President and Communist party leader Hu Jintao, 2006

Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea, naming North Korea one of three states in an "axis of evil", and saying that "the United States of America will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons" Within months, "both countries had walked away from their respective commitments under the US–DPRK Agreed Framework of October 1994" North Korea's October 9, 2006, detonation of a nuclear device further complicated Bush's foreign policy, which centered for both terms of his presidency on " the terrorists and regimes who seek chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons from threatening the United States and the world" Bush condemned North Korea's position, reaffirmed his commitment to "a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula", and stated that "transfer of nuclear weapons or material by North Korea to states or non-state entities would be considered a grave threat to the United States", for which North Korea would be held accountable On May 7, 2007, North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear reactors immediately pending the release of frozen funds held in a foreign bank account This was a result of a series of three-way talks initiated by the United States and including China On September 2, 2007, North Korea agreed to disclose and dismantle all of its nuclear programs by the end of 2007 By May 2009, North Korea had restarted its nuclear program and threatened to attack South Korea

On June 22, 2010, "While South Korea prospers, the people of North Korea have suffered profoundly," he said, adding that, "communism had resulted in dire poverty, mass starvation and brutal suppression "In recent years," he went on to say, "the suffering has been compounded by the leader who wasted North Korea's precious few resources on personal luxuries and nuclear weapons programs"

Syria sanctions

President Bush with Russian president Vladimir Putin in Shanghai, October 21, 2001

Bush expanded economic sanctions on Syria In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Electronics Institute, and National Standards and Calibration Laboratory Bush's order prohibits Americans from doing business with these institutions suspected of helping spread weapons of mass destruction and being supportive of terrorism Under separate executive orders signed by Bush in 2004 and later 2007, the Treasury Department froze the assets of two Lebanese and two Syrians, accusing them of activities to "undermine the legitimate political process in Lebanon" in November 2007 Those designated included: Assaad Halim Hardan, a member of Lebanon's parliament and current leader of the Syrian Socialist National Party; Wi'am Wahhab, a former member of Lebanon's government Minister of the Environment under Prime Minister Omar Karami 2004–2005; Hafiz Makhluf, a colonel and senior official in the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate and a cousin of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; and Muhammad Nasif Khayrbik, identified as a close adviser to Assad

Africa

Bush initiated the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Program PEPFAR The US government has spent some $44 billion on the project since 2003 a figure that includes $7 billion contributed to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, a multilateral organization, saving an estimated 5 million lives According to The New York Times correspondent Peter Baker, "Bush did more to stop AIDS and more to help Africa than any president before or since"

Assassination attempt

On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian, a native Georgian who was born to a family of ethnic Armenians, threw a live hand grenade toward a podium where Bush was speaking at Freedom Square in Tbilisi, Georgia Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili was seated nearby It landed in the crowd about 65 feet 20 m from the podium after hitting a girl, but it did not detonate Arutyunian was arrested in July 2005, confessed, was convicted and was given a life sentence in January 2006

Other issues

President Bush, Mahmoud Abbas, and Ariel Sharon meet at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003

Bush withdrew US support for several international agreements, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty ABM with Russia He also signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty with Russia

Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for his support of violence, but sponsored dialogues between Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas Bush supported Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan, and lauded the democratic elections held in Palestine after Arafat's death

President Bush and Ukrainian Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, April 1, 2008

Bush also expressed US support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with the People's Republic of China over the Hainan Island incident, when an EP-3E Aries II surveillance aircraft collided with a People's Liberation Army Air Force jet, leading to the detention of US personnel From 2003 to 2004, Bush authorized US military intervention in Haiti and Liberia to protect US interests Bush condemned the militia attacks Darfur and denounced the killings in Sudan as genocide Bush said that an international peacekeeping presence was critical in Darfur, but opposed referring the situation to the International Criminal Court

In the State of the Union address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Bush announced $15 billion for this effort which directly supported life-saving antiretroviral treatment for more than 32 million men, women and children worldwide

On June 10, 2007, Bush met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania Bush has voiced his support for the independence of Kosovo Bush opposed South Ossetia's independence On August 15, 2008, Bush said of Russia's invasion of the country of Georgia: "Bullying and intimidation are not acceptable ways to conduct foreign policy in the 21st century"

Bush opened the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utha Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of US athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or box, saying: "On behalf of a proud, determined, and grateful nation, I declare open the Games of Salt Lake City, celebrating the Olympic Winter Games" In 2008, in the course of a good-will trip to Asia, he attended the Summer Olympics in Beijing

Bush twice invoked Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, which allows a President to temporarily transfer the powers and duties of his office to the Vice President who then becomes Acting President On June 29, 2002, Bush underwent a colonoscopy and chose to invoke Section 3 of the amendment, making Vice President Dick Cheney the Acting President The medical procedure began at 7:09 am EDT and ended at 7:29 am EDT Bush woke up twenty minutes later, but did not resume his presidential powers and duties until 9:24 am EDT after the president's doctor, Richard Tubb, conducted an overall examination Tubb said he recommended the additional time to make sure the sedative had no after effects On July 21, 2007, Bush again invoked Section 3 in response to having to undergo a colonoscopy, again making Vice President Cheney the Acting President Bush invoked Section 3 at 7:16 am EDT He reclaimed his powers at 9:21 am EDT In both cases, Bush specifically cited Section 3 when he transferred the Presidential powers to the Vice President and when he reclaimed those powers

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Main article: George W Bush Supreme Court candidates Supreme Court Justice nominee John Roberts and President Bush, July 19, 2005

Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush nominated John Roberts to succeed her On September 5, following the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, this nomination was withdrawn and Bush instead nominated Roberts for Chief Justice to succeed Rehnquist Roberts was confirmed by the Senate as the 17th Chief Justice on September 29, 2005

On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated long time White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position After facing significant opposition from both parties, who found her to be ill-prepared and uninformed on the law, Miers asked that her name be withdrawn on October 27 Four days later, on October 31, Bush nominated federal appellate judge Samuel Alito Alito was confirmed as the 110th Supreme Court Justice on January 31, 2006

Other courts

Main article: List of federal judges appointed by George W Bush

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 61 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 261 judges to the United States district courts Each of these numbers, along with his total of 324 judicial appointments, is third in American history, behind both Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton Bush experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies Debate during one confirmation session lasted "39 stupefying hours" according to The New York Times On August 3, 2001, the Senate did not consent to keep existing nominations in status quo, returning 40 judicial nominations, and 164 total nominations

At the outset, Judicature magazine noted that the "Senate Democrats were gearing up for the approaching confirmation hearings" before the first set of nominees were sent to the Senate It then cites The New York Times as saying "Senate Democrats have pledged they will not automatically vote to confirm Mr Bush's judicial nominees and will subject them to intense scrutiny"

The Senate confirmed only 8 out of 60 judicial nominations by October 2001 In February 2003, the Democrats successfully filibustered the nomination of Miguel Estrada

Public image and perception

Domestic

Main article: Public image of George W Bush See also: Efforts to impeach George W Bush   approve   disapprove   unsure Gallup/USA Today Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to January 2009 Image

Bush's upbringing in West Texas, his accent, his vacations on his Texas ranch, and his penchant for country metaphors contribute to his folksy, American cowboy image "I think people look at him and think John Wayne," said Piers Morgan, editor of the British Daily Mirror It has been suggested that Bush's accent was an active choice, as a way of distinguishing himself from Northeastern intellectuals and anchoring himself to his Texas roots Both supporters and detractors have pointed to his country persona as reasons for their support or criticism

Bush has been parodied by the media, comedians, and other politicians Detractors tended to cite linguistic errors made by Bush during his public speeches, which are colloquially referred to as Bushisms Some pundits labeled Bush "the worst president ever" In contrast to his father, who was perceived as having troubles with an overarching unifying theme, Bush embraced larger visions and was seen as a man of larger ideas and associated huge risks Tony Blair wrote in 2010 that the caricature of Bush as being dumb is "ludicrous" and that Bush is "very smart" In an interview with Playboy, New York Times columnist David Brooks said George W Bush "was 60 IQ points smarter in private than he was in public He doesn't want anybody to think he's smarter than they are, so puts on a Texas act"

Job approval

Bush began his presidency with approval ratings near 50 percent After the September 11 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of 90 percent, maintaining 80 to 90 percent approval for four months after the attacks It remained over 50 percent during most of his first term and then fell to as low as 19 percent in his second term

In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "has done the most to influence the events of the year" In May 2004, Gallup reported that 89 percent of the Republican electorate approved of Bush However, the support waned due mostly to a minority of Republicans' frustration with him on issues of spending, illegal immigration, and Middle Eastern affairs

Within the United States armed forces, according to an unscientific survey, the president was strongly supported in the 2004 presidential elections While 73 percent of military personnel said that they would vote for Bush, 18 percent preferred his Democratic rival, John Kerry According to Peter Feaver, a Duke University political scientist who has studied the political leanings of the US military, members of the armed services supported Bush because they found him more likely than Kerry to complete the War in Iraq

Bush's approval rating went below the 50 percent mark in AP-Ipsos polling in December 2004 Thereafter, his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues steadily dropped Bush received heavy criticism for his handling of the Iraq War, his response to Hurricane Katrina and to the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse, NSA warrantless surveillance, the Plame affair, and Guantanamo Bay detention camp controversies There were calls for Bush's impeachment, though most polls showed a plurality of Americans would not support such an action The arguments offered for impeachment usually centered on the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, the Bush administration's justification for the war in Iraq, and alleged violations of the Geneva Conventions Representative Dennis Kucinich D-OH, who had run against Bush during the 2004 presidential campaign, introduced 35 articles of impeachment on the floor of the House of Representatives against Bush on June 9, 2008, but Speaker Nancy Pelosi D-CA declared that impeachment was "off the table"

Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37 percent approval ratings for Bush, the lowest for any second-term president at that point of his term since Harry S Truman in March 1951 when Truman's approval rating was 28 percent, which contributed to what Bush called the "thumping" of the Republican Party in the 2006 mid-term elections Throughout most of 2007, Bush's approval rating hovered in the mid-thirties; the average for his entire second term was 37 percent, according to Gallup

President Bush's approval rating with key events marked, 2001–2006

By the beginning of 2008, his final year in office, Bush's approval rating had dropped to a low of just 19 percent, largely from the loss of support among Republicans Commenting on his low poll numbers and accusations of being "the worst president," Bush would say, "I make decisions on what I think is right for the United States based upon principles I frankly don't give a damn about the polls"

In the spring of that year, Bush's disapproval ratings reached the highest ever recorded for any president in the 70-year history of the Gallup poll, with 69 percent of those polled in April 2008 disapproving of the job Bush was doing as president and 28 percent approving—although the majority 66 percent of Republicans still approved of his job performance

In polls conducted in the fall, just before the 2008 election, his approval ratings remained at record lows of 19 to 20 percent, while his disapproval ratings ranged from 67 percent to as high as 75 percent In polling conducted January 9–11, 2009, his final job approval rating by Gallup was 34 percent, which placed him on par with Jimmy Carter and Harry S Truman, the other presidents whose final Gallup ratings measured in the low 30s Richard Nixon's final Gallup approval rating was even lower, at 24 percent According to a CBS News/New York Times poll conducted January 11–15, 2009, Bush's final approval rating in office was 22 percent, the lowest in American history

Foreign perceptions

President Bush with President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, September 22, 2006

Bush was criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization campaigns for his administration's foreign policy Views of him within the international community—even in France, a close ally of the United States—were more negative than those of most previous American presidents in history

Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair of Great Britain and Vicente Fox of Mexico, although formal relations were sometimes strained Other leaders, such as Afghan president Hamid Karzai, Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni, Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, openly criticized the president Later in Bush's presidency, tensions arose between him and Vladimir Putin, which led to a cooling of their relationship

Anti-war demonstration during President Bush's visit to London, June 2008

In 2006, most respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush Respondents indicated that they judged his administration as negative for world security In 2007, the Pew Global Attitudes Project reported that during the Bush presidency, attitudes towards the United States, and towards Americans, became less favorable around the world

A March 2007 survey of Arab opinion conducted by Zogby International and the University of Maryland found that Bush was the most disliked leader in the Arab world

The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that out of 47 countries, in only nine countries did most respondents express "a lot of confidence" or "some confidence" in Bush: Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Israel, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda

During a June 2007 visit to the predominantly Muslim Albania, Bush was greeted enthusiastically Albania has a population of 28 million, has troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan, and the country's government is highly supportive of American foreign policy A huge image of the President was hung in the middle of the capital city of Tirana flanked by Albanian and American flags while a local street was named after him A shirt-sleeved statue of Bush was unveiled in Fushë-Krujë, a few kilometers northwest of Tirana The Bush administration's support for the independence of Albanian-majority Kosovo, while endearing him to the Albanians, has troubled US relations with Serbia, leading to the February 2008 torching of the US embassy in Belgrade

Acknowledgments and dedications

On May 7, 2005, during an official state visit to Latvia, Bush was awarded the Order of the Three Stars presented to him by President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga A few places outside the United States bear Bush's name In 2005, the Tbilisi City Council voted to rename a street in honor of the US president Previously known as Melaani Drive, the street links the Georgian capital's airport with the city center and was used by Bush's motorcade during his visit four months earlier A street in Tirana, formerly known as Rruga Puntorët e Rilendjes, situated directly outside the Albanian Parliament, was renamed after Bush a few days before he made the first-ever visit by an American president to Albania in June 2007 In Jerusalem, a small plaza with a monument bearing his name is also dedicated to Bush

In 2012, Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves awarded Bush the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana for his work in expanding NATO

Reception

The Bush presidency has been ranked among the worst in surveys of presidential scholars published in the late 2000s and 2010s

After his re-election in 2004, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, and other challenges Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession, often referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the September 11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis

For his part, Bush said in 2013, "Ultimately history will judge the decisions I made, and I won't be around because it will take time for the objective historians to show up So I am pretty comfortable with it I did what I did"

Post-presidency

Residence since 2009

George and Laura Bush waving to a crowd of 1000 at Andrews Air Force Base before their final departure to Texas, January 20, 2009

Following the inauguration of Barack Obama, Bush and his family flew from Andrews Air Force Base to a homecoming celebration in Midland, Texas, following which they returned to their ranch in Crawford, Texas They bought a home in the Preston Hollow neighborhood of Dallas, Texas, where they settled down

He makes regular appearances at various events throughout the Dallas/Fort Worth area, most notably when he conducted the opening coin toss at the Dallas Cowboys first game in the team's new stadium in Arlington and an April 2009 visit to a Texas Rangers game, where he thanked the people of Dallas for helping him settle in and was met with a standing ovation He also attended every home playoff game for the Texas Rangers 2010 season and, accompanied by his father, threw out the ceremonial first pitch at Rangers Ballpark in Arlington for Game 4 of the 2010 World Series on October 31, 2010

On August 6, 2013, Bush was successfully treated for a coronary artery blockage with a stent The blockage had been found during an annual medical examination

In reaction to the 2016 shooting of Dallas police officers, Bush stated: "Laura and I are heartbroken by the heinous acts of violence in our city last night Murdering the innocent is always evil, never more so than when the lives taken belong to those who protect our families and communities"

Publications and appearances

George W Bush, President Obama, and Bill Clinton meeting in the Oval Office, January 16, 2010

Since leaving office, Bush has kept a relatively low profile though he has made public appearances, most notably after the release of his memoirs in 2010 and for the 10th anniversary of the September 11 attacks in 2011 In March 2009, he delivered his first post-presidency speech in Calgary, Alberta, appeared via video on The Colbert Report during which he praised US troops for earning a "special place in American history," and attended the funeral of Senator Ted Kennedy Bush made his debut as a motivational speaker on October 26 at the "Get Motivated" seminar in Dallas In the aftermath of the Fort Hood shooting that took place on November 5, 2009, in Texas, the Bushes paid an undisclosed visit to the survivors and victims' families the day following the shooting, having contacted the base commander requesting that the visit be private and not involve press coverage

L–R Charlie Strong, Texas Longhorns head football coach, George W Bush and Reverend Jesse Jackson hold up a Texas Longhorns football jersey at the LBJ Presidential Library in 2014

Bush released his memoirs, Decision Points, on November 9, 2010 During a pre-release appearance promoting the book, Bush said he considered his biggest accomplishment to be keeping "the country safe amid a real danger", and his greatest failure to be his inability to secure the passage of Social Security reform He also made news defending his administration's enhanced interrogation techniques, specifically the waterboarding of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, saying, "I'd do it again to save lives"

In 2012, he wrote the foreword of The 4% Solution: Unleashing the Economic Growth America Needs, an economics book published by the George W Bush Presidential Center He also presented the book at the Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Texas

Bush appeared on NBC's The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on November 19, 2013, along with the former First Lady, Laura Bush When asked by Leno why he does not comment publicly about the Obama administration, Bush said, "I don't think it's good for the country to have a former president criticize his successor" Despite this statement, on Saturday, April 25, 2015, Bush criticized President Barack Obama at a meeting of the Republican Jewish Coalition at the Venetian Hotel in Las Vegas Bush criticized Obama's handling of Iran, specifically with respect to sanctions and a nuclear deal, saying: "You think the Middle East is chaotic now Imagine what it looks like for our grandchildren That's how Americans should view the deal" Bush also attacked Obama's withdrawal of US troops from Iraq in 2011, calling it a "strategic blunder", borrowing a term that had been used by South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham

Alongside the 2014 United States–Africa Leaders Summit, Bush, Michelle Obama, the State Department, and the George W Bush Institute hosted a daylong forum on education and health with the spouses of the African leaders attending the summit Bush urged African leaders to avoid discriminatory laws that make the treatment of HIV/AIDS more difficult

Bush has spoken in favor of increased global participation of women in politics and societal matters in foreign countries

On November 2, 2014, Bush spoke at an event to 200 business and civic leaders at the George W Bush Presidential Library and Museum to raise awareness for the upcoming Museum of the Bible in Washington DC

Bush published a biography of his father, George Bush, called 41: A Portrait of My Father It was released on November 11, 2014

In an interview published by Israel Hayom magazine on June 12, 2015, Bush said that "boots on the ground" would be needed in order to defeat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIS He added that people had said during his Presidency that he should withdraw American troops from Iraq, but he chose the opposite, sending 30,000 more troops in order to defeat Al Qaeda in Iraq, and that Al Qaeda in Iraq was defeated Bush was also asked about Iran but declined to answer, stating that any answer he gives would be interpreted as undermining President Barack Obama

In February 2016, George W Bush spoke and campaigned for his brother Jeb Bush in South Carolina during a rally for the Jeb Bush presidential campaign in the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries

While Bush endorsed the Republican Party's 2012 presidential nominee Mitt Romney, he declined to endorse the 2016 Republican nominee Donald Trump and he didn't attend the 2016 Republican National Convention that formally nominated Trump On the eve of Trump's nomination, it was reported that Bush had privately expressed concern about the current direction of the Republican Party and told a group of his former aides and advisors, "I'm worried that I will be the last Republican president" Bush and his wife Laura did not vote for Trump in the 2016 presidential election according to a spokesperson for the Bush family, instead choosing to leave their presidential ballots blank After the election, Bush, his father, and his brother Jeb called Trump on the phone to congratulate him on his victory

Collaborations

In January 2010, at President Obama's request, Bush and Bill Clinton established the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund to raise contributions for relief and recovery efforts following the 2010 Haiti earthquake earlier that month

On May 2, 2011, President Obama called Bush, who was at a restaurant with his wife, to inform him that Osama bin Laden had been killed The Bushes joined the Obamas in New York City to mark the tenth anniversary of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks At the Ground Zero memorial, Bush read a letter that President Abraham Lincoln wrote to a widow who lost five sons during the Civil War

Visual art

After serving as president, Bush began painting as a hobby Subjects have included dogs and still life He has also painted self-portraits and portraits of world leaders, including Vladimir Putin and Tony Blair

His paintings have been met with a middling reception from art critics Bill Arning, director of the Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, called his portraits "thickly painted in what I would call 'high-amateur' mode" and wrote, "I would say they need to be less based on photographic reproduction You can tell when someone is taking a found photograph and making a painting out of it I think he'd be well advised to work from other, multiple photographic sources or the real person to get a little bit more liveliness going on"

Legacy

George W Bush's legacy remains a contested one Supporters credit Bush's counterterrorism policies with preventing another major terrorist attack from occurring in the US after 9/11 and also praise individual policies such as the Medicare prescription drug benefit and the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR Critics often point to his handling of the Iraq War, specifically the failure to find weapons of mass destruction, that were the main rationale behind the initial invasion—as well as his handling of tax policy, Hurricane Katrina and the 2008 financial crisis as proof that George W Bush was unfit to be president

Several historians and commentators hold the view that Bush was one of the most consequential presidents in American history Princeton University scholar Julian Zelizer described Bush's presidency as a "transformative" one, and said that "some people hate him, some people love him, but I do think he'll have a much more substantive perception as time goes on" Bryon Williams of The Huffington Post referred to Bush as "the most noteworthy president since FDR" and said that the Patriot Act "increased authority of the executive branch at the expense of judicial opinions about when searches and seizures are reasonable" as evidence Bush's administration presided over the largest tax cuts since the Reagan administration, and his homeland security reforms proved to be the most significant expansion of the federal government since the Great Society Much of these policies have endured in the administration of Bush's Democratic successor, Barack Obama A 2010 Siena Research Institute survey of the opinions of historians, political scientists, and presidential scholars ranked him 39th out of 43 presidents The survey respondents gave President Bush low ratings on his handling of the US economy, communication, ability to compromise, foreign policy accomplishments, and intelligence

Among the public, his reputation has improved somewhat since his presidency ended in 2009 In February 2012, Gallup reported that "Americans still rate George W Bush among the worst presidents, though their views have become more positive in the three years since he left office" Gallup had earlier noted that Bush's favorability ratings in public opinion surveys had begun to rise a year after he had left office, from 40 percent in January 2009 and 35 percent in March 2009, to 45 percent in July 2010, a period during which he had remained largely out of the news Other pollsters have noted similar trends of slight improvement in Bush's personal favorability since the end of his presidency In April 2013, Bush's approval rating stood at 47 percent approval and 50 percent disapproval in a poll jointly conducted for The Washington Post and ABC, his highest approval rating since December 2005 Bush had achieved notable gains among seniors, non-college whites, and moderate and conservative Democrats since leaving office, although majorities disapproved of his handling of the economy 53 percent and the Iraq War 57 percent His 47 percent approval rating was equal to that of President Obama's in the same polling period A CNN poll conducted that same month found that 55 percent of Americans said Bush's presidency had been a failure, with opinions divided along party lines, and 43 percent of independents calling it a success

See also

  • Biography portal
  • Conservatism portal
  • Government of the United States portal
  • Texas portal
  • Baseball portal
  • Electoral history of George W Bush
  • Fictionalized portrayals of George W Bush
  • Political positions of George W Bush
  • List of George W Bush legislation and programs
  • List of multilingual presidents of the United States
  • List of nicknames for George W Bush
  • List of nicknames used by George W Bush
  • List of Presidents of the United States
  • List of Presidents of the United States by previous experience

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  372. ^ Marcela Sanchez March 3, 2006 "Keeping the US at Bay, Mexican Presidential Candidate Looks to Move Past Fox's Failures" The Washington Post 
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  376. ^ Wasswa, Henry October 14, 2004 "Uganda's president criticizes Bush administration's handling of war in Iraq" Sudan Tribune Archived from the original on October 20, 2007 Retrieved June 23, 2009 
  377. ^ Tremlett, Giles March 16, 2004 "Spanish leader accuses Bush and Blair" The Guardian UK Archived from the original on December 21, 2009 Retrieved June 23, 2009 
  378. ^ Ed Pilkington in New York September 21, 2006 "Chávez attacks 'devil' Bush in UN speech" The Guardian UK Archived from the original on August 27, 2009 Retrieved October 20, 2008 
  379. ^ Condon, George E Jr July 21, 2006 "Bush, White House now leery of Putin as Russian turns back on democracy" U-T San Diego Archived from the original on May 24, 2008 Retrieved September 1, 2008 
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  385. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population" Archived from the original on October 10, 2009 Retrieved October 30, 2010 
  386. ^ "Albania: Preliminary results of the Population and Housing Census 2011" PDF Archived from the original PDF on January 12, 2012 Retrieved February 5, 2016 
  387. ^ "Bush greeted as hero in Albania" BBC June 10, 2007 Archived from the original on February 5, 2009 Retrieved September 1, 2008 
  388. ^ Vicky O'Hara June 10, 2007 "Bush Gets Warm Reception in Albania" NPR Archived from the original on April 14, 2009 Retrieved September 1, 2008 
  389. ^ "Albanian Street Named After George W Bush" Balkan Insight June 8, 2007 Archived from the original on August 23, 2011 Retrieved July 6, 2011 
  390. ^ "Albanian town thanks George W Bush with statue" Reuters July 6, 2011 Archived from the original on July 9, 2011 Retrieved July 6, 2011 
  391. ^ Bilefsky, Dan December 4, 2008 "Serbian official blames US for recent violence" The New York Times Archived from the original on May 13, 2011 Retrieved April 9, 2010 
  392. ^ "State President awards the Three Star Order to the USPresident" in Latvian Latvian President's Chancery May 7, 2005 Archived from the original on May 11, 2011 Retrieved November 5, 2010 
  393. ^ "Tbilisi City Council Names Street after US President Bush" Civil Georgia September 15, 2005 Archived from the original on July 3, 2004 Retrieved March 17, 2013 
  394. ^ "Georgian capital names street after Bush" Tampa Bay Times September 15, 2005 Archived from the original on January 3, 2006 Retrieved October 21, 2012 
  395. ^ "Albanian Street Named After George W Bush" Balkan Insight June 8, 2007 Archived from the original on August 23, 2011 Retrieved October 21, 2012 
  396. ^ W Bush Plaza, Jerusalem | Flickr – Condivisione di foto! Flickrcom June 2, 2009 Retrieved July 15, 2013
  397. ^ "Bush to be honored by Estonia" United Press International February 1, 2012 Retrieved March 17, 2013 
  398. ^ George W Bush: History will be the judge; as for opinion polls, 'I could care less'
  399. ^ "Ex-President Bush and Wife Leave Washington for Texas" Fox News Channel Associated Press January 20, 2009 Archived from the original on January 23, 2009 Retrieved January 20, 2009 
  400. ^ Brown, Angela K January 21, 2009 "Enthusiastic Crowds Welcome Bush Back to Texas" Fox News Channel Archived from the original on April 14, 2014 Retrieved March 4, 2011 
  401. ^ "Coin toss from George and Laura Bush was a brief taste of luck for Cowboys fans" Fort Worth Star-Telegram September 21, 2009 Archived from the original on November 7, 2009 Retrieved October 10, 2009 
  402. ^ Zaleski, Katharine April 7, 2009 "Bush throws first pitch at Rangers game Slideshow" The Huffington Post Archived from the original on April 10, 2009 Retrieved November 1, 2010 
  403. ^ Jaynes, Ethan October 31, 2010 "Video: George W Bush Throws Out First Pitch Game 4 World Series, Let's Discuss It" News Sports Archived from the original on November 4, 2010 Retrieved November 1, 2010 
  404. ^ Jackson, David August 6, 2013 "George W Bush has heart surgery" USA Today Retrieved August 6, 2013 
  405. ^ "'Heartbroken': George W Bush responds to the Dallas police ambush" Yahoo News July 8, 2016
  406. ^ Swami, Prerana July 28, 2009 "Laura Bush Discusses Her Husband's Low Profile" CBS News Archived from the original on June 11, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  407. ^ "Bush says Obama 'deserves my silence'" MSNBC Associated Press March 17, 2009 Archived from the original on May 18, 2009 Retrieved June 23, 2009 
  408. ^ Allen, Mike March 18, 2009 "Bush promises not to attack Obama" Politico Archived from the original on March 19, 2009 Retrieved March 18, 2009 
  409. ^ "Troops in Iraq hailed by Bush on 'Colbert Report'" CBS News June 12, 2009 Archived from the original on November 4, 2013 Retrieved June 5, 2013 
  410. ^ Weir, Richard August 30, 2009 "Funeral mass unites pols" Boston Herald Archived from the original on September 22, 2009 Retrieved August 30, 2009 
  411. ^ Jordan, Mary October 26, 2009 "Bush's first stand on a new podium" The Washington Post Retrieved November 10, 2009 
  412. ^ Sammon, Bill November 7, 2009 "George W Bush Secretly Visits Fort Hood Victims" Fox News Channel Archived from the original on November 11, 2009 Retrieved November 18, 2009 
  413. ^ Schlikerman, Becky October 21, 2010 "Bush promotes book in Chicago" Chicago Tribune Archived from the original on May 11, 2011 Retrieved February 22, 2011 
  414. ^ Roelofs, Ted June 2, 2010 "'I'd do it again' former President Bush tells Grand Rapids crowd about waterboarding terrorists" The Grand Rapids Press Archived from the original on June 6, 2010 Retrieved June 6, 2010 
  415. ^ Associated Press, Low taxes, reform immigration and cut government spending: Bush book tells US how to solve country's economic woes, Daily Mail, July 17, 2012
  416. ^ Jamie Stengle, Bush institute launches book on economic growth, Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, July 18, 2012
  417. ^ Sonia Smith, George W Bush's Armchair Economic Advice, Texas Monthly, July 17, 2012
  418. ^ "Book Discussion on The 4% Solution" C-SPAN July 17, 2012 Retrieved April 26, 2015 Contributors to The 4% Solution lay out a plan to achieve a four percent economic growth rate, which they argue is necessary to restore America's economic health The discussion was moderated by James Glassmen, executive director of the George W Bush Institute, which put out the book President George W Bush, who wrote the foreword to the book, made opening remarks This book launch event was held at the Old Parkland Hospital in Dallas 
  419. ^ Loinaz, Alexis L November 20, 2013 "George W Bush Gushes About Granddaughter on The Tonight Show" People Archived from the original on November 28, 2013 Retrieved November 26, 2013 
  420. ^ "The Lone Jewish Republican in Congress Is Nostalgic for George W Bush" Bloombergcom/politics April 28, 2015 
  421. ^ Baker, Peter August 6, 2014 "Bush Urges Renewed Fight Against Deadly Diseases in Africa" The New York Times Retrieved August 6, 2014 
  422. ^ Bush, George W 2011 "Speech at the Gerald R Ford Foundation" Michigan: YouTube Retrieved April 10, 2015 I believe women will lead the democracy movement in the Middle East Women are going to lead the democracy movement, mark my words We want to empower women and encourage women and to develop civil societies so women can benefit 
  423. ^ Bush, George W August 6, 2014 "US –Africa Leaders Summit Spousal Program, Part 2" C-SPAN Kennedy Center, Washington, DC Retrieved April 10, 2015 The success of any nation is impossible without the political participation, the economic empowerment, the education, and health, of women Taking care of women, is good politics The first ladies ought to be ambassadors as well 
  424. ^ "President George W Bush Talks Bible, Museums at Dallas Event" DEMOSS Retrieved February 27, 2015 
  425. ^ Baker, Peter November 11, 2014 "Bush 43 Shares Spotlight With Bush 41 as Tribute Book Is Published" The New York Times Retrieved November 14, 2014 
  426. ^ Amos Regev; Boaz Bismuth "My position was: you need to have boots on the ground" 
  427. ^ George W Bush campaigns for Jeb Bush in South Carolina - Washington Times
  428. ^ Neither George W or George H W Will Endorse Donald Trump
  429. ^ Bush 41 and Bush 43 Plan to Skip GOP Convention
  430. ^ Inside the GOP's Shadow Convention
  431. ^ George W Bush Worried He'll Be the Last Republican President
  432. ^ Former President George W Bush Didn't Vote for Donald Trump
  433. ^ Both former Bush presidents call to congratulate Donald Trump
  434. ^ "Hillary Clinton meets with Haiti leader after arrival" CNN January 17, 2010 Archived from the original on January 19, 2010 Retrieved January 11, 2011 
  435. ^ Franke-Ruta, Garance May 13, 2011 "When Bush Got the Bin Laden Call While Eating a Souffle" The Atlantic Archived from the original on May 16, 2011 Retrieved May 14, 2011 
  436. ^ "Presidents Obama and Bush commemorate 9/11 anniversary" CNN September 11, 2011 Archived from the original on October 9, 2011 
  437. ^ Travis Diehl March 26, 2013 "No, George W Bush's paintings tell us nothing about Iraq" Salon Archived from the original on April 7, 2014 Retrieved April 4, 2014 
  438. ^ "George W Bush expects stellar reviews of new paintings" MSNBC April 3, 2014 Archived from the original on April 3, 2014 Retrieved April 4, 2014 
  439. ^ Nick Bryant April 4, 2014 "George W Bush exhibits his paintings of world leaders" BBC News Archived from the original on April 5, 2014 Retrieved April 4, 2014 
  440. ^ "Art Expert Reviews George W Bush's Paintings" People April 9, 2014 Archived from the original on April 12, 2014 Retrieved April 9, 2014 
  441. ^ Dodd, Johnny April 9, 2014 "An Art Expert Reviews George W Bush's Paintings" People Retrieved September 23, 2015 
  442. ^ "George W Bush's top five successes – and failures" San Francisco Chronicle April 23, 2013 Archived from the original on April 30, 2013 Retrieved April 30, 2013 
  443. ^ "Debate continues over George W Bush's legacy" NBC News April 24, 2013 Archived from the original on April 28, 2013 Retrieved March 2, 2014 
  444. ^ "Historian tips rethink of Bush presidency" ABC Online September 22, 2010 Archived from the original on March 2, 2014 
  445. ^ Byron Williams January 7, 2011 "Is George W Bush the Most 'Significant' President Since FDR" The Huffington Post Retrieved March 2, 2014 
  446. ^ "Comparing the Kennedy, Reagan and Bush Tax Cuts" Tax Foundation August 24, 2004 Retrieved April 12, 2014 
  447. ^ Michael D Tanner March 4, 2007 "Leviathan on the Right" The New York Times Archived from the original on March 2, 2014 
  448. ^ Julian Zelizer January 3, 2013 "America lives under the shadow of George W Bush" CNN Archived from the original on July 27, 2013 
  449. ^ Jim Kuhnhenn April 24, 2013 "Obama Continues Some George Bush Policies Despite Differences In Ideology, Temperament" The Huffington Post Associate Press Archived from the original on March 6, 2016 
  450. ^ "Rushmore Plus One; FDR joins Mountainside Figures Washington, Jefferson, Teddy Roosevelt and Lincoln as Top Presidents" PDF Siena Research Institute July 1, 2010 Archived from the original PDF on March 4, 2016 
  451. ^ Jackson, David February 19, 2012 "Gallup: Reagan and Clinton are favorite presidents" USA Today Archived from the original on February 20, 2012 
  452. ^ "Bill Clinton More Popular Than Barack Obama" Gallup Politics Archived from the original on January 22, 2014 Retrieved January 24, 2014 
  453. ^ "George W Bush: Favorability Ratings" pollingreportcom Archived from the original on December 25, 2012 Retrieved December 14, 2012 
  454. ^ Cillizza, Chris; Sullivan, Sean April 23, 2013 "George W Bush's approval rating just hit a 7-year high Here's how" The Washington Post Retrieved April 24, 2013 
  455. ^ Mali, Meghashyam April 23, 2013 "Poll: George W Bush's approval rating rising post-White House" The Hill Archived from the original on April 24, 2013 Retrieved April 24, 2013 
  456. ^ Steinhauser, Paul April 24, 2013 "CNN poll: how will history remember George W Bush" CNN Archived from the original on April 28, 2013 

Further reading

Academic

  • Abramson, Paul R, John H Aldrich, and David W Rohde Change and Continuity in the 2004 and 2006 Elections 2007, 324pp excerpt and text search
  • Allard, Scott W "The Changing Face of Welfare During the Bush Administration" Publius 2007 373: 304–332 ISSN 0048-5950
  • Barone, Michael The Almanac of American Politics 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, highly detailed coverage of electoral politics and Congress
  • Berggren, D Jason, and Nicol C Rae "Jimmy Carter and George W Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style" Presidential Studies Quarterly 36#4 2006 pp 606+ online edition
  • Campbell, Colin, Bert A Rockman, and Andrew Rudalevige, eds The George W Bush Legacy Congressional Quarterly Press, 2007, 352pp; 14 essays by scholars excerpts and online search from Amazoncom
  • Congressional Quarterly CQ Almanac Plus highly detailed annual compilation of events in Congress, White House, Supreme Court, summarizing the weekly "Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report" annual, 2002–2009
  • Conlan, Tim and John Dinan "Federalism, the Bush Administration, and the Transformation of American Conservatism" Publius 2007 373: 279–303 ISSN 0048-5950
  • Corrado, Anthony, E J Dionne Jr, Kathleen A Frankovic The Election of 2000: Reports and Interpretations 2001 online edition
  • Daynes, Byron W and Glen Sussman "Comparing the Environmental Policies of Presidents George H W Bush and George W Bush" White House Studies 2007 72: 163–179 ISSN 1535-4738
  • Desch, Michael C "Bush and the Generals" Foreign Affairs 2007 863: 97–108 ISSN 0015-7120 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Eckersley, Robyn "Ambushed: the Kyoto Protocol, the Bush Administration's Climate Policy and the Erosion of Legitimacy" International Politics 2007 442–3: 306–324 ISSN 1384-5748
  • Edwards III, George C and Philip John Davies, eds New Challenges for the American Presidency New York: Pearson Longman, 2004 245 pp articles from Presidential Studies Quarterly
  • Edwards III, George C and Desmond King, eds The Polarized Presidency of George W Bush 2007, 478pp; essays by scholars; excerpt and online search from Amazoncom
  • Fortier, John C and Norman J Ornstein, eds Second-term Blues: How George W Bush Has Governed 2007, 146pp excerpt and online search from Amazoncom
  • Graham John D Bush on the Home Front: Domestic Policy Triumphs and Setbacks Indiana University Press, 2010 425 pages; covers taxation, education, health care, energy, the environment, and regulatory reform
  • Greenstein, Fred I ed The George W Bush Presidency: An Early Assessment Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003
  • Greenstein, Fred I "The Contemporary Presidency: The Changing Leadership of George W Bush A Pre- and Post-9/11 Comparison" in Presidential Studies Quarterly v 32#2 2002 pp 387+ online edition
  • Gregg II, Gary L and Mark J Rozell, eds Considering the Bush Presidency Oxford University Press, 2004 210 pp British perspectives
  • Hendrickson, Ryan C, and Kristina Spohr Readman, "From the Baltic to the Black Sea: Bush's NATO Enlargement" White House Studies 2004 4#3 pp: 319+ online edition
  • Hilliard, Bryan, Tom Lansford, and Robert P Watson, eds George W Bush: Evaluating the President at Midterm SUNY Press 2004
  • Jacobson, Gary C "The Bush Presidency and the American Electorate" Presidential Studies Quarterly v 33 No4 2003 pp 701+ online edition
  • Jacobson, Gary C "Referendum: the 2006 Midterm Congressional Elections" Political Science Quarterly 2007 1221: 1–24 ISSN 0032-3195 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Milkis, Sidney M and Jesse HRhodes "George W Bush, the Party System, and American Federalism" Publius 2007 373: 478–503 ISSN 0048-5950
  • Moens, Alexander The Foreign Policy of George W Bush: Values, Strategy, and Loyalty Ashgate, 2004 227 pp
  • Rabe, Barry "Environmental Policy and the Bush Era: the Collision Between the Administrative Presidency and State Experimentation" Publius 2007 373: 413–431 ISSN 0048-5950
  • Sabato, Larry J ed The Sixth Year Itch: The Rise and Fall of the George W Bush Presidency 2007, experts on the 2006 elections in major states
  • Strozeski, Josh, et al "From Benign Neglect to Strategic Interest: the Role of Africa in the Foreign Policies of Bush 41 and 43" White House Studies 2007 71: 35–51 ISSN 1535-4738
  • Wekkin, Gary D "George H W Bush and George W Bush: Puzzling Presidencies, or the Puzzle of the Presidency" White House Studies 2007 72: 113–124 ISSN 1535-4738
  • Wong, Kenneth and Gail Sunderman "Education Accountability as a Presidential Priority: No Child Left Behind and the Bush Presidency" Publius 2007 373: 333–350 ISSN 0048-5950

Reflections on the Bush presidency

  • Barnes, Fred Rebel-in-Chief: How George W Bush Is Redefining the Conservative Movement and Transforming America 2006
  • Bartlett, Bruce Impostor: How George W Bush Bankrupted America and Betrayed the Reagan Legacy 2006
  • Cheney, Dick In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir 2011
  • Draper, Robert Inside the Bush White House: The Presidency of George W Bush 2007
  • Ferguson, Michaele L and Lori Jo Marso W Stands for Women: How the George W Bush Presidency Shaped a New Politics of Gender 2007
  • Gerson, Michael J Heroic Conservatism: Why Republicans Need to Embrace America's Ideals And Why They Deserve to Fail If They Don't 2007, excerpt and text search
  • Greenspan, Alan The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World 2007
  • Hayes, Stephen F Cheney: The Untold Story of America's Most Powerful and Controversial Vice President 2007, excerpts and online search
  • Hughes, Karen George W Bush: Portrait of a Leader 2005
  • Mabry, Marcus Twice as Good: Condoleezza Rice and Her Path to Power 2007
  • Moore, James and Wayne Slater Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove Made George W Bush Presidential 2003 online edition
  • Rice, Condoleezza No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington 2011
  • Rumsfeld, Donald Known and Unknown: A Memoir 2011
  • Suskind, Ron The Price of Loyalty: George W Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul O'Neill 2004, excerpts and online search from Amazoncom
  • Woodward, Bob Plan of Attack 2003, excerpt and text search

Primary sources

  • Council of Economic Advisors, Economic Report of the President annual 1947–, complete series online; important analysis of current trends and policies, plus statistical tables
  • Bush, George W George W Bush on God and Country: The President Speaks Out About Faith, Principle, and Patriotism 2004
  • Bush, George W Decision Points 2010

External links

Listen to this article info/dl


This audio file was created from a revision of the "George W Bush" article dated 2012-05-22, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article Audio help More spoken articles

Official

  • George W Bush Presidential Library and Museum
  • White House biography

Speeches and statements

  • Full audio of a number of Bush speeches Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • Appearances on C-SPAN

Media coverage

  • "George W Bush collected news and commentary" The New York Times 
  • "George W Bush collected news and commentary" The Wall Street Journal 

Other

  • Essays on Bush, each member of his cabinet and the First Lady the Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • Archived White House website from January 20, 2009—National Archives and Records Administration
  • George W Bush at DMOZ

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