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George-Étienne Cartier

george etienne cartier, george etienne cartier monnaie canadienne
Rebellions of 1837

  • Lower Canada Rebellion
  • Battle of St-Denis

Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet, PC pronounced ; September 6, 1814 – May 20, 1873 was a Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation The English spelling of the name, George, instead of Georges, the usual French spelling, is explained by his having been named in honour of King George III

In the years leading up to Confederation, Cartier was a dominant figure in the politics of Canada East as leader of the Parti bleu In 1838 he returned to Montreal after a year in exile for his role in the Lower Canada Rebellion He officially entered politics in 1848 During his long career he promoted the establishment of the Civil Code as the formal law of Canada East, instead of sole use of common law as was present in Canada West He also promoted the introduction of primary education in the province Cartier had several reasons for supporting Confederation, notably his fear of American expansion He died in London, England on May 20, 1873


  • 1 Early career
  • 2 Political life in Dominion of Canada
  • 3 Illness
  • 4 Family
  • 5 Legacy
  • 6 Honours and memorials
  • 7 Arms
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Biographies
  • 11 External links

Early career

Statue of Sir George-Étienne Cartier on Parliament Hill, Ottawa

George-Étienne Cartier was born on September 6, 1814 in Saint-Antoine-sur-Richelieu, Quebec then known as Lower Canada Cartier was educated and was called to the bar in 1834 where he began to practise his profession He was also involved in the railway business, and Grand Trunk Railway was one of his legal clients

Early in his career, Cartier was inspired by Louis-Joseph Papineau Through this connection, Cartier became a member of the Société des Fils de la Liberté “Sons of Liberty” and took part in the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837 at the Battle of St-Denis For his part in the uprising, Cartier was exiled and he took temporary refuge in Vermont However, he was allowed to return to Montreal in 1838 to resume his law practice

On his return to Lower Canada in 1839, which was now Canada East of the Province of Canada, Cartier resumed his law practice He was a member of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society and became active in politics as campaign manager of Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine In 1848, Cartier gave up his law practice and ran for office as a Reformer and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada

During his time in the Union parliament, Cartier introduced a bill in 1852 for the creation of the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada In 1854 Cartier was appointed to cabinet From 1857 to 1862 he served alongside John A Macdonald as co-premier of the united province Cartier was a loyal friend of Macdonald, with whom he created the Great Coalition with George Brown in 1864 The purpose of the Great Coalition was to end the political instability in the province, which had six governments in as many years

The Great Coalition was one of the first steps in the movement towards Confederation He attended all three of the conferences convened for this purpose: Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Cartier was largely responsible for gaining French-Canadian support for union

Cartier also played a leading role in pushing through legislative reform that effectively abolished the semi-feudal seigneurial system of land ownership in Lower Canada, turning its legislative council into an elected body of representatives, and pushed successfully for the adoption of the Civil Code within the province

Political life in Dominion of Canada

Upon the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, Macdonald became Prime Minister and Cartier was his Minister of Militia and Defence As the law of the time allowed a dual mandate in both the federal and provincial governments, Cartier ran in the 1867 Quebec provincial election in Montréal-Est electoral district Cartier was elected as a Conservative supporter of the Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau government As a result, Cartier was both a member of the Parliament of Canada and the Legislative Assembly of Quebec

Federally, Cartier represented Montreal East following the conclusion of Canada's first election on 20 September 1867 At the next federal election in August 1872, he was defeated by Louis-Amable Jetté while seeking a second term in Montreal East in the face of the Pacific Scandal The following month Cartier was acclaimed the victor in the Manitoba riding of Provencher after Louis Riel and Henry James Clarke resigned as candidates there

Notably, Cartier had intended to support an amnesty for Riel for his role in setting up a Provisional government in the Northwest, but that the Conservative government reneged on its promise to secure amnesty for the Métis leader, who was Cartier's maternal fifth cousin, twice removed, both having descended from Canadian pioneer Zacharie Cloutier and Xainte Dupont c 1596 - 1680 who had, in 1634, immigrated to New France in the first wave of the Percheron Immigration from the former province of Perche, to an area that, today, is part of Quebec, Canada He settled in Beauport and founded one of the foremost families of Quebec

During his tenure in Ottawa, Cartier was responsible for the negotiations with Britain and the Hudson's Bay Company for the purchase of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory by Canada Cartier was also an active participant in the negotiations that lead to the creation of the province of Manitoba and the entry of British Columbia into Confederation In keeping with his ties to the railways, in 1872 Cartier introduced a bill for the creation of the Canadian Pacific Railway


Funeral procession, Montreal

In 1871, Cartier experienced the first symptom of Bright's Disease, a kidney disease After the 1872 election, Cartier traveled to London hoping to find a cure His health did not improve and he died in London on May 20, 1873 at the age of 58 He was unable to pay a visit to his Manitoba riding where he was acclaimed a Member of Parliament His body was brought back to Canada, and interred in the Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges in Montreal, following a public funeral procession


George-Étienne Cartier married Hortense Fabre, daughter of Édouard-Raymond Fabre, former Mayor of Montreal, on June 16, 1846 The couple had three children, all girls, one of whom died in infancy, and one in 1886 After she was widowed, Lady Cartier enjoyed a pension of $1,200 in recognition of her husband's services When the eldest daughter, Josephine Cartier died in March 1886, at her request her remains were brought to Montreal and interred alongside those of her father Lady Cartier and their surviving daughter, Hortense, lived in Cannes, France, until Lady Cartier died on February 27, 1898 She was buried in Montreal alongside her husband and daughter, in Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery In 1892 Lady Cartier presented a marble bust of her husband to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec Cartier's niece, Victoria Cartier was a noted Canadian music educator, organist and pianist


The entry of Canada East Quebec into the Confederation is Cartier's most significant contribution to his country Following the rebellions in 1837/1838 and the Durham Report, Upper and Lower Canada were merged into a single colony Great Britain had begun to loosen its ties to the North American colonies The United States was becoming more and more powerful, and represented a threat to Canada In 1864, George Brown, leader of the Clear Grits in Canada West Ontario, proposed an alliance with the Conservatives of Macdonald and Cartier In 1867, following a series of discussions and conferences at Charlottetown and Quebec, the alliance known as the Grand Coalition succeeded in forging the agreement which gave birth to the Confederation From this time onwards, the new federal government convened in Ottawa In 1834 he contributed to founding the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste patriotic society, where he sang his famous poem Ô Canada, mon pays! mes amours! not to be confused with the national anthem of Canada

Honours and memorials

To celebrate the part he played in the country’s development, he was created a baronet, of Montreal, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom by Queen Victoria in 1868 Since he had no legal heirs, the Cartier baronetcy became extinct on his death In addition, he had the prenominal "The Honourable" and the postnominal "PC" for life by virtue of being made a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on 1 July 1867

Monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier in front of Mount Royal during winter in Montreal

Ontario's Macdonald-Cartier Freeway Hwy 401 is named after Cartier and fellow Father of Confederation John A Macdonald, as are Ottawa's Macdonald-Cartier International Airport and the Macdonald-Cartier Bridge, linking Ottawa, Ontario with Gatineau, Quebec The former Macdonald-Cartier High School of Saint-Hubert, Quebec, was named after John A Macdonald and Cartier, which has merged and became Heritage Regional High School

Cartier's residence in Montreal, at 458 Notre-Dame Street East, is now the Sir George-Étienne Cartier National Historic Site dedicated to his life and achievements It also serves to recall the architectural heritage and lifestyles of the upper middle class of 19th century Montreal

In 1931, Canada Post issued a ten cent postage stamp with Cartier's portrait surrounded by the national symbol, the maple leaf

Numerous streets in Quebec and elsewhere in Canada have been named for Cartier, as has the Montreal Metro's Cartier station in Laval, Quebec

Six schools have been named in his honour:

  • George-Étienne Cartier French Catholic primary school in Ottawa, Ontario
  • George-Étienne Cartier primary school in Gatineau, Québec
  • George-Étienne-Cartier French preschool in Longueuil, Quebec
  • Sir George-Étienne Cartier Primary school in London, Ontario
  • George-Étienne Cartier French Catholic primary school in Toronto, Ontario
  • École secondaire Macdonald-Cartier high school in Sudbury, Ontario

He was portrayed by David La Haye in the 2011 CBC Television film John A: Birth of a Country


Coat of arms of George-Étienne Cartier

See also

  • List of presidents of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society of Montreal


  1. ^ "Canadian Encyclopedia" Historica Foundation, Toronto 2011 Archived from the original on 2006-09-14< Retrieved 31 Jan 2011> 
  2. ^ "Percheron Immigration" Marjorie Lizotte December 2009 Retrieved 2 October 2017 
  3. ^ Morgan, Henry James Types of Canadian women and of women who are or have been connected with Canada : Toronto, 1903
  4. ^ "Sir George-Étienne Cartier National Historic Site of Canada" Parks Canada Archived from the original on 2008-02-02 Retrieved 2007-10-23 
  5. ^ "No 23411" The London Gazette 11 August 1868 p 4453 
  6. ^ Sir George-Étienne Cartier National Historic Site of Canada Archived 2013-02-08 at the Wayback Machine – Governmental website of Parks Canada
  7. ^ Mentioning about the Honourable Sir George Et Cartier, Baronet, in the London Gazette – The London Gazette, 24 June 1870, page 3092
  8. ^ Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada Historical alphabetical list since 1867 Privy Council Office
  9. ^ École élémentaire catholique George-Étienne-Cartier School website Archived 2007-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ École préscolaire/primaire George-Étienne-Cartier School website Archived 2007-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ École Georges-Étienne-Cartier School website
  12. ^ École secondaire Macdonald-Cartier


  • Alastair Sweeny, George-Étienne Cartier: A Biography 1976, Introduction by WL Morton ISBN 0-7710-8363-7

External links

  • "Biography" Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours in French National Assembly of Quebec 
  • Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • Entry in The Canadian Encyclopedia
  • Alastair Sweeny, George-Étienne Cartier: A Biography Web version
  • George-Étienne Cartier – Parliament of Canada biography
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed 1911 "Cartier, Sir Georges Étienne" Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press 
  •  Boase, George Clement 1887 "Cartier, George Etienne" In Stephen, Leslie Dictionary of National Biography 9 London: Smith, Elder & Co 
Parliament of Canada
Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Montreal East
Succeeded by
Louis-Amable Jetté
Preceded by
Pierre Delorme
Member of Parliament for Provencher
Succeeded by
Louis Riel
Political offices
Preceded by
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada – Canada East
Succeeded by
with Sir Antoine-Aimé Dorion
Preceded by
Sir Antoine-Aimé Dorion
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada – Canada East
Succeeded by
with Sir Louis-Victor Sicotte
Preceded by
Sir Dominick Daly
Provincial Secretary of the United Provinces of Canada
Succeeded by
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Cartier baronets
of Montreal

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