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Geology of Taiwan

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Taiwan is active geologically, formed on a complex convergent boundary between the Yangtze Subplate of Eurasian Plate to the west and north, the Okinawa Plate on the north-east, the Philippine Plate on the east and south, and the Sunda Plate to the southwest Subduction changes direction at Taiwan The upper part of the crust on the island is primarily made up of a series of terranes, mostly old island arcs which have been forced together by the collision of the forerunners of the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, which is moving to the northeast These have been further uplifted as a result of the detachment of a portion of the Eurasian Plate as it was subducted beneath remnants of the Philippine Sea Plate, a process which left the crust under Taiwan more buoyant1

South of Taiwan, the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Sunda Plate, forming the Luzon Volcanic Arc including Green Island and Orchid Island The east and south of the island are a complex system of belts formed by, and part of the zone of, active collision between the North Luzon Trough portion of the Luzon Volcanic Arc and the Eurasian Plate, where accreted portions of the Luzon Arc and Luzon forearc form the eastern Coastal Range and parallel inland Taitung Longitudinal Valley of Taiwan respectively2

To the northeast, the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Okinawa Plate, forming the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc

External image
Geology Map of Taiwan

Contents

  • 1 Terranes
  • 2 Central Mountains
  • 3 Eastern stratigraphic region
  • 4 Central Mountains strata
  • 5 Western stratigraphic region
  • 6 Western piedmont region
  • 7 Volcanic rocks
  • 8 Structures
  • 9 Tectonics
  • 10 Offshore
  • 11 Geophysics
  • 12 Hydrology
  • 13 Study
    • 131 Mapping
  • 14 References
  • 15 External links

Terranesedit

Haian Range

The Haian Range or Coastal Range terrane belongs to the Luzon Volcanic Arc 呂宋島火山弧, and is on the Philippine Sea Plate 菲律賓海板塊 West of this is the Longitudinal Valley or Huatung Valley, an active depositional zone in a rift valley West of this is the Eastern Central Range terrane, part of the continental base that has been upturned The western side of the range is the Western Central Range terrane, which is metamorphosed earlier Tertiary clastic sediments The Lishan Fault separates the Hsuehshan Range terrane Eocene to Oligocene sandstone and shale The Chukou Fault 觸口斷層 provides the boundary for the Western Foothills terrane, which is shallow marine detritus from Miocene to Pleistocene A deformation front forms the boundary with the undeformed coastal plains alluvium, which is still depositing3

The Eastern Central Range terrane can be divided into the Tailuko belt on the west with greenschist metamorphism and the Yuli belt on the east with blueschist metamorpism The two metamorphic belts are possibly separated by a fault called Shoufeng fault, but this is unproven4

Central Mountainsedit

Central Mountain Range

The oldest exposed rocks are heavily metamorphosed and found in the Central Mountains5 Poor quality fossil evidence suggests an origin in the Permian Period They form a band of rock from Nan'ao in the north to inland of Jinfeng on the eastern flank of the Central Mountain Range The band is 30 km wide in the north and narrows to the south6 These earlier rocks are heavily metamorphosed They also occur as a basement beneath the western part of the island They make up the Danana'ao Group or Tananao Schist This group consists of the Kainanagang Gneiss, Tailuge Marble, and Changchun Schist

The Yuli Schist is Cretaceous in age and consists of black schist and some greenschist, glaucophane schist, and spotted slate It is the easternmost part and extends from Chian southwards to the west of the Chihpen hot springs in a belt about 150 km long Although the dark colour of the black schist is due to carbon, carbon is less than 2% of the content The minerals found are quartz, mica, chlorite, albite, sphene, and graphite7

The Changchun Schist being mostly greenschist is found on the western side and forms thick beds It is found along with smaller amounts of chert, and black schist The rock is foliated dark green rock containing chlorite, epidote, quartz, calcite, biotite, albite and actinolite They are derived from mafic volcanic rocks These rocks can host copper sulfide ores7

Siliceous schists are coloured grey, they are metamorphosed sandstone, rich in quartz Quartzite and chert bands can be found, and they are commonly associated with the black schist

The Chiuchu Formation or Tailuge Marble forms a band from Tailuko in the north to a point between Wulu and Kuanshan in the south The limestone is mined in quarries south of Suao for cement manufacture Although the colour is usually a shade of grey, there are also black or white limestone, which is chopped into blocks for building purposes Dolomite is also found along with the limestone particularly at Chingchangshan, Hopingchi, and Mukuashan7

The Kainangan Gneiss or Kanagan Formation occurs in several elongated bodies The gneiss derived from sedimentary rocks contains coarse grained quartz, biotite, and albitic plagioclase There is also orthogneiss derived from granite This is light grey and contains sodic plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and muscovite Within the gneiss there are pegmatite dikes containing quartz, feldspar and mica7

Other igneous rocks found in the old metamorphic belt are amphibolite and dolerite dikes Serpentinite is found 5 km west of Fengtien 奉天 It contains exploited deposits of nephrite, talc and asbestos Wanjung Station 萬榮 is close to more outcrops of serpentenite Tamayenshan block northwest of Juisui 瑞穗 and the Tsenghuanshan block 10 km west of Juisui are significant ultramafic outcrops7

Green serpentinite from near Yuli makes a good quality building stone A band of ultramafic rocks extends for 25 km north of Litao, Taitung 離島7

The area was subjected to the Nanao Orogeny around 85 Ma which involved the granite intrusion and regional metamorphism Rifting that opened the South China Sea around 40 Ma may be connected with some dolerite intrusions The Penglai Orogeny started about 10 Ma and continues at the present time8

Eastern stratigraphic regionedit

The most recently added part of the island is the Coastal Range on the east coast from Taitung City in the south to Hualien City in the north The range is the continuation of the Luzon arc The age is Neogene and the rock consist of melange and volcaniclastics The rock units are firstly Chimei Volcanics Miocene andesite Next is the Tuluanshan Formation, consisting of tuff, then Takangou Formation, consisting of sediments such as shale and sandstone that contain volcanic particles The Lichi Formation consists of melange It is made of mud containing blocks of other stone such as sandstone and ophiolite It is found on the southern half of the west side of the Coastal range When this erodes, badlands are formed Because it is a mixture of stone, the Lichi Formation is hard to date, but is likely to be from Pliocene9

The Pinanshan conglomerate is found on Pinanshan Hill and along the Pinantachi stream north of Taitung 台東 The constituents are 5–15 cm cobbles erodes by freshwater from the Central Range It formed somewhere from middle to late Pleistocene, and indicates the plate collision had taken place9

The Milun Conglomerate is to the north of Hualien This has also gone under the names of Beiron Conglomerate Formation and Milunpi Conglomerate It is tilted at 30° It is undated but is likely from Pleistocene9

Central Mountains strataedit

Shibachongxi Formation is from the Eocene consisting of slate and then beds of metamorphosed sandstone The total thickness is up to 1000 m5

Dajian Formation consists of sandstone from the upper Eocene, up to 2700 meters thick5

Xichun Formation slate and phyllite is from the lower Oligocene The thickness is from 06 to 3 km5

Siling Formation coarse sandstone in thick beds is from the Oligocene5

Shuichungliu Formation form the Oligocene contains argillaceous slate and graywacke5

Bilushan Formation contains slate and phyllite from the Eocene5

Lushan Formation from the Miocene contains shale slate and sandstone5

Aodi Formation contemporary

Sule Formation slate and sandstone from the later Miocene

Western stratigraphic regionedit

The west part of the island exposes deformed and metamorphosed Cenozoic sediments, overlaid by Quaternary piedmont region in the flat plains on the west coast

Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene deposits are not exposed on the surface, but are buried They have been discovered by drilling

The Yunlin Formation is from the Cretaceous and only known from boreholes The rocks are siltstone, basalt, shale and limestone

The Paleocene Wangong Formation consisting of volcaniclastics, sandstone, shale and limestone is over 1046 meters thick

In the Eocene the Shuangji Formation formed mostly from volcanic particles in the form of tuff and tuffaceous sandstone These beds are from 100 m to 3 km thick

In the Oligocene the Wuzhishan Formation or Wuchihshan Formation 五指山組 formed thick beds of sandstone The total thickness is 09 to 12 km

The Yeliu Group from the Miocene is fine grained sandstone, with some beds of shale, basaltic tuff and three seams of coal10 Possibly including Wushan Formation, Piling Shale, Peiliao Formation, Talu shale, Shihti Formation, Kuanyiongshan sandstone11

The Ruifang Group contains beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale and six thin coal beds These beds are 08 to 16 km thick

The Sangxia Group starts with medium grained sandstone, but in the upper layers increases shale Eight thin coal seams are included The total thickness of the deepest beds exceeds 5 km This includes the Kueichulin Formation with the Yutengping Sandstone, Shihliufen Shale, Kuantaoshan Sandstone; the Nanchuang Formation including Shangfuchi Sandstone and Tungkeng Formation11

The Jinshui Formation or Chinshui Formation from the Pliocene is mostly shale interbedded with some mudstone and sandstone is between 80 and 400 m thick

The Zhuolan Formation or Cholan Formation 卓蘭層 starts in the Pliocene and extends into the first stage of the Pleistocene It consists of fine grained sandstone This is 15 to 25 km thick At the same time on the southern tip of the island, the Kending Formation or Kenting Formation 墾丁組 was formed consisting of mudstone with ophiolite melange12 The ophiolite melange contains pebbles and blocks of Miocene age consisting of basic and ultrabasic rock from the ocean floor The interpretation is that a wedge of seafloor was pushed above sea level, eroded and dropped fragments into the mud13

The Toukoshan Formation Toukeshan 頭嵙山層 commenced with fine sandstone with thin beds of conglomerate, and continued into mainly conglomerate with sandstone beds This was formed in stage 1 and 2 of the Pleistocene It is from 04 to 3 km thick

The Szekou Formation is a light bluish gray siltstone, with shale and fine grained sandstone The Maanshan Formation is very similar It is overlain by Hengchun Limestone and may interfinger12

Western piedmont regionedit

The Hengchun Limestone was formed after the Penglai movement in the third Pleistocene stage Also at this time laterite 紅土 and gravel on river terraces was formed Holocene mud sand and coral form a wide belt on the west side of the island14

Volcanic rocksedit

External image
Volcanic Distribution Map

The Tatun Volcano Group is found on the northern tip of Taiwan Chihsingshan is the highest point of the volcanoes at 1120 meters The volcanoes have formed the rounded shape of the northern cape of Taiwan15 The volcanic rock also occur on Huaping Isle, Mienhua Isle, Pengchia Isle and Huangwei Isle just to the north of Taiwan The rocks are aluminium rich andesite, tuff and breccia The rocks are poor in sodium and magnesium, but rich in iron, potassium, rubidium and strontium and strong in rare earth elements The magma was derived by melting of the underthrust sea plate behind the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc during the Pleistocene5

The Caolingshan Basalt consists of olivine and pyroxene, with crystals of biotite and plagioclase This is rich in K, Rb, Mg, Sr, Cr, and Ni, but poor in Na, Al, and Fe Rare earth elements are strongly enriched The magma was derived by deep mantle melting of the underthrust sea plate behind the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc during the Pleistocene5

The volcanoes on Chilungshan, Penshan, Caoshan, Chilung Island Keelung Islet and Gueishan Island date from the Pleistocene period and later The eruption were explosive tholeiitic andesite and dacite The main mineral is calcium rich plagioclase The magma source is the western extremity of the Ryukyu Volcanic Arc formed when the subducting Philippines Sea Plate was compressed below the edge of the Eurasian Plate at about 20 to 30 km deep The magma was contaminated with continental crust material Geochemistry of the rock shows that iron, aluminium, titanium, potassium, rubidium and strontium are enriched, but sodium, magnesium and nickel are impoverished5

Alkaline volcanic rocks from north west Taiwan are found at the Shihmen Reservoir, Chiaopanshan, Taoyuan and Fuxing The rocks are picrite, alkaline basalt and trachyandesite The commons minerals are albite, olivine, clinopyroxene and oxides of iron and titanium The elements enriched are sodium and titanium, and magnesium and calcium are reduced The rock dates from the Miocene The magma was formed under tension conditions on the continental margin from deep down in the mantle5

Volcanoes on the Coastal Range and Green Island erupted tholeiite andesite, and volcanic explosive fragments The volcanoes erupted from the Pliocene to Pleistocene period It is part of the Luzon Volcanic Arc Magma was formed from subducting oceanic crust under compression about 25 km deep The andesite rock contains some visible crystals of pyroxene or amphibole The geochemistry of the rock shows it is enriched in potassium, strontium and rubidium and light rare earth elements Chromium and nickel are depleted5 The Chimei Volcanic Complex, near the Hsiukuluanchi River, has an age from 9 to 222 Ma It is associated with copper porphyry mineralisation It covers an area of 22 km216

Pleistocene basalt and tholeiite is found in the Penghu Islands The lava erupted from fissures in a flood The rock is enriched in titanium and poor in aluminium, rubidium and strontium The alkaline basalt contains olivine and analcite The tholeiite contains plagioclase and pyroxene The magma originated in the upper mantle under tension conditions on the continental margin5

Structuresedit

  • Hengchun Valley syncline under the Hengchun Valley12
  • Hengchun Fault on east side of Hengchun Valley It extends along the Pintung Valley as the Chaochow fault and Laonungchi fault12
  • Kenting Park anticline is overturned and folds Miocene rocks of the Changlo Formation, Lushan Formation to the north Loshui Formation is on the sides of the anticline12

Tectonicsedit

The Philippines Sea Plate is converging with the continent at 7 cm per year in the west north west direction It has compressed Cenozoic sediments by around 200 km in the last 4 Ma The piled up sediment is rising into mountains at the rate of 5 mm per year5

The major seismic faults in Taiwan correspond to the various suture zones between the various terranes As a result, Taiwan has numerous mud volcanoes and hot springs These faults have produced several major quakes throughout the history of the island, including the 1951 East Rift Valley earthquakes on the East Rift Valley 花東縱谷 and 1964 Baihe earthquake on the Chukou Fault The 1946 Hsinhua earthquake ruptured the Hsinhua fault 新化斷層 The most lethal was 1935 Hsinchu-Taichung earthquake shifting on a fault at Emei Township, Hsinchu County The second deadliest was a 73 quake that ruptured the Chelongpu Fault 車籠埔斷層 on 21 September 1999, known as the "921 earthquake" On 4 March 2010 at about 01:20 UTC, a magnitude 64 earthquake hit southern Taiwan17 The seismic hazard map for Taiwan by the USGS shows 9/10 of the island as the highest rating most hazardous18

Offshoreedit

The offshore features include the Kaoping Slope extending off the southwest coast of Taiwan into the South China Sea This is emerging from the sea over time to extend the island 3

The Henchung Ridge extends south from the Hengchun Peninsula 恆春半島, and is the submarine part of the Central Range The Southern Longitudinal Trough is the southern underwater extension of the Longitudinal Valley The Huatang Ridge extends south off the coast from Taitung City The Taitung Trough lies to the east behind the Luzon Arc The Luzon Arc comes to the surface on the islands of Lüdao and Lanyu A submarine canyon, the Taitung Canyon, cuts through the arc between the two islands linking the Taitung Trough to the Huatung Basin19 The canyon cuts across the Huatung Basin bending to the north and reaching the Ryukyu Trench20 A 55 magnitude earthquake struck at 08:00 GMT on 20 March 2011, near the canyon21 breaking segments C and D of the East Asia Crossing undersea cable The Huatung Basin lies east of Taiwan south of the city of Hualien It extends west till the Gagua Ridge about 110 km offshore3

The Taiwan Banks are a shallow part of the main continental shelf off mainland China lying to the south and south west of Penghu Islands3 The Taixinan Basin 台西南盆地 is located between Taiwan Banks and the Central Mountains

The Okinawa Trough, the back-arc basin behind the Ryukyu Islands, shows up on the coastline as a bay between Dome Point north to Sanshokiaku easternmost point of Taiwan 246° to 25°N3

Geophysicsedit

Taiwan has just about the strongest positive Bouguer gravity anomaly in China in the Coastal Range, at over +4x10−4 ms−2 A local low below -2x10−4 ms−2 is on the western side centered near Zhoulan22 The gravity low is due to a mass deficit in the Taiwan Strait which is a flexural basin11

Positive magnetic variations are found in narrow strips, west-southwest oriented of the west coast, and east-northeast off the northern coast, and south-north offshore from the Coastal Range heading south These are of the order of 200 nT23

The Crustal thickness is around 30 km, with over 2 km of thickening under the Central Range, and thinning off the east coast Taiwan is on the edge of the continental shelf, so the thickness of the crust is constant through the Taiwan Strait to the mainland22

Heat flow is greatest to west of the Longitudinal Valley at rates exceeding 240 mWm−2

Hydrologyedit

Beitou hot spring valley

Many of the rocks in Taiwan have low pore space and have little ground water

There are several hot springs in Taiwan, with most around the northern volcanic region The Chingshui geothermal region is named after the Cingshuei River 13 km south west of Yilan24

Rivers in Taiwan transport a large amount of sediment to the sea The south end of the Longitudonal Valley discharges the Peinan River with 88,000,000 tons of sediment per year East flowing rivers move 17, 15 31 and 22 megatons per year of sediment The Cho Shiu shifts 54 MT per year Rivers running south from the Central Range move over 100 MT of sediment per year25

Studyedit

Mappingedit

The first geological map of Taiwan was made in 1898 by Y Ishii titled A Map of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Island of Taiwan It was at a scale of 1:800,000 and showed six items in its legend26 Japan needed oil and coal for the war against Russia in 1904, so study began on the coal fields in the north part of Taiwan, more detailed maps were made, and the next one was published in 1911 by Y Deguchi and G Hosoya at a scale of 1:300,00026 A third map was produced in 1926 titled: Geological Map of Taiwan showing Mineral Distribution by Y Ichikawa and H Takahashi26 It showed 19 rock units26 A 1935 coloured map by Y Ichikawa had a scale of 1:500,00026 In 1953 the Geological Survey of Taiwan 台灣地質調查所 published a map compiled by LS Chang at a 1:300,000 scale A 1974 map had two scales 1:250,000 and 1:500,00026 A second edition was printed in 1986 along with notes26

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Geology of Taiwan — University of Arizona" Geoarizonaedu Retrieved 1 August 2010 
  2. ^ Clift, Schouten and Draut 2003 in Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes, ISBN 1-86239-147-5 p84–86
  3. ^ a b c d e Megan Anderson 5 March 2001 "Introduction to Geologic Features" Taiwan: An Active Continental Subduction Zone 
  4. ^ "Metamorphc Belts" Archived from the original on 2010-12-15 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Zhang Jinhai and He Lishi 2002 "Geology of Taiwan Province" Geology of China Geological Publishing House ISBN 7-116-02268-6 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
  6. ^ "Eastern Central Range Introduction" Archived from the original on 2011-05-24 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Eastern Central Range Occurrence and Lithology of Metamorphic Rocks" Archived from the original on 2010-12-15 
  8. ^ "Eastern Central Range Radiometric Ages" Archived from the original on 2010-12-15 
  9. ^ a b c Central Geological Survey MOEI "Eastern Coastal Range Stratigraphy and Lithology" Archived from the original on 2011-09-27 
  10. ^ "Tertiary in Petroliferous Regions of China" PDF 
  11. ^ a b c Ying-Wei Chou; Ho-Shing Yu 2002-01-01 "Structural Expressions of Flexural Extension in the Arc-continent Collisional Foredeep of Western Taiwan" In Char-Shine Liu Geology and geophysics of an arc-continent collision, Taiwan p 2 ISBN 9780813723587 
  12. ^ a b c d e "Geology of the Hungchun Peninsula" 
  13. ^ Benjamin M Page; Ching-Ying Lan May 1983 "The Kenting Melange and its Record of Tectonic Events" PDF Memoir of the Geological Society of China 5: 227–248 Archived from the original PDF on 2016-03-05 
  14. ^ SONG Zhi-chen, HUANG Fei February 2004 "Cretaceous and Tertiary Palynofloras in Taiwan Area and its Correlation with those in Neighbouring Coastal Regions of Mainland China" Journal of Tropical Oceanography CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
  15. ^ "Geographic Setting" Geology of Taiwan Central Geological Survey Archived from the original on May 24, 2011 
  16. ^ http://wwwglntuedutw/model/indexphpoption=com_content&task=view&id=20&Itemid=30
  17. ^ Theodorou, Christine; Lee, Andrew 3 March 2010 "64-magnitude quake hits southern Taiwan" CNNcom Retrieved 4 March 2010 
  18. ^ "USGS seismic hazard map of Eastern Asia" Seismoethzch Retrieved 2011-05-30 
  19. ^ Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Normand, Alain 2005 "Tectonic Significance of the Taitung Canyon, Huatung Basin, East of Taiwan" Marine Geophysical Research 25 1–2: 95–107 Bibcode:2004MarGR2595S doi:101007/s11001-005-0736-2 
  20. ^ Philippe Schnurle; Char-Shine Liu; Serge E Lallemand; Donald Reed September 1998 "Structural Controls on the Taitung Canyon in the Huatung Basin East of Taiwan" PDF TAO 9 3: 453–479 Archived from the original PDF on 2011-08-30 
  21. ^ http://earthquakeusgsgov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/usc00027dcphp#details
  22. ^ a b Geology of China page 62
  23. ^ Geology of China page 66
  24. ^ K C Fan; et al 30 January 2006 "Evaluation of Natural Recharge of Chingshui Geothermal Reservoir in Taiwan" PDF 
  25. ^ http://wwwspringerimagescom/Images/Geosciences/1-101007_s10064-009-0209-y-35
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "Earlier Geologic Maps Of Taiwan" Archived from the original on 2011-05-24 

External linksedit

  • Chao-Hsia Chen; Hsin-Chang HoKai-Shuan Shei; et al 2000 "Geologic Map of Taiwan" Central Geological Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs 

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