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Geography and cartography in medieval Islam

geography and cartography in medieval islam map, geography and cartography in medieval islamic architecture
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century


  • 1 History
  • 2 Legacy
  • 3 Gallery
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes and references
  • 6 External links


After its beginnings in the 8th century based on Hellenistic geography,1 Islamic geography was patronized by the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad Various Islamic scholars contributed to its development, and the most notable include Al-Khwārizmī, Abū Zayd al-Balkhī founder of the "Balkhi school", and Abu Rayhan Biruni

Islamic cartographers inherited Ptolemy's Almagest and Geography in the 9th century These works stimulated an interest in geography particularly gazetteers but were not slavishly followed2 Instead, Arabian and Persian cartography followed Al-Khwārizmī in adopting a rectangular projection, shifting Ptolemy's Prime Meridian several degrees eastward, and modifying many of Ptolemy's geographical coördinates

Having received Greek writings directly and without Latin intermediation, Arabian and Persian geographers made no use of European-style T-O maps2

Muslim scientists made many of their own contributions to geography and the earth sciencesclarification needed In the 11th century, the Uyghur scholar Mahmud al-Kashgari was the first to draw an ethnographic mapclarification needed of the Turkic peoples of Central Asia


These medieval developments influenced Chinese geography under the Mongol Empire3additional citation needed They also provided the underpinnings of the cartographic work of the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reiscitation needed


See alsoedit

  • History of geography
  • History of cartography

Notes and referencesedit

Notes Citations
  1. ^ Gerald R Tibbetts, The Beginnings of a Cartographic Tradition, in: John Brian Harley, David Woodward: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies, Chicago, 1992, pp 90–107 97-100, ISBN 0-226-31635-1
  2. ^ a b Edson & Savage-Smith 2004, pp 61–63
  3. ^ Miya 2006; Miya 2007
  • Alavi, S M Ziauddin 1965, Arab geography in the ninth and tenth centuries, Aligarh: Aligarh University Press
  • Edson, Evelyn; Savage-Smith, Emilie 2004 Savage-Smith, Emilie, ed Medieval Views of the Cosmos Oxford: Bodleian Library ISBN 978-1-85124-184-2 
  • King, David A 1983, "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", Isis, 74 4: 531–555, doi:101086/353360 
  • King, David A 2002, "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33: 237–255 
  • King, David A December 2003, "14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis", Centaurus, 45 1-4: 204–226, doi:101111/j1600-04982003450117x 
  • King, David A 2005, In Synchrony with the Heavens, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization: Instruments of Mass Calculation, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-14188-X 
  • McGrail, Sean 2004, Boats of the World, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-927186-0 
  • Mott, Lawrence V May 1991, The Development of the Rudder, AD 100-1337: A Technological Tale, Thesis, Texas A&M University
  • Rashed, Roshdi; Morelon, Régis 1996, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 1 & 3, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12410-7 
  • Sezgin, Fuat 2000, Geschichte Des Arabischen Schrifttums X–XII: Mathematische Geographie und Kartographie im Islam und ihr Fortleben im Abendland, Historische Darstellung, Teil 1–3 in German, Frankfurt am Main 

External linksedit

  • "How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs" by De Lacy O'Leary
  • Islamic Geography in the Middle Ages

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