Gentoo Linux


Gentoo Linux pronounced /ˈdʒɛntuː/ JEN-too2 is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system Unlike a binary software distribution, the source code is compiled locally according to the user's preferences and is often optimized for the specific type of computer Precompiled binaries are available for some larger packages or those with no available source code3

Gentoo Linux is named after the fast-swimming gentoo penguin The name was chosen to reflect the potential speed improvements of machine-specific optimization, which is a major feature of Gentoo Gentoo package management is designed to be modular, portable, easy to maintain, and flexible Gentoo describes itself as a meta-distribution because of its adaptability, in that the majority of users have configurations and sets of installed programs which are unique to themselves4

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Features
    • 21 Portage
    • 22 Portability
  • 3 Installation
    • 31 Stages
    • 32 Gentoo Reference Platform
  • 4 Versions
    • 41 Release media version history
      • 411 Special releases
  • 5 Practical jokes
  • 6 Logo and mascots
  • 7 Popularity
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Historyedit

Gentoo Linux was initially created by Daniel Robbins as the Enoch Linux distribution The goal was to create a distribution without precompiled binaries that was tuned to the hardware and only included required programs5 At least one version of Enoch was distributed: version 075, in December 19996

Daniel Robbins and the other contributors experimented with a fork of GCC known as EGCS developed by Cygnus Solutions At this point, "Enoch" was renamed "Gentoo" Linux the Gentoo species is the fastest swimming penguin7 The modifications to EGCS eventually became part of the official GCC version 295, and other Linux distributions experienced similar speed increases8

After problems with a bug on his own system, Robbins halted Gentoo development and switched to FreeBSD for several months, later saying "I decided to add several FreeBSD features to make our autobuild system now called Portage a true next-generation ports system"9

Gentoo Linux 10 was released March 31, 200210 In 2004, Robbins set up the non-profit Gentoo Foundation, transferred all copyrights and trademarks to it, and stepped down as chief architect of the project11

The current board of trustees12 is composed of five members who were announced following an election on March 2, 200813 There is also a seven-member Gentoo Council that oversees the technical issues and policies of Gentoo14 The Gentoo Council members are elected for a period of one year, each year by the active Gentoo developers When a member of the Council retires, the successor is voted into place by the existing Council members15

The Gentoo Foundation is a 501c6 non-profit foundation, registered in the State of New Mexico16 In late 2007, the Foundation's charter was revoked,17 but by May 2008 the State of New Mexico declared that the Gentoo Foundation, Inc had returned to good standing and was free to do business18

Featuresedit

Gentoo appeals to Linux users who want full control of the software that is installed and running on their computer19:402 People who are prepared to invest the time required to configure and tune a Gentoo system can build very efficient desktops and servers Gentoo encourages users to build a Linux kernel tailored to their particular hardware It allows very fine control of which services are installed and running; also, memory usage can be reduced, compared to other distributions, by omitting unnecessary kernel features and services19:386

Gentoo is a good distribution for fairly technical people who want to learn more about Linux,19:383 as well as for Linux enthusiasts, programmers, and system administrators The quantity and quality of the documentation is exceptionally high, and there is a large community of users who are able to assist with problems20

A very large collection of software is available Each package contains details of any other software it depends on, so only the minimum set is installed to run the required applications Optional features of individual packages, for example whether they require LDAP support, can be selected and any consequential package requirements are automatically included in the set of dependencies19:386

Gentoo does not impose a standard look-and-feel Included packages usually appear as their authors intended19:387

Portageedit

Main article: Portage software

Portage is Gentoo's software distribution and package management system The original design was based on the ports system used by the Berkeley Software Distribution BSD based operating systems The portage tree contains over 19,000 packages ready for installation in a Gentoo system21

A single invocation of portage's emerge command can update the local copy of the portage tree, search for a package, or download, compile, and install one or more packages and their dependencies The built-in features can be set for individual packages, or globally, with so-called "use flags"21

Pre-compiled binaries are provided for some applications with long build times, such as LibreOffice, Apache OpenOffice and Mozilla Firefox, but users lose the ability to customize optional features There are configuration options to reduce compilation times by enabling parallel compilation and using pipes instead of temporary files;22 package compilation may also be distributed over multiple computers23 In addition, the user may be able to mount a large filesystem in RAM to greatly speed up the process of building packages Some of these approaches have drawbacks and so are not enabled by default When installing the same package on multiple computers with sufficiently similar hardware, the package may be compiled once and a binary package created24 for quick installation on the other computers

Portabilityedit

As Gentoo is a source-based distribution with a portage tree describing how to build the packages, adding instructions to build on different machine architectures is particularly easy25

Originally built on the x86 architecture, Gentoo has since been ported to many others It is officially supported and considered stable on x86, x86-64, IA-64, PA-RISC, PowerPC, PowerPC 970, SPARC 64-bit, and DEC Alpha architectures26 It is also officially supported but considered in development state on MIPS,27 PS3 Cell Processor, System Z/s390,28 ARM,29 and SuperH Official support for 32-bit SPARC hardware has been dropped30

Portability toward other operating systems, such as BSD-derived ones including Mac OS X, is under active development by the Gentoo/Alt project The Gentoo/FreeBSD project already has a working guide based on FreeSBIE,31 while Gentoo/NetBSD, Gentoo/OpenBSD and Gentoo/DragonFly are being developed32 There is also a project to get Portage working on OpenSolaris There was an unofficial project to create a Gentoo port to GNU Hurd, but it has been inactive since 200633

It is also possible to install a Gentoo Prefix provided by a project that maintains alternative installation ways for Gentoo in a Cygwin environment on Windows, but this configuration is somewhat experimental34

Installationedit

Gentoo may be installed in several ways The most common way is to use the Gentoo minimal CD with a stage3 tarball see below for more explanation on stages As with many Linux distributions, Gentoo may be installed from almost any Linux environment, such as another Linux distribution's LiveCD, LiveUSB or Network Booting using the "Gentoo Alternative Install Guide" A normal install requires a connection to the Internet, but there is also a guide for a network-less install

Previously, Gentoo supported installation from stage1 and stage2 tarballs However, this is no longer recommended officially by the Gentoo foundation, and is meant only for Gentoo developers35

Following the initial install steps, the Gentoo Linux install process in the Gentoo Handbook describes compiling a new Linux kernel This process is generally not required by other Linux distributions Although this is widely regarded as a complex task,36 Gentoo provides documentation and tools such as Genkernel to simplify the process and make it straightforward for novice users37 In addition, users may also use an existing kernel known to work on their system by simply copying it to the boot directory and updating their bootloader Support for installation is provided on the Gentoo forum and on IRC

A Live USB of Gentoo Linux can be created manually or using UNetbootin38

Stagesedit

Before October 2005, installation could be started from any of three base stages:

  • Stage1 begins with only what is necessary to build a toolchain the various compilers, linkers, and language libraries necessary to compile other software for the target system; compiling this target toolchain from another, pre-existing host system is known as bootstrapping the target system
  • Stage2 begins with a self-hosting bootstrapped toolchain for the target system, which is then used to compile all other core userland software for the target
  • Stage3 begins with a minimal set of compiled user software, with which the kernel and any other additional software are then configured and compiled

Since October 2005, only the stage3 installations have been officially supported, due to the inherent complexities of bootstrapping from earlier stages which requires resolving and then breaking numerous circular dependencies39 Tarballs for stage1 and stage2 were distributed for some time after this,when although the instructions for installing from these stages had been removed from the handbook40 and moved into the Gentoo FAQ3 As of September 2015update, only the supported stage3 tarballs are publicly available; stage1 and stage2 tarballs are only "officially" generated and used internally by Gentoo development teams However, if so desired, a user may still rebuild the toolchain or reinstall the base system software during or after a normal stage3 installation, effectively simulating the old bootstrap process41

Gentoo Reference Platformedit

From 2003 until 2008, the Gentoo Reference Platform GRP was a snapshot of prebuilt packages that users could quickly install during the Gentoo installation process, to give faster access to fully functional Gentoo installation4243 These packages included KDE, X Window System, OpenOffice, GNOME, and Mozilla44 Once the installation was complete, the packages installed as part of the GRP were intended to be replaced by the user with the same or newer versions built though Portage which would be built using the users' system configuration rather than the generic builds provided by the GRP As of 2011, the GRP is discontinued, the final reference to it appearing in the 20080 handbook45original research

Versionsedit

Once Gentoo is installed, it becomes effectively "versionless"; that is, once an emerge update is done, the system is completely current, with all the latest software readily available to it subject to restrictions that a user may have specified in their Portage configuration files For example, if a system is installed using a stage3 from March 2011, and the user performs a full emerge update one month later, they will upgrade the installed Gentoo system to the same as they would have if they had performed a fresh installation from an April 2011 CD Thus, Gentoo users may upgrade to the latest version of all of their installed software the day that new versions are released and have an ebuild available Like other Linux distributions, Gentoo systems have an /etc/gentoo-release file, but this contains the version of the installed sys-apps/baselayout package

In 2004, Gentoo began to version its Live media by year rather than numerically This continued until 2008, when it was announced that the 20081 LiveCD release had been cancelled in favour of weekly automated builds of both Stages 3 and Minimal CDs46 On 20 December 2008, the first weekly builds were published47 In 2009, a special LiveDVD was created to celebrate the Gentoo 10-year anniversary48

Release media version historyedit

Name Date
Enoch Linux 075 December 1999
10 March 31, 2002
11a April 8, 2002
12 June 10, 2002
14 August 5, 2003 Gentoo Reference Platform introduced
14 maintenance release 1 September 11, 2003citation needed
20040 March 1, 200449 versioning changed to four releases a year
20041 April 28, 2004
20042 July 26, 200450
20043 November 15, 200451
20050 March 27, 200552 versioning changed to semi-annual releases
20051 August 8, 200553
20051-r1 November 21, 200554 maintenance release 1
20060 February 27, 200655
20061 August 30, 200656
20070 May 7, 200757
20080 July 6, 200858
Weekly Releases from September 22, 200859

Special releasesedit

In 2009, a special LiveDVD was released to celebrate Gentoo's tenth anniversary Initially planned as a once-off, the LiveDVD was updated to the latest package versions in 2011 due to its popularity among new users

Name Date
100 October 4, 200960 special edition LiveDVD for the 10th anniversary
101 October 10, 200961 Bugfix release of Special LiveDVD
110 April 8, 201162 Anniversary LiveDVD is updated to latest package versions
120 January 2, 201263
121 April 1, 201264 With an April Fool's joke named "Install Wizard"
20121221 December 21, 201265 LiveDVD - End Of World Edition
20140826 August 26, 201466 LiveDVD - Iron Penguin Edition
20160514 May 14, 201667 LiveDVD - Choice Edition; UEFI, ZFSOnLinux, and writable file systems using AUFS
20160704 July 4, 201668 LiveDVD - Choice Edition Part Dos

Practical jokesedit

The developers and community behind Gentoo Linux have performed many practical jokes, a number of them on or around April Fools' Day This kind of practical trickery and playfulness has been a tenet of the Gentoo since its creation

Website On April 1st, 2015 the Gentoo Linux team, namely Alex Legler and Robin H Johnson and a few other associates, announced the launch of a "totally revamped and more inclusive website which was built to conform to the CGA Web™ graphics standards with a 16-colour palette and an optimal screen resolution of 640 x 200 pixels" The joke website was displayed with the appearance of an CGA 16-colour palette According to the release announcement the new site was available via the Gopher protocol at gopher://gophergentooorg/69 LiveDVD To salute the 2012 phenomenon, on December 21st, 2012 Gentoo released an End Of World Edition LiveDVD Install wizard On April 1st, 2012 an April Fools' joke named "Install Wizard" was "released" as part of the 121 LiveDVD

Logo and mascotsedit

The Gentoo penguin is thought to be the fastest underwater-swimming penguin The name "Gentoo Linux" acknowledges both the Linux mascot, a penguin called "Tux", and the project's aim to produce a high performance operating system19:383

The official Gentoo logo is a stylized 'g' resembling a silver magatama70 Unofficial mascots include Larry The Cow4 and Znurt the Flying Saucer71

Popularityedit

The website DistroWatchcom provides information and download links concerning different Unix-like operating systems, as well as a compilation of respective page hits The DistroWatch statistics tracks page hits since 2002

Upon launch, Gentoo quickly became a popular distribution, with 326 hits per day on average in 2002 on DistroWatch – the third highest However, over the years Gentoo has suffered from a dropping popularity In 2003, Gentoo was fourth most popular, and dropped to seventh in 2004, ninth in 2005, tenth in 2006 and thirteenth in 2007 For 2008, Gentoo dropped to 18th, but the following year it ended its dropping streak by rising to 17th Gentoo was placed 18th in 2010, 20th in 2011, 22nd in 2012, 33rd in 2013, and 38th in 2014 In 2016 it became slightly more popular reaching 35th place72

Gentoo-derived distributions include Calculate Linux, FireballISO, Funtoo, Gentoox, Knopperdisk, older versions of Pardus, Pentoo, Sabayon Linux, SystemRescueCD, Tin Hat Linux, and VidaLinux Distributions using Gentoo's Portage system include CoreOS and Ututo Chrome OS and Chromium OS actually do not, but developers of those systems not users of those systems or web developers that make apps for them do use it

See alsoedit

  • Linux portal
  • Gentoo/Alt
  • GoboLinux

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Official Gentoo Handbook – Introduction" gentooorg 2008-04-22 Retrieved 2011-01-18 
  2. ^ "Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions" Retrieved 6 January 2014 
  3. ^ a b "Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions" gentooorg Retrieved 2014-01-06 
  4. ^ a b "Gentoo Linux – About Gentoo" Gentooorg 2007-09-17 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  5. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Making the distribution, Part 1" Gentooorg 2005-10-09 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  6. ^ "Planet Mirror – enoch – Enoch Linux – enoch-075 – download now" Publicplanetmirrorcom February 11, 2007 Archived from the original on December 28, 2008 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  7. ^ "BBC Nature - Gentoo penguin videos, news and facts" bbccouk 
  8. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Making the distribution, Part 2" Gentooorg 2005-10-09 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  9. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Making the distribution, Part 3" Gentooorg 2005-10-09 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  10. ^ "Slashdot | Gentoo 10 Released" Linuxslashdotorg 2002-03-31 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  11. ^ "Daniel Robbins Resigns As Chief Gentoo Architect" Slashdotorg Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  12. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Gentoo Foundation Charter" Gentooorg 2010-01-02 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  13. ^ "Gentoo Linux – New foundation trustees elected" Gentooorg 2008-03-02 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  14. ^ "Gentoo Council" gentooorg Retrieved 2014-01-06 
  15. ^ Gentoo Council Accessed January 6, 2014
  16. ^ GENTOO FOUNDATION, INCpermanent dead link, Corporations Information Inquiry, New Mexico Public Relation Commission Accessed May 8, 2009
  17. ^ jake 2008-01-14 "Gentoo loses charter; Robbins offers to return" LWNnet Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  18. ^ "Gentoo Foundation, Inc" New Mexico Corporation Division Efile Retrieved 2013-04-27 
  19. ^ a b c d e f Christopher Negus 5 May 2008 Linux Bible: Boot Up to Ubuntu, Fedora, KNOPPIX, Debian, openSUSE, and 11 Other Distributions John Wiley & Sons pp 389– ISBN 978-0-470-28706-4 
  20. ^ David Brickner 30 October 2005 Linux Desktop Pocket Guide O'Reilly Media, Inc pp 11– ISBN 978-0-596-10104-6 
  21. ^ a b Chris Negus 2006 Live Linux CDs: Building and Customizing Bootables Prentice Hall Professional pp 224– ISBN 978-0-13-243274-0 
  22. ^ Configuring the Compile Options, Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook July 7, 2008 Accessed May 8, 2009
  23. ^ Distributed Compiling, Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook July 7, 2008 Accessed May 8, 2009
  24. ^ Binary Package Support, Gentoo Linux x86 Handbook July 7, 2008 Accessed May 8, 2009
  25. ^ Brendan Horan 26 March 2013 Practical Raspberry Pi Apress pp 222– ISBN 978-1-4302-4971-9 
  26. ^ "Gentoo 20070 press release" Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  27. ^ "Gentoo/MIPS" gentooorg Retrieved 2014-01-06 
  28. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation – s390 Installation Document" Devgentooorg 2004-05-12 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  29. ^ "Gentoo Linux Projects – Gentoo Linux ARM Development" Gentooorg Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  30. ^ "Gentoo Development Guide: Arch Specific Notes – SPARC" Devmanualgentooorg Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  31. ^ "Gentoo FreeBSD" gentooorg Retrieved 2014-01-06 
  32. ^ "Gentoo Linux Projects – Gentoo/BSD" Gentooorg 2006-10-19 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  33. ^ "Gentoo GNU Hurd" Munduratnet Archived from the original on January 9, 2010 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  34. ^ "Gentoo Wiki - Gentoo Prefix Cygwin" 
  35. ^ "How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball" 
  36. ^ "Compiling & Installing Linux 24" Smartcomputingcom 2007-01-05 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  37. ^ "Handbook:X86" gentooorg 
  38. ^ "UNetbootin – Universal Netboot Installer" Unetbootinsourceforgenet Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  39. ^ "Gentoo Linux Newsletter – November 14th, 2005" Gentooorg Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  40. ^ "Stage1/2 deprecation from Gentoo Handbook" Gmane 2005-11-05 Retrieved 2014-01-06 
  41. ^ "Sakaki's EFI Install Guide/Building the Gentoo Base System Minus Kernel" Sakaki 2014-07-04 Retrieved 2017-01-09 
  42. ^ Daniel Robbins 2002-10-10 "Gentoo Linux Reloaded" LinuxDevCentercom Retrieved 2007-01-04 
  43. ^ Sven Vermeulen 2004-03-01 "Gentoo Linux 20040 Released" OSNews Retrieved 2007-01-04 
  44. ^ "What is the Gentoo Reference Platform" Retrieved 2006-01-04 
  45. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation" Retrieved 2011-04-24 
  46. ^ "Gentoo News – New release strategy to provide more current install media" Gentooorg 2008-09-22 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  47. ^ "Gentoo News – First sets of weekly stage3 tarballs and minimal CDs released" Gentooorg 2008-12-20 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  48. ^ Gentoo Linux - Gentoo Linux - Ten Years Compiling: 1999 - 2009 Gentooorg 2009-10-04 Retrieved on 2013-07-17
  49. ^ "Gentoo Linux Newsletter – March 1st, 2004" Gentooorg Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  50. ^ //wwwgentooorg/proj/en/releng/release/20042/20042-press-releasetxt
  51. ^ "Gentoo Linux Newsletter – November 15, 2004" Gentooorg Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  52. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Release Announcement: Gentoo Linux 20050" Gentooorg 2005-03-27 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  53. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Release Announcement: Gentoo Linux 20051" Gentooorg 2005-08-10 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  54. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Media Refresh: Gentoo Linux 20051-r1" Gentooorg 2005-11-21 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  55. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Release Announcement: Gentoo Linux 20060" Gentooorg 2006-02-27 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  56. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Gentoo Linux 20061 – Unleashed" Gentooorg 2006-08-30 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  57. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Gentoo Linux 20070 released" Gentooorg 2007-05-07 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  58. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Gentoo Linux 20080 released" Gentooorg 2008-07-06 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  59. ^ "Gentoo Linux – New release strategy to provide more current install media" Gentooorg 2008-09-22 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  60. ^ "Gentoo Linux – Ten Years Compiling: 1999–2009" Gentooorg 2009-10-04 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  61. ^ "Gentoo Ten Live DVD 101 Release" Gentooorg 2009-10-23 Retrieved 2014-10-13 
  62. ^ "Gentoo Linux - LiveDVD 110" Gentooorg 2011-03-08 Retrieved 2014-10-13 
  63. ^ "Gentoo Linux releases 120 LiveDVD" Gentooorg 2012-01-02 Retrieved 2014-10-13 
  64. ^ "Gentoo Linux releases 121 LiveDVD" Gentooorg 2012-04-01 Retrieved 2014-10-13 
  65. ^ "Gentoo Linux releases 20121221 LiveDVD - End Of World Edition" Gentooorg 2012-12-21 Retrieved 2014-10-13 
  66. ^ "Gentoo Linux releases the 20140826 LiveDVD - Iron Penguin Edition" Gentooorg 2014-08-26 Retrieved 2014-10-13 
  67. ^ "Gentoo Linux releases the 20160514 LiveDVD - Choice Edition" Gentooorg 2016-05-14 Retrieved 2016-06-11 
  68. ^ "Gentoo Linux releases the 20160704 LiveDVD - Choice Edition Part Dos" Gentooorg 2016-07-04 Retrieved 2016-08-29 
  69. ^ "Gentoo announces total website makeover not an April Fool's – Gentoo Linux" gentooorg 
  70. ^ "Gentoo Linux Documentation – Gentoo Name and Logo Usage Guidelines" Gentooorg 2005-12-11 Retrieved 2010-01-28 
  71. ^ "gentoo Contents of /xml/images/znurtjpg" Gentooorg 2002-11-09 Retrieved 2011-08-02 
  72. ^ DistroWatch "DistroWatchcom: Put the fun back into computing Use Linux, BSD" distrowatchcom 

External linksedit

Official documentation
  • Official website
  • Official wiki, allowing collaboration of developers and users
  • Gentoo Handbook
  • Official packages, lists all packages currently available in the Portage tree
  • Live USB guide
Unofficial documentation and other resources
  • Gentoo Linux - the fresh ebuilds
  • Planet Larry, another aggregation of user blogs
  • Secunia advisories for Gentoo
  • Gentoo Linux at DistroWatch
  • Gentoo Linux man pages
Articles and media coverage
  • Growing With Gentoo, O'Reilly Linux Dev Center, March 15, 2004


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